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Women in the Canterbury Tales

While it is important to remember that women within The Canterbury tales are inherently presented through the male perspective of the author and in certain parts of the work the socio-political views of the narrators, Chaucer uses his work to both present the assumed roles and positions of women within the medieval society in which he was writing, and also subvert the expectations of both the patriarchal structure of the culture of the time and the women in society themselves.
It is generally assumed by many that women in the medieval period were treated as inferior to men. In a society largely dominated by the church and with an entrenched social caste system, the lives of people, especially women, were determined by their roles within the microcosms of the largely agricultural feudal communities. With the church playing such a crucial role in the lives of people in the period, it can be argued that the indoctrination of its ideals and beliefs within these people shaped their attitudes towards the roles of women both within the family and the larger community. And while there were exceptions (including Chaucer’s own family), for many these attitudes did indeed shape the roles, they played within their communities.
The religious narrative within the bible underlined the belief that women were inferior to men. Within the Bible, Eve was created from Adam, specifically his rib, and, having eaten the forbidden fruit within the garden of Eden, was responsible for mankind’s expulsion from paradise. This was reiterated within medieval art, as the responsibility of women for this ‘original sin’ is often emphasised by giving the serpent who tempts Eve to disobey God, a female head.
The apostle Paul, in particular, his writing, emphasised men’s authority over women, instructing them to remain silent and forbidding them from taking part in and providing roles within society such as teaching. However, the Virgin Mary provided a contrast to this negative view of women: as she was the mother of Christ, she was the channel through which mankind might be saved. Sometimes described as the ‘second Eve,’ she was seen by many to have made up for Eve’s sins. Throughout the Middle Ages, Mary was seen as a model of virtue and motherhood.
Similarly, Chaucer provides contrasting female characters that initially seem to support this perspective.
Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales provides valuable insights on women and the roles they assume, the struggles they experience, and the methodologies and strategies they adopted in appropriating their share of the little socio-political influence available to men and women during the Middle Ages. The 14th-century text showcases varying discourses on female empowerment as shown through the only three female primary characters and narratives in Chaucer’s narrative poem. Through these individuals, the methods women employ in order to subvert the patriarchal social dynamics of the time are communicated and explored. The characters of the Wife of Bath, the Prioress, and the Second Nun distinctly represent women with different desires, and coping strategies for the roles they are assumed to have and the functions they actually inhabit. As will be shown within this essay, one group (represented in the text through the Prioress and the Second Nun) actively assume the roles, transcendent goals and lifestyles that, incidentally, bypass gender-based power struggles of the times. Another (represented within the text through the Wife of Bath) opts to directly confront and subvert male dominance within domesticity by redefining the domestic space and covertly taking the primary role as the head in its affairs, whether by romantic, coercive, or other means to break away from assigned roles and assume dominance within the male-female relationship and by extension wider society.
While the social conventions and societal structure prevented free movement and socio-economic mobility for many, regardless of gender, women had fewer opportunities and possibilities than men in terms of societal roles and professions that they could assume or even aspire to. This shows within the text as the male-female percentage among the pilgrims is largely male-dominated and reflective of the nature of the society at the time. Of the 24 characters who journeyed together on pilgrimage to visit Canterbury Cathedral and the shrine of St. Thomas a Beckett, only three are women. And of the three characters, only two female roles are represented, that of a nun and that of a wife. Despite the apparent limitations, this allows Chaucer to communicate through the two significant levels of society at the time, the smaller scale domestic and familial level, and the larger world of the church and by extension the realms of religion and politics. Indeed, Chaucer still infuses much insight, both societal and personal, into his work through the highly interesting female characters and their voices and perspectives, which are the subjects of discussion within this essay: the Wife of Bath (Alyson), the Prioress (Madame Eglantine) and the Second Nun
There is some sort of gradation in terms of how their perspectives and personalities accept, assimilate the world and transform how their very different goals are achieved within it. Simplified, based on the prologues, their actions and what and how they talk to the other narrators on the pilgrimage and their chosen tales, the three women prioritize worldly and spiritual concerns quite differently. Viewed within this context, one may claim that given a scale that measures worldliness and spirituality, the women might be lined up from the highest level of worldliness to the least in this manner:
Alyson
Madame Eglantine
The Second Nun
Alyson is clearly a passionate wife and is unashamed in her passion about the World and all within it—money, sex, food, earthly pleasures. She has had five husbands and is still voraciously looking for the next after the recent death of her latest husband:
Experience, though no authority
Were in this world, were good enough for me,
To speak of woe that is in all marriage;
For, masters, since I was twelve years of age,
Thanks be to God Who is for aye alive,
Of husbands at church door have I had five;
For men so many times have wedded me;
And all were worthy men in their degree.
Of the three characters, Alyson is the possibly the most honest and realistic in her perspective of the world and is perhaps the most beloved and memorable among all the characters depicted within The Canterbury Tales. Her honest earthliness and dionysian outlook on life is in sharp contrast with the hypocritical religiosity of many of the other pilgrims and provides a stark commentary on the rigidity and unrealistic practicality of the set of moral rules imposed by the church during the Middle Ages. After having had five husbands and an ample experience of love, its pleasures and pains and the different dynamics within marriage herself, Alyson still chooses to narrate a tale of traditional romance. This betrays her desire as well as strategy in self-empowering: she marries and subsequently, covertly dominates the men in her life, thereby gaining economic control of the household and through her husbands’ trades her wider word. At the conclusion of her tale, she wishes for youthful, meek, naive and virile husbands, which can satisfy her both physically and financially, and curses old, stingy men who are not quite so easily manipulated and won’t put out. While providing comic relief, this appeal exhibits Alyson’s zest and honesty regarding her desires and actions within the world.
And Jesus to us send
Meek husbands, and young ones, and fresh in bed,
And good luck to outlive them that we wed.
And I pray Jesus to cut short the lives
Of those who’ll not be governed by their wives;
And old and querulous niggards with their pence,
And send them soon a mortal pestilence!
This ideal subverts the traditional depiction or women, specifically wives, within the society as demure and submissive to the males in their lives. It is also interesting to note that, at least externally, she is referred to by Chaucer as the Wife of Bath. Her honorific shows not her individuality but rather the relationship to other men. Specifically, by not externally naming her, Chaucer places her within the patriarchal framework of the assumed roles of women at the time, by removing her identity and limiting her to the property of another man. This is in sharp contrast to the individuality and perspective Chaucer gives through her narrative voice.
Meanwhile, Madame Eglantine, (the Prioress), takes the middle position in the worldliness-spirituality gauge. As shown from her prologue, Madame Eglantine remains a somewhat worldly woman, conscious of her physicality and presence, the views of those around her and the other details about her physically that betray the ideals of the archetypical nun. She exhibits a contradiction, (a somewhat recurring motif for Chaucer), by subverting the expectations of the position in which she finds herself. For example, while most nuns have disowned physical property and wealth, Madame Eglantine continues to wear a secular necklace—not a religious scapular as would be expected—that even bears the motto by the Roman poet Virgil: ‘Amor Vincit Omnia,’ meaning love conquers all.
This contrast between expectation and reality provides Chaucer with a means to not only comment on the ideals which society aspires to and places upon individuals but also the societal structures themselves. The difference between supposed aesthetics and frameworks and realities are often used by Chaucer to critique the intrinsic hypocrisies within the society of the time. While he is not dismissive of faith and religion itself, he separates the concepts of the church with that of the physical manifestations and flaws of the people who constitute the church. This distinction between a system and the people within it within Chaucer’s work can be applied to other aspects of the medieval society as he shows a rather modern perspective on the nature of people, institutions, and power.
In comparison to the other female characters, and her demenour among the other pilgrims throughout the journey, the Second Nun is thoroughly spiritual, and the tale she chooses to share with the other guests reflects this: that of the remarkable and more famous account of the life of St. Cecilia. This story is for the time an archetypical portrayal of the expectations upon the ordinary people of the enduring faith that professing Christians must assume not only all the time, but especially when their faith and beliefs are put to doubt or directly assaulted and tested. Indeed, the Second Nun desires to possess the same bold conviction.
As can be gleaned from the other narratives and characters, there are basically two methodologies shown within the text on how women could navigate and subvert the male-dominated society of the Middle Ages, and this can, in turn, be said to reflect the two idealised characterisations of the woman within society. One, as shown by the Prioress and the Second Nun—albeit in differing levels of success—is to actively take up and adopt the transcendent ideals [such as spirituality] of the time, and therefore bypass then other discourses commonly ranked inferior—such as domestic and national politics and gender issues—in the hierarchy of appropriate human pursuits. This transcendence could be seen in the nunneries and abbeys, where women lead segregated semi-autonomous, and mostly all-female communities. This physical separation from the broader human world allowed for the separation of spiritual matters allowing for individual transcendence. In this sense, a specific type of significant spiritual and mental empowerment is shown to be attainable, especially in the social contexts of the Middle Ages. This methodology can be characterised and associated with that of the Virgin Mary and links with the apollonian stereotype of the pure woman.
On the other hand, it was still possible for women to subvert the patriarchal dynamics of the Middle Ages on both a domestic level and into a broader community by directly confronting male dominance and ascendancy and redefining the domestic arena and indeed the discourse on gender issues, as humorously shown through the actions of and by narrative of the Wife of Bath. As seen in Alyson, institutions such as that of marriage may be manipulated and reconfigured to favor women with enough wear with all who can and do play the cards that are dealt with them cleverly and consistently enough in an already lopsided game. This methodology while being more subversive and rebellious is more of a dionysian approach to the struggle of gender imbalance within society.
The writer Patience Agbabi also comments on the gender issues within society in her work Telling Tales.
In Telling Tales, poet Patience Agbabi presents a 21st-century remix of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales by reshaping all of the stories in her own poetic and artistic style.
By revamping the original text and placing it in a pub crawl in the 21st century, Agbabi allows for a critique of modern society within her work and reflect upon the vast differences between the middle ages and modern society. These differences are clearly seen in the gender and ethnic makeup of her characters. This reflects the more multicultural society in which we exist, owing to the advances and increase in social mobility and the migration of people that was impossible in the times in which Chaucer was writing. By focussing on Agbabis adaption of the Wife of Bath we can see these differences, and we also are shown a perspective unbiased by the male eye.
Agbabi places her Wife of Bath in a particular socio-economic context. By placing her as a woman from Nigeria, Agbabi can imitate the social otherness of a woman in the male-dominated world of the middle ages, through an ethnic framework. This is essential as the subversion of the wife of bath is unsustainable given the advances and progress regarding gender, and in specific women, within society. Nigeria provides Agbabi, a modern culture of a community dominated by male dominance and religious conformity, and for the audience a reference point with which to understand the subversion of more traditional or medieval values.
The Wife of Bafa as she is known within Patience Agbabi’s Telling Tales summarises her eventful life in five short sentences defining herself not by her trade, nor her thoughts on scholarly and religious matters as she does within Chaucer’s work, but by her five husbands, their places of origin….and their alarmingly high mortality rate:
Mrs. Alice Ebi Bafa: I was born in Nigeria, married at 12 and lived in Ghana until Kwesi died. Then I married a man from Sierra Leone who died on our wedding night. Then I married an English man who died. Then a Nigerian who died also. My fifth husband is toyboy, live and kicking.
By self-defining herself in relation to her previous husbands, Agbabi allows her Wife of Bath to reclaim her position within her own narrative and stand equal to that of her male counterparts. This distinction between Agbabi and Chaucer provides an interesting point of reflection that should be noted upon, as the gender difference between the authors shapes the reflection of their characters. If a male defines a woman in relation to other men he limits her experience and the reader’s experience of the character. If a female does this, then a new perspective is shown, and the patriarchal bias is removed.
As can be seen when we view Chaucer and his work in the context of gender much insight can be gained and chances for reflection and comparison with more modern works can be made. This goes to show the complexity of not only Chaucer’s work but the societies in which he was writing and the one in which the modern reader exists in and is shaped by.
Bibliography
AGBABI, P. AND CHAUCER, G.
Telling tales
In-text: (Agbabi, and Chaucer)
Your Bibliography: Agbabi, Patience, and Geoffrey Chaucer. Telling Tales.
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AGBABI, P. AND CHAUCER, G.
Telling tales
In-text: (Agbabi, and Chaucer)
Your Bibliography: Agbabi, Patience, and Geoffrey Chaucer. Telling Tales.
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ANON
Your Bibliography: Skemman.Is, 2018, https://skemman.is/bitstream/1946/4941/1/thesis.pdf. Accessed 18 Dec 2018.
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ANON
Your Bibliography: Skemman.Is, 2018, https://skemman.is/bitstream/1946/4941/1/thesis.pdf. Accessed 18 Dec 2018.
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CHAUCER, G., BENSON, L. D., ROBINSON, F. N. AND CANNON, C.
The riverside Chaucer
In-text: (Chaucer et al.)
Your Bibliography: Chaucer, Geoffrey et al. The Riverside Chaucer. Oxford University Press, 2008.
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CHAUCER, G., BENSON, L. D., ROBINSON, F. N. AND CANNON, C.
The riverside Chaucer
In-text: (Chaucer et al.)
Your Bibliography: Chaucer, Geoffrey et al. The Riverside Chaucer. Oxford University Press, 2008.
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TELLING TALES BY PATIENCE AGBABI – CANONGATE BOOKS
In-text: (“Telling Tales By Patience Agbabi – Canongate Books”)
Your Bibliography: “Telling Tales By Patience Agbabi – Canongate Books”. Canongate.Co.Uk, 2018, https://canongate.co.uk/books/2125-telling-tales/. Accessed 18 Dec 2018.
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TELLING TALES BY PATIENCE AGBABI – CANONGATE BOOKS
In-text: (“Telling Tales By Patience Agbabi – Canongate Books”)
Your Bibliography: “Telling Tales By Patience Agbabi – Canongate Books”. Canongate.Co.Uk, 2018, https://canongate.co.uk/books/2125-telling-tales/. Accessed 18 Dec 2018.
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THE WIFE OF BATH AND THE WIFE OF BAFA
In-text: (“The Wife Of Bath And The Wife Of Bafa”)
Your Bibliography: “The Wife Of Bath And The Wife Of Bafa”. Cardiff Booktalk, 2018, https://cardiffbooktalk.org/2018/03/19/the-wife-of-bath-and-the-wife-of-bafa/. Accessed 18 Dec 2018.
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THE WIFE OF BATH AND THE WIFE OF BAFA
In-text: (“The Wife Of Bath And The Wife Of Bafa”)
Your Bibliography: “The Wife Of Bath And The Wife Of Bafa”. Cardiff Booktalk, 2018, https://cardiffbooktalk.org/2018/03/19/the-wife-of-bath-and-the-wife-of-bafa/. Accessed 18 Dec 2018.
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Women in Gothic Literature: The Bloody Chamber and Northanger Abbey

The Gothic is a male genre which either excludes women or presents them negatively. Compare and contrast how the writers present women in “The Bloody Chamber” by Angela Carter and “Northanger Abbey” by Jane Austen
The Gothic genre is considered a male dominated genre because of the negative portrayal of women.
This can be identified through using the Male Gaze theory which suggests that a woman’s purpose is solely for male sexual pleasure. Two works that portray negative presentations of women in a Gothic setting are ‘The Bloody Chamber’ by Angela Carter and ‘Northanger Abbey’ by Jane Austen. Both texts have been written by women and it is interesting to note that Angela Carter is a writer known for her feminist views while Jane Austen is considered ahead of her time with views on how women were treated throughout the Victorian era. ‘The Bloody Chamber’ by feminist author Angela Carter uses a modern feminist agenda against the male patriarchy using Gothic themes. ‘Northanger Abbey’ by Jane Austen uses satirical Gothic styles to present women as independent while having an underlying tone that men are still trying to be powerful and dominant. The negative portrayal of women can be seen in ‘The Erl King’, ‘The Bloody Chamber’ and ‘The Snow Child’, with the sexual exploitation of women evident through the attitudes of men while ‘Northanger Abbey’ uses the men to try and exploit women for financial gains.
‘The Erl King’ opens with typical Gothic scenery with the “sky hunkered with grey clouds that bulge with more rain” (Carter, 96) which is relevant because the pathetic fallacy creates a tense mood for the reader linking to the disturbing nature of what is to come. By having the skies bloated with dark colours removes the expectations of being in company of a King, who is assumed to hold wealth and power. The use of gender roles are switched in this story by having the Erl King act as “an excellent housewife” (Carter 99). This may not seem substantial, however, it is important to note that Carter is trying to create a view of feminism which moves away from stereotypes but most importantly, to create opportunities for everybody. ‘The Erl King’ uses this idea of feminism and makes a scenario where the male is doing what are considered female tasks. What this story accomplishes is to give women the chance to be able to have sexual attractions while having modern potential to be independent. Human emotion is pushed aside as the Male Gaze theory becomes prevalent. The handling of this woman is treated like a hunk of meat as “[h]e is the tender butcher” (Carter, 100).
By providing a juxtaposition, on being caring and loving, the bloody attributes of a butcher creates a sense of dominative, using force to strip hunks of meat apart. This sexual attraction brings out the worst of this King and puts the woman in a position of power after discovering that the chirping of the birds were the trapped girls who the Erl King took advantage of. The ideals of security of being around a strong, initially loving man however, is soon diminished when his protection is actually false. This Gothic story which uses setting to create a mystic theme has allowed the woman in this story to be want to experience her sexual desires and uses the Erl King to enhance her own pleasures.
Carter puts the role of women in a situation where they become a property of the man by using
graphic imagery to shock the reader and to provide the lifestyle of the patriarchal society in ‘The
Bloody Chamber’ and ‘The Snow Child’. The way ‘The Bloody Chamber’ has been written is in the
method of a memoir, this gives the story personality and an emotional connection because it is the
reader reliving the experiences. The man “in his London tailoring; she, bare as a lamb chop” (Carter, 11) uses the symbolism of lambs to show innocence and fragility as well as the birth of new born in spring. As she is a young girl, her virginity is still with her but brutally loses it in shame and embarrassment, “I had heard him shriek and blaspheme at the orgasm; I had bled … I had been infinitely dishevelled by the loss of my virginity” (Carter, 14). This description of sex provides two contrasting sides of the experience, the male who seems to enjoy himself taking the girls virginity while the graphic bleeding of the girls by men show the pain and the loss of innocence and linked with the description of being a lamb. To examine these sexual exploitations, Germaine Greer, a leading feminist author responsible for the Second Wave of Feminism with her book ‘The Female Eunuch’, provides a view into how women should be treated rather than act submissively in the patriarchal society which Carter portrays in ‘The Bloody Chamber’ collection. Greer uses sex as a topic of discussion as she believes that “Love making has become another male skill, of which women are the judges” (Greer, 47). This supports Carter as the girl in this story succumbs to the sex which creates enjoyable sex for the man but leaves the girl to act as the “judges” and links with this loss of virginity as the girl has to just allow herself to be taken away by this man who does this to please herself rather than making it pleasurable for the two of them. As this story goes on, the art possessed by the male leaves the reader in disturbance as the books of Belgian artist Rops are in his possession. The art depicts a “girl with tears hanging on her cheeks like stuck pearls, her cunt a split fig below the great globes of her buttocks … while a man in a black mask fingered with his free hand his prick” (Carter, 13) what is exposed in this explicit scene is yet again, the man who is the one who is engaging with the act of sexually dominating the woman. For Rops, the art he is known to create which includes erotic satanic imagery which were common throughout the Victorian era as the gothic genre circulates around the power of men and continues the idea of women being perceived as weak for sexual gain. By providing a comparison between a “cunt” to a “split fig” shows the woman being devoured as a piece of fruit. The connotations here is that food is to be enjoyed and that’s what Rops is portraying in this artwork, the male figure in the painting is using women for the sole purpose of sexual pleasure and using food provides a sense of life, without food, humans cannot live so for the artist, sex is what fills his appetite. The ‘Bloody Chamber’ story shows how women are presented negatively within a male environment and as a result, women are presented negatively.
This compares with ‘The Snow Child’ as this short story provides an account about the Count who uses desire to dream up a girl by having her “white as snow … red as blood … black as that bird’s feather” (Carter, 105). The Count’s actions shows the Countess’ personality as bitter or arrogant because her objective is to kill this child to reassure herself of being loved by the Count. By throwing her glove into the snow and sending the girl to look for it, she risks a child’s life to maintain her love with the Count. The cunning behaviour of the Countess is to seem clumsy while having sinister plans. By asking the girl to pick up a rose, it can be seen as a change of heart by picking up a symbol of love. This allows the Countess to accept the girl into the traditional nuclear family, but as the girl “pricks her finger on the thorn; bleeds; screams; falls” (Carter, 106), the girls death brings misery to the Count as he failed to protect her. The emotional suffering causes the Count to “[thrust] his virile member into the dead girl” (Carter, 106). Another reading of the treatment of the Countess would have been to treat the girl negatively because she knows that she will live a life as a part of the nuclear family and as Greer says, “Every wife must live with the knowledge that she has nothing else but home and family” (Greer, 261). For the Countess, she could not allow a child to live a life strapped to the shackles of a patriarchal society which restricts the freedoms and expressions that were not available to women as a result of male actions. As she composes herself, she picks up the rose and says “It bites!”(Carter, 106) This sudden ending reveals a metaphor for the pain of love and is demonstrated as the emotional pain of losing a child and visually watch its body become a sexual shrine for the Count leaves a bitter and disturbing taste for the reader. This reinforces the idea that the patriarchal society is to try to diminish the power of women by sexually acting in the interest of the male, but also playing with the life of a child for desire provides the depths that certain men will go to for pleasure. How women are presented within the Gothic genre as they are presented as emotionally weak but also socially by being trapped within the ideals of the nuclear family.
The stories in ‘The Bloody Chamber’ provide sexual themes which present women negatively,
however, ‘Northanger Abbey’ by Jane Austen, Catherine Morland is left in a situation where John Thorpe’s desire for wealth and prosperity takes the better of him within this satirical Gothic novel. Morland, who comes from the quiet countryside, is invited to Bath with neighbours. As she embarks on this adventure, she meets Henry Tilney who is considered as “intelligent … if not handsome, was very near it” (Austen, 25). Her experiences with John Thorpe are negative as Catherine says “I do not like him at all” which provides her feelings towards Thorpe as he tries to eye Catherine for the riches that he believes she has. Karl Marx as the creator of Marxism provides an insightful opinion in how the passing of wealth should be done in the eyes of a Communist. “We Communists have been reproached with the desire of abolishing the right of personally acquiring property” (Marx, 23). The jealousy provided by Thorpe and General Tilney is because of the understanding of Morlands true wealth. Thorpes lies meant that Catherine “was guilty only of being less rich than he had supposed her to be” (Austen, 228) and his initial reasons for acting as if he loved Catherine was due to his conceptions of wealth and being able to inherit the wealth which Marx is against due to the Proletariat implications of a capitalist society. These communist beliefs link with the idea of a patriarchal society as within Marx’s views, the dream to create a society of equals where men and women are no different and can achieve their goals. Even though ‘Northanger Abbey’ does not have communist roots, the feminist agenda of having the courage men of wanting to be in a relationship because of the belief that it will enhance their interest is important to note because it gives Catherine that independant feminist viewpoint. However, these are contrasted in ‘The Bloody Chamber’ with ‘The Werewolf’ which is a reimagining of the fairy tale ‘Little Red Riding Hood’. In this story, Riding Hood embraces this modern lifestyle where she “lived in her Grandmother’s’ house; she prospered” (Carter, 128). This is a notable story when answering this question because being the feminist writer, Carter portrays a new social society which moves away from the need to be within the nuclear family setup and links with the context of ‘The Bloody Chamber’ being published in 1979 when female British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was admired for being a strong independent woman who did not allow anybody push her around with her famous “The lady’s not for turning” quote she made to the Conservative Party Conference in 1981 which can be seen as inspiration for the Riding Hood character who allowed her grandmother to die as neighbors “pelted her with stones until she fell down dead” (Carter, 128). This contrasts with ‘Northanger Abbey’ as while both female characters had to make sure that they kept their reputation, Catherine didn’t gain wealth or begin with riches despite the suspicions of her background while in ‘The Werewolf’, while on the other hand, Riding Hood gains property and is seen as an independent young girl who can live and fight for herself which is needed in a modern society where the patriarchal normalities need to be broken down.
In conclusion, it is fair to say that the Gothic genre is dominated with a male agenda as the writings
provided by Angela Carter in the stories used in ‘The Bloody Chamber’ provide negative tales about
women who have been exploited for sexual gains or have been trapped in the shackles of the male
patriarchy society which Germaine Greer focuses on in her book ‘The Female Eunuch’ as the lack of
social advances and that women need to do more to be independent and happy within life rather than
have the same life experiences as other women in the nuclear family. However, this is contrasted by
the experiences in ‘Northanger Abbey’ as the desire for wealth and fortune is the reason for why
women are seen to be lowered in society despite the normality of Catherines life.
Word Count – 2236
Bibliography
Angela Carter – ‘The Bloody Chamber’
Jane Austen – ‘Northanger Abbey’
Karl Marx – ‘The Communist Manifesto’
Germaine Greer – ‘The Female Eunuch’
CARTER, A., 2006. The Bloody Chamber.
AUSTEN, J., 2003. Northanger Abbey.
Thatcher, M. 1980. Speech to Conservative Party Conference [Speech online]. 10 October [viewed 21/01/2019]. Available from: https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/104431

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