Campylobacter Jejuni bacterium deposits a group of proteins called Campylobacter Invasion Antigens (CIA proteins). (Konkel. ME, 2004).
The virulence characteristics of Campylobacter Jejuni strains were compared between 20 poultry isolates and 24 human isolates. This included four different virulence characteristics. On the basis of their PFGE pattern, strains were chosen to epitomize a heterogeneous population. The isolated were analyzed for their capability to interfere and activate interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in T84 cells, their construction of operative cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) using HEp-2 cells and their resistance of sodium deoxycholate. The strains with origin of human and poultry will appear with all four virulence factors. There will be strong differences that can be perceived amidst the strains. No difference was perceived between the two populations in terms of invasion and induction of IL-8. Human isolates captured more Hep-2 cells in their cell cycle than the poultry isolates. This proposed a greater production of CDT by the human isolates. (Van Deun. K, 2007)
All four virulence factors are boundless among Campylobacter Jejuni isolates. A greater degree of bile-salt resistance and more enunciated production of CDT are correlated with strains causing enteritis in human. (Van Deun. K, 2007)
The Campylobacter Jejuni bacteria are found in a variety of places, such as the intestinal tracts of cats, dogs, poultry, cattle, pigs and other animals. The bacteria are also present in the intestinal tract of humans where it can exist without causing harm. (Alfaro. D, 2012)
These bacteria are transmitted through the fecal oral route, sexual contact of person to person, the ingestion of unpasteurized milk and raw poultry, ingestion of contaminated water (waterborne) and the exposure to sick puppies. (Javid. MH, 2012)
The infected person will experience the following:
Headache and myalgias (muscle pain) lasting for 24 hours.
Abdominal pains are localized and may present with symptoms that mimic appendicitis. This is known as pseudoappendicitis at the Lower Right Quadrant of the abdomen. In most cases this acute abdominal pains may be the only symptom.
Fever at 40áÂµ’ C which may last for more than a week
This is followed by watery, bloody bowel movements
25% of infected patients suffer from Tenesmus, a feeling of constantly needing to pass stool
Predilation of vascular sites may occur.
Patient may also present with meningitis, infections of vasculature and abscesses
This bacterium causes the patient to be sick for extended periods of time and they may require hospitalization.
(Javid. MH, 2012)
Diagnosis of the infection is made on examination and results obtained from a stool culture. (Marler Clark)
This may be obtained in 2 ways:
The first way would be by isolation of the Campylobacter Jejuni strands from the stool culture. Stool samples are chilled when obtained and culture procedures are performed on the samples to enhance the growth of Campylobacter bacteria, if the bacteria are present. (Marler Clark)
A direct Gram Stain may also be used although it is not commonly used for analysis of bacterial gastroenteritis. This is a very fast method of obtaining a diagnosis but Campylobacter Jejuni is not easily visualized in most cases. Campylobacter Jejuni colonies are usually flat, irregular, pinkish-beige and spread along the streak-line. (Mangels, JI )
Immunoglobulin systems Campylobacter species may be diagnosed with agglutination tests. There are currently at least 3 tests present in the United States that test for Campylobacter species. However, these tests cannot be used as confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter Jejuni and a stool culture must be examined additionally. (Mangels, JI )
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: A differential diagnosis is a list of diseases that present with similar symptoms, these include:
Clostridium Difficile Colitis:
Inflammatory Bowel Disease:
Mesenteric Artery Ischemia
(Javid. MH, 2012)
Infection from the campylobacter bacteria is usually very self-limiting in most cases and using liquid treatment for the symptoms and electrolyte replacement is sufficient in human infections. Treatment by antibiotics is still under great controversy and is only of minor importance in benefitting the patient, judging from the duration of the symptoms although it should not be used as an option. (Ternhag. A et al., 2007)
Tetracycline can be used in adults and Erythromycin in children. (Fabrega. A et al., 2008)
Some studies show that Erythromycin rapidly eliminates the campylobacter from the feces but does not affect the amount of time the illness continues for. Nevertheless, if children have dysentery due to Campylobacter jejuni and are treated early with erythromycin, they tend to benefit more. Therefore, treatment with antibiotics depends on how severe the symptoms are. (Fabrega. A et al., 2008)
Effectiveness of quinolones depends on the sensitivity of the organism, but the high rates of quinolone used in livestock means that quinolones are largely ineffective. (Fabrega. A et al., 2008)
Anti-motility agents such as loperamide can cause prolonged illness or intestinal perforation in any situations of unexpected diarrhea, hence it should not be taken. (Moore, JE et al., 2005)
Some antibiotics are ineffective against Campylobacter such as trimethropin/ sulfamethoxazale and ampicillin. (Moore, JE et al., 2005)
Milk should be pasteurized.
Drinking water should be treated with chlorine, to destroy organisms.
Antibiotic treatment can reduce fecal excretion.
Heath care workers should not provide direct care if they are infected.
Separate cutting boards should be used for different kinds of foods.
After preparation of raw food of animal origin, all cutting boards and counter-tops should be carefully cleaned with soap and hot water to ensure that there arenââ‚¬â„¢t any infectious agents left behind.
There should not be any contact with pet saliva and feces.
(Moore, JE et al., 2005)
Recommendations for the public
Effects of Gamma Radiation on Living Cells
Have you ever imagined that Gamma-ray bursts can release more energy in 10 seconds than the Sun will emit in its entire 10 billion-year lifetime? Have you ever believed that a Gamma-ray is actually the most energetic photon in the electromagnetic spectrum? As a matter of fact, scientists believe that a gamma-ray burst will occur once every few million years in the Milky Way, but has it ever crossed your mind that a gamma ray burst is the MOST powerful known explosion in the galaxy?
Well, Gamma-rays are extremely high frequency waves that have very small wavelengths and carry the largest amount of energy in the entire electromagnetic spectrum. In fact, these waves are produced by radioactive atoms as well as nuclear explosions. Because Gamma-rays passes through almost any material and are quite difficult and in some times may be impossible to stop, one may need a large concentration of lead or concrete in order to block them out and reduce their damage significantly. Gamma-rays also have the ability to cause serious damage when engaged by living cells due to their high energy substance.
How Gamma-Rays are produced? Gamma rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and are photons, or in other words, packets of energy. The term photon itself means visible light particle, however, photons inside gamma rays are called gamma photons. These photons inside the gamma rays have million times more energy than visible light. Gamma rays originate or come from the nucleus of an atom, and as a result, they are produced when an atom is radioactive and contains too much energy in the nucleus (the center of an atom). When the atom is very active it emits a beta particle, which is an extremely high speed electron or proton that is emitted when an atom is radioactive. However, when the atom emits a beta particle it still contains too much energy so it emits a gamma photon, or in other words, gamma radiation.
Properties: Gamma rays are high energy ionizing radiations that are also part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma photons have no mass and no electric charges; they are neutral and have 100% pure electromagnetic energy. Gamma Radiation is a type of energy that has a very high frequency, and therefore, consists of extremely short wavelengths. Gamma Rays can travel at the speed of light due to their high energy levels; they can cover thousands of meters before consuming all their energy. Consequently, gamma photons can pass almost any type of material that includes human tissue. For instance, lead is used as a shield to slow down or stop gamma photons.
Uses Gamma rays, which are basically electromagnetic radiations emitted by radioactive or atomic decay, are used in many purposes, from killing cancerous cells to measuring soil density. Even though Gamma rays contain some cancer-causing properties, they are somehow used to treat some types of cancer. In the procedure called gamma-knife surgery, various intense beams of gamma rays are actually directed on the growth (the cancerous cells) in order to kill these cancerous cells. Well, first of all, Gamma rays are used for treatment purposes, mainly for killing cancer cells, tumors and other malignant cells in the human body. In fact, a tracer, which is in other words, a radioactive substance, is put inside the human body, and its path (trace) inside the body is then followed. A special gamma camera uses those rays to build up a picture, this picture gives the doctor a complete vision of what he is treating and dealing with. The patient, however, gets only a small dose of the radiation and does not suffer. Secondly, Gamma Rays are used in sterilizing (killing the microorganism in a cretin environment environment) medical equipment by killing bacteria. They are also used to kill bacteria, microbes and insects in foodstuffs, particularly meat and vegetables, basically to maintain freshness. Furthermore, gamma rays are used to gauge thickness of metals in steel mills, measure and control flow in liquids in industrial processes, as well as provide very interesting images of the universe. Finally, Gamma rays have also revealed huge information about the structure of the atomic nucleus, as they actually interact with matter by various detached elementary processes.
Effects Gamma radiation is the most penetrative type of energy currently known; gamma rays can get past even some of the densest materials in use, making them both a great benefit and a hazard or a double edged sword. Because the photons that cover up gamma radiation are so energetic, their effect on human health is deep. Effects of gamma rays are well-known to the public from treatment of nuclear fallout. Gamma rays are the most dangerous form of radiation emitted by a nuclear explosion because of the difficulty in shielding them. Close contact with radioactive materials of an especially significant size causes damage to skin tissue and deaths are very likely. Generally, burns occur almost directly while nausea, fatigue and vomiting take hours to appear after exposure. The burn is very painful and deep. Hair loss and bleeding may take up to a few weeks to months to start heeling and return to normal. Gamma rays are generally accepted to be the most physically major grate by which ionization radiation causes cancer and heredity disease.
Among all, Gamma-rays have the shortest wavelengths, highest frequencies, and, as a result are the most powerful and energetic form of light in the universe. As mentioned before, it has the most energy of any other wave in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays can kill living cells, a fact which medicine uses to its advantage, using gamma rays to kill cancerous cells. Gamma radiation is the most penetrative type of energy currently known; can get past even some of the densest materials in use, making them both a great benefit and a hazard.
Mark. “Gamma Rays | Radiation Protection | US EPA.”Â US Environmental Protection Agency. Us Government, 1 Oct. 2010. Web. 12 Feb. 2011. .
Thompson, Martin J. “What Is a Gamma Ray?”Â WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions. IND, INC, May-June 2028. Web. 10 Feb. 2011. .
Moss, Jennifer M. “The Electromagnetic Spectrum: Gamma Rays.”Â Andy Darvill’s Science Site: Home. Google, Jan. 2006. Web. 21 Feb. 2011. .
Liam S. “Gamma Ray Quotes – Science Quotes – Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes.”Â Today In Science History. Web. 21 Feb. 2011. .
Schonfelder, Volker. “5.”Â The Universe in Gamma Rays. Berlin [u.a.: Springer, 2001. Print.