The main ritual in the ceremony was flaying and sacrificing of war captives and slaves. The people would dehumanize the captives and slaves by transforming them into sacrificial images. The transforming would make it easy on the conscience of the people killing innocent victims in cold blood because they were now considered as sacrifices and not human beings.
The candidates for the sacrifice would be dressed as teol ixiptla in the image of god Xipe Totec. On the sacrifice day the slaves and the captive warriors would be paraded before the people accompanied by their captors. The captors also adorned ritual gear as a sign of honor. At the climax of the ceremonies the victims would be given new names and required to dance together with the captors.
Eventually the victims would be sacrificed in a grisly manner either on the gladiatorial stone or on top of Xipe’s temple. Their hearts would be pulled from their chests and their blood sprinkled into a ceremonial bowl called cuauhxicalli. Then the skins of the victims would be flayed to be adorned by individuals who would go around the city engaging in mock battles as they collected gifts from the people. The Aztec people saw no wrong in committing the acts of violence because they were fulfilling a religious obligation.
Cultural ideals also lead to violence in a society. In medieval Europe honor was very important for a human being. According to chivalry literature, people believed that the way to gain honor was by displaying prowess.
Those who possessed this quality were highly honored. Honor separated great men from ordinary men because all men were born equal thus the only way to distinguish oneself from the crowd was exhibiting prowess in battle. Those who exhibited prowess and courage, strength would be selected as knights. To this community honor was considered highly than life (Kaeuper 130).
The ideology concerning honor was that it could be earned and increased by sword in hand. Thus a knight was more honored if he killed many people in battle “ a knight’s nobility or worth is proved by his hearty strokes in battle” (Kaeupe131).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Knights received more honor for their prowess in sword “to be the best knight in the world … means not to be the greatest landlord but to show the greatest prowess” (Kaeupe133). Thus the knights had a license to perpetuate violence in their societies. Knights who had succeeded in battlefields would be willing to kill more to crown their day with more honor as a large number of victims showed just how much prowess a knight possessed.
Prowess was synonymous to life and thus it was a core chivalric trait. The trait defined chivalric knights. For example, Lancelot was a great knight because he managed to kill many men through the blows of his swords “he was very skilled in doing all that a great knight must do” (Kaeupe136).
He killed up to four knights in a single blow and nearly cut their horses into two. The violence promoted by Lancelot earned him great admiration for his marvelous deeds of killing many knights in little time. Other knights also enjoyed killing as it defined who they were as knights.
The chivalric literature gives accounts of many deaths brought about by knights who enjoyed practicing violence as was expected of them. The knightly battles determined a knight’s self worth and admiration from women. In essence hacking fellow men to death in the most violent manner was taken as a gift from God and it gave meaning to life.
Politics can fuel violence in a society. In Ming China a man called Zhang Mao was able to amass wealth because he could bribe anyone who needed too be bribed. The local authorities left him alone because they might have been intimidated by his wealth and status in the society.
Zhang had access to the emperor and befriended his eunuchs because he liked to be with powerful people. The eunuchs had political influence and give posts to their nephews and brothers. This is nepotism, which is often practiced by political leaders in order to protect their own personal interests. The eunuchs used their positions and power to amass wealth as they willed. Zhang also enjoyed power due to his connections with the powerful people in the society (Robinson 101-103).
Leaders could use their political power to unleash violence at will. For example, Ning Gao used terror to scare the people. His forces would go to the countryside, make arbitrary arrests for banditry, kill the seized men, and hang their heads on poles in display for the other people.
We will write a custom Essay on Violence from cultural ideals, politics, and religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ning Gao would also butcher some men by cutting open their stomachs and dismembering them. The political leaders allowed bandits to reign terror in the country by accepting bribes from them (Robinson 108). Thus politics can lead to violence if power is misused and abused for personal gains.
The society that experienced the most violence was Aztec in Mexico. The sacrifices made in the religious ceremonies led to the killing of many people including women and children captured during battles. The higher the number of victims killed during the festival the better because it sent a message of the prowess of the Aztec warriors. The Aztec individuals needed human skins to wear and parade as they received gifts from the villagers. The killings were so brutal and merciless as innocent men become victims of religion.
Politics leads to violence on a greater scale than religion and cultural ideals do. Leaders in many parts of the world use their power to suppress their challengers and those who threaten their political survival.
Leaders use their positions for personal gains at the expense of the people. Many countries in the world have experienced violence as a result of disputed elections for example over a thousand people lost their lives in Kenya during the post election violence that resulted from the 2007 disputed election. In Darfur many people lost their lives and many continue to suffer due to bad politics. Political leaders are able to mislead the masses because they yield so much power.
Their loyal followers more often than not listen and do as they are directed. Bad politics explains the reason why they are many refugees in the world. In addition, some leaders use their power to amass wealth for themselves and leave the country impoverished and such a country is likely to plunge into violence due to poverty as people fight for scarce resources. Therefore, politics if managed in a democratic manner can lead a country to prosperity. However, a country with bad politics is vulnerable to violence.
Works Cited Carrasco, David. City of Sacrifice: The Aztec Empire and Role Of Violence in civilization. Boston: Beacon Press, n.d.
Kaeuper, Richard. Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, n.d.
Robinson, David. Bandits, Eunuchs and the Son of Heaven. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, n.d.
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White Collar Deviance Essay
Nursing Assignment Help White-collar deviance entails all unethical practices including legally delineated crimes that high-ranking workers commit in their work. Many people mistake white-collar deviance for white-collar crime; however, white-collar deviance encompasses more factors than white-collar crime. In addition, white-collar deviance covers deviances in government, corporate world, and private industry as well.
The measurable constructs of deviance include moral, physical, and financial harms that the elite class might cause in the course of their duty. Nevertheless, it is important to note that, white-collar deviance covers all white-collar workers, even though the attention mostly centers on the elites in society. The fact that the elite in any society own and control the most resources underscores the reason why people perceive white-collar deviance as a deviance by the elites.
As aforementioned, the white-collar deviance usually gives the impression of the elite and this highlights the relationship between white-collar deviance and social class. Well, even though white-collar deviance does not explicitly refer to deviance amongst the elites in the society, there is a strong positive correlation between white-collar deviance and social class.
The underprivileged people in any society lack a feasible means to improve their living standards and thus they stand less exposed to practices that can lead to white-collar deviance. On the other hand, the elites are influential and they can influence decision making at all levels as opposed to the underprivileged that have little or no influence in decision-making.
Given the fact that the elite own power, they are likely to make decisions that would favor their well-being, even if it means deviating from the norms. The effects of such made decisions remain felt across the society thus linking the high social class with white-collar deviance. In most cases, the elites involved in white-collar deviance work in the government or have strong links with those in the government thus government has been implicated in white-collar deviance cases for a long time.
After committing white-collar deviances, influential government officials are known to interfere with law enforcement to protect their interests or those of their close allies. Government officials in this context represent government, for without people there can never be government.
Despite the continued claims that judiciary is an autonomous body that carries the mandate to prosecute law-breakers independently, influential government officials still influence judicial processes in some ways. Such interference of judicial processes is a white-collar deviance in itself. Elites in the government are foxy and even if they do not alter judicial processes, they can influence the interpretation of law to suit their personal interests.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From another perspective, governments can formulate and implement regulations that do not allow fair and free business practices. Regrettably, even when some policies, implemented by senior government officials fail to bear fruits or lead to disaster, the government tolerates these officials.
The case of Brooksley Born, the former Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) chairperson, shows how government can tolerate white-collar deviance. In 1998, Brooksley sought to regulate Over-the-Counter (OTC) derivatives in the financial market only to face stiff opposition from Alan Greenspan, Lawrence Summers and Robert Rubin, the then Federal Reserve chair, and Treasury Secretaries respectively.
Even after the economy plunged into crisis from early 2007 due to failure to implement Born’s provisions among other reasons, no legal action has been taken towards Greenspan and his colleagues. This phenomenon illustrates white-collar deviance at its best.