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Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Causes and Treatment

Urinary tract is the most common organ to experience infection which occurs from neonates to geriatrics. It account for 8.3 million doctor visit each year and represent the second most common infection in the human body (Sumaira Zareef et al.,2009). By the advancement of age, the attack of UTI increases in men due to prostate enlargement and neurogenic bladder. Recurrent infections are common and will lead to irreversible damage of the kidneys, which result in renal hypertension and renal failure in severe cases. In community, women are more prone to develop UTI and 20% of women experience a single episode of UTI during their lifetime and 3% of women may have more than one episode of UTI per year. Pregnancy also makes them more sensitive to infection. Catheter-associated UTI is a trenchant problem and bacteriuria is found in 5% of catheterised patients (Das R N et al., 2006). Urinary tract infection refers to the presence of microbes in the urinary tract. The frequency of pathogens varies upon hospitalization, sexual intercourse, and catheterization (Getenet B et al., 2011). About 150 million people are diagnosed for having urinary tract infection with a very high risk of morbidity and mortality (Raza S et al., 2011).
Urinary tract infection is found more in women when compared with men the reason may be due to anatomical structure or because of the urothelial mucosa attachment to the muco polysaccharide lining or due to other factors (Tampekar et al., 2006). Urinary tract infection is second only to respiratory tract in acquiring microbial infections (Raza S et al., 2011).
Classification of Urinary Tract Infection: Urinary tract infection may be classified as upper urinary tract infection and lower urinary tract infection. According to the infected site, if its bladder then its called cystitis, if the bacterium is in the kidney then its called pyelonephrites, if its in urine the term bacteriuria is used (Getenet B et al., 2011). Manifestation of genitourinary tract infection vary from mild symptomatic cystitis to pyelonephrites and finally to septicaemia. Pyelonephrites are the sequelae of untreated or inadequately treated lower UTI and the most common cause of hospital admission during pregnancy and which lead to preterm labour(Jamie et al .,2002). Urinary tract infections are further divided into complicated and uncomplicated infections. Uncomplicated infections are those with no prior instrumentations and complicated infections are those that have done instrumentations such as indwelling, urethral catheters and it include structural and functional abnormalities (Getnet B et al., 2011). Again UTI is classified as community acquired and hospital acquired (nosocomial). In community acquired UTI single species of bacteria is found and the organisms are Escherichia coli, P.mirabilis, Pseudomonas. Hospital acquired UTI is often due to multi drug resistant strain in this similar organism but greater preponderance of Streptococci or Klebsiella is seen (Sujit K Chaudhuri., 2001).
Defnition of the precise terms in Urinary Tract Infection: Significant bacteriuria
It is defined as the presence of 100000 bacteria per mL of urine.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria
It is defined as significant bacteriuria in infected patients with the absence of symptoms
It is defined as a syndrome of frequency, dysuria, urgency in which the infection is limited to bladder and urethra.
Urethral syndrome
In Urethral syndrome a conventional pathogen is present and its a syndrome of dysuria, frequency in the absence of significant bacteriuria.
Acute pyelonephrites
It is an acute infection in one or both the kidneys.
Chronic pyelonephrites
It may be due to the continuous excretion of bacteria from kidney or the recurring infection of the renal cell or due to a specific pathology of both kidneys.
Relapse and reinfection
Relapse is defined has the recurrence of infection by the same organism which intiated original infection. Reinfection is defined as the recurrence of infection by a new organism (Roger walker et al., 2003).
Several studies have demonstrated geographical variability of Pathogens occurrence among UTI inpatient and outpatient is limited by the predominance of gram negative organisms. The most frequent pathogen isolated is Escherichia coli which accounts for about 50% to 90% of all uncomplicated infections (Tampekar et al., 2006). In complicated urinary tract infection and hospitalized patients, organisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and highly resistant gram negative rods including Pseudomonas are most common (Getenet B et al., 2011).
Aetiology and microbiology: The most common causative organism of uncomplicated UTI is Escherichia coli accounting more than 85% cases, followed by staphylococcus saprophyticus (coagulase-negative staphylococcus) accounting to nearly 15%.
The pathogens in complicated UTI or nosocomical infections are Escherichia coli accounting 50%, Proteus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococci and Enterococci (Barbara et al., 2008).
A very rare cause of urinary tract infection includes anaerobic bacteria and fungi and sometimes viruses which are detected by culture and nucleic acid amplification method.
Abnormalities of the urinary tract such congenital anomalies of ureter, renal stones, enlargement of prostrate in men are other causes for urinary tract infection (Roger walker et al., 2003).
Pathophysiology of UTI: (Barbara et al., 2008) The urinary tract includes two pairs of kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra. Urinary tract infection are defined as infections at any level of the urinary tract which include,
Upper urinary tract infection (Pyelonephrites)
Lower urinary tract infection ( Cystitis, Urethritis)
Combination of above two
The bacteria causing UTIs originate from bowel flora of the host. It can be acquired via three possible routes
Lymphatic pathways
In females the short length of the urethra and proximity to the perirectal area lead to the colonization of bacteria. The organisms enter the bladder from urethra and multiply and can ascend the ureters and ascend to the kidneys.
Factors that determine the development of urinary tract infections are
The size of the inoculums
Virulence of the microorganisms
Competency of the natural host defense mechanisms.
Important virulence factors of bacteria are their ability to adhere to urinary epithelial cells by fimbriae. Others include haemolysin, a cytotoxic protein produced by bacteria which lyses a large range of cells including erythrocytes, monocytes, and polymorph nuclear leukocytes.
Clinical presentation: Pain or burning when you using bathroom
Fever, tiredness or shakiness
An urge to use the bathroom often and often
Pressure in the lower belly
Urine that smells bad and looks cloudy or reddish
Nausea or back pain
Lower urinary tract infection – Dysuria, urgency, nocturia, Increased frequency of urination
Upper urinary tract infection – Fever, flank pain, vomiting malaise.
Clinical investigation: (Roger walker et al., 2003) Laboratory diagnosis is successful when an uncontaminated urine sample is obtained for microscopy and culture. The respective patients need to instruct to produce mid stream urine sample (MSU) and then its collected into a sterile aliquot and then transferred into the specimen pot and finally is submitted to the laboratory.
It is a rapid testing for urinary blood, nitrites, proteins and leukocyte esterase. The colour changes are assessed.
It is the first step in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections. Urine is placed on a slide and then covered with a cover slip and is examined under lens 40x.
The patients urine is streaked in agar medium and is incubated for 24 hours at 370C and identify the single bacterial species which as initiated the particular infection.
Treatment of UTI: Non specific treatment
Urinary tract infected patients are advised to drink a lot of fluids, this practice is on the basis that the bacteria is removed by frequent bladder emptying. Urinary analgesics such sodium citrate which will alkanize urine is used with antibiotics as an adjunct therapy (Roger walker et al., 2003).
Pharmacological treatment of UTI
Antibiotics are commonly used in Urinary tract infections. The modes of action of antibiotics may be,
Inhibition of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis
Inhibition of Cytoplasmic Membrane Function
Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
Inhibition of Protein Synthesis
Control of Microbial Enzymes
Substrate Competition with an Essential Metabolite (Barar F. S. K., 2007)
UTI are mainly treated with broad spectrum Cephalosporins, Fluroquinolones, and Aminoglycosides. Cephalosporins are cell wall inhibitors which are commonly used for treating urinary tract infections caused by Gram negative organisms. It include Cefotaxime, Cephradine, Ceftazidime etc. Flouroquinolones act by inhibiting the activity of DNA gyrase and topo isomerase which are the enzymes needed for bacterial DNA replication and it includes Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Enoxacin. Aminoglycoside act by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis it include Gentamycin, Kanamycin, Amikacin etc (Farhat Ullah et al., 2009).
Oral therapy in urinary tract infection is Sulphonamides example (TMP-SMX) PenicillinS which include Ampicillin, Amoxicillin- clavulanic acid. Cephalosporins example Cephalexin, Cephadrine. Tetracyclines example Doxycycline, Minocycline. Fluroquinolones example Levofloxacin, Nitrofurantine. Parentral therapy is done with Carbapenems example Imipenem-Cilastatin. Aminglycosides example Amikacin, Gentamycin (Barbara et al., 2008).
2.9 Treatments of infections of urinary tract: (S.D Seth et al., 1999)
Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Infections
Single-dose Trimethoprim -Sulphamethoxazole (400mg 2g) are used to treat acute uncomplicated episode of cystitis.
Acute urethritis can be treated with Doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for 7 days.
Single dose therapy must be restricted in patients where symptoms are present for less than 10 days. In more complicated cases seven days therapy with antibiotics should be given and alternatively broader spectrum antibiotics are used.
Treatment of upper Urinary Tract Infections
10-14 day course of Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim in a single dose, Cephalosporins, or Aminoglycoside gives adequate therapy. If recurrence occurs then the patient should be investigated for calculi and other urologic disease.
Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections during Pregnancy
Acute cystitis during pregnancy is treated with Amoxicillin, Nitrofurantoin,or Cephalosporin for 4 days.
Acute pyelonephtites is managed generally with Cephalosporin or extended spectrum Penicillin.
Treatment for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
In this a drug capable of achieving high tissue concentration is needed.7-14 days high treatment is given.
Treatment of Asymptomatic Infections
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is confirmed by a minimum of two positive cultures. An oral therapy for 1 week with the most sensitive agent is given primarly.
Treatment for Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection
Asymptomatic bacteriuria in catheterized patients is not treated if they are not at a high risk of sepsis.
Treatment for Prostatitis
The pathogen found in this is mainly Gram Negative Bacilli. Trimethoprim- Sulphamethoxazole, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin can penetrate prosthetic tissue and are mostly effective. If Cocci are found cloxacillin may be given.
Chemoprophylaxis of Urinary Tract Infections
It is indicated to patients with a very frequent symptomatic infection. A single dose Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole (80mg TMP 400 mg SMZ) or Nitrofurantoin (50 mg) is found to be effective.
Drug resistance: (Michelle.A.Clark et al., 2012), (Barar F.S.K 2010). Bacteria are said to be resistant to an antibiotic if the maximal level of that antibiotic which can be tolerated by the host does not alter the bacterial growth. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics may be either Natural or Acquired.
Natural resistance
Natural resistance is genetically determined and it depends upon the absence of a metabolic process which is affected by the respective bacteria.
Acquired resistance
Acquired resistance is the resistance which is seen in a previously sensitive bacterial pathogen and it involves a very stable genetic change which is heritable from one generation to another generation. The common mechanism is by mutation, adaptation, or by the development of multiple drug resistance which is as a result of transfer of genetic material from bacteria to bacteria by transformation, transduction, or conjugation. Microbial species which are normally responsive to a particular drug may develop more virulent, resistant strains due to,
Genetic alterations
Spontaneous mutations of DNA
DNA transfer of drug resistance
B) Altered expression of proteins in organism
Modification of target site
Decreased accumulation
Enzymtic Inactivation
A) Genetic alterations
Acquired antibiotic is due to the temporary or permanent alteration of organisms genetic information.
Spontaneous mutation of DNA
Chromosomal alteration occurs by insertion or substitution of one or more nucleotides within the genome. The mutation may be lethal to the cells. If the cells survive it will replicate and transmit its mutated properties to other cells.
DNA transfer of drug resistance
It occurs due to DNA transfer from one bacterium to other. Resistance gene are plasmid mediated and can be incorporated into host bacterial DNA.
B) Altered expression of proteins in organism
It occurs by variety of mechanisms, such as a lack of or alteration in target site, increased efflux of the drug or by the expression of antibiotic inactivating enzymes.
Modification of target sites
The change in the antibiotic target site through mutation can lead to resistance. Example, S pneumonia resistance to beta lactums involves alteration in one or more of major bacterial penicillin binding protein.
Decreased accumulation
If the drug is unable to attain access to the site of its action to kill the organism’s resistance confers.
Enzymic inactivation
The ability to destroy antibiotic agent by the pathogen can confer resistance. Antibiotic inactivating enzymes include
a) Beta lactamases (Hydrolytically inactivate beta lactum ring of penicillin)
b) Acetyl transferases (Transfer an acetyl group to antibiotics)
c) Esterases (Hydrolyze the lactone ring of macrolides)
Antibiotic tolerance: The term antibiotic tolerance is used when the antibiotic merely inhibits its multiplication and growth but no longer kills the microbial pathogen. Tolerant microbial pathogen starts to grow after antibiotics are stopped.
Cross resistance: It is defined as a phenomenon in which bacteria resistant to one drug is resistant to another drug to which the bacteria is not exposed before.
Examples are Neomycin and Kanamycin.
Prevention of drug resistance: (K.D Tripathy 2006) Indiscriminate and prolonged use of antibiotics should be stopped it will minimise resistant strains so there will be less chance to preferentially propagate
Rapidly acting and narrow spectrum antibiotics should be preferred. Broad spectrum is used when a proper one cannot be determined
When prolonged therapy is needed use combination of Anti microbial agents
Treatment should be intensively done for the infections by organism which develops resistance Example, Staphylococcus aureus.
Evaluation of urinary tract pathogen and principles of antibiotic dosing: (Michelle.A.Clark et al., 2012), (Sharma H L et al 2011) The traditional way for the evaluating urinary tract pathogens is urine culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The major drawback of current microbiological analysis is time lapse of more than a day (Vesna Ivancic et al., 2008). The five important characteristic which influence frequency of dosing of all antibiotics are,
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
It is the lowest concentration of antibiotic that inhibit bacterial growth. To have effective therapy the clinically obtainable antimicrobial concentration should be greater than MIC.
Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)
It is the lowest concentration of antibiotic agent that results in 99.9% decline in colony count after incubation.
Concentration dependent killing effect [CDKE]
Antibiotics are most effective when higher blood concentration is reached periodically. These bactericidal antibiotics are said to be concentration -dependent killing (CDK). In drugs whose killing action is CDK the extent and rate of killing increases with increase in drug concentration. Examples Amino glycosides, Fluroquinolones.
Time dependent killing effect [TDKE]
Antibiotics are most effective when the blood concentrations are maintained above the minimum inhibitory concentration for the maximum long duration possible. These bactericidal antibiotics exhibit time -dependent killing (TDK). In drugs whose killing action is (TDK) the activity of antibiotics continue as long as serum concentration are maintained above the minimum inhibitory concentration. Examples Vancomycin, Beta Lactums.
Post -antibiotic effect [PAE]
A suppression of bacterial growth which is persistent after a brief exposure to antibiotics agents is said to be post-antibiotic effect. In post antibiotic effect the suppression or inhibition of bacterial growth is found even when the bacterial agent is no longer present or its concentration is very less than MIC. Examples of drugs which show significant PAE are Tetracycline, Amino glycosides.
The aetiology of UTI and the antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens have been changing over the past decade. The extensive uses of antibiotics have invariably resulted in the development of resistance which has become major problem in recent years. Antibiotic treatment which are of shorter duration than required, and the treatment administered without considering antibiotic and organism sensitivity as resulted in more resistance in bacterial strains (Mohammed Akram et al., 2007), (Eshwarappa M et al., 2011). To find out the most effective empirical treatment, investigating the epidemiology of UTI is a fundamental approach to guide the expected interventions (Getnet B et al., 2011). Since the distribution of microbial pathogens and their susceptibility is variable regionally and it is necessary to have a knowledge of uropathogens and sensitivity in a particular setting (Muhammed Naeem et al., 2010).
The selection of antimicrobial agents require the following knowledge,
The organism’s identity
The organism’s susceptibility to particular agent
The site of the infection
Patient factors
The safety of the agent
The cost of therapy
However, in critically ill patients need immediate treatment i.e. the therapy is initiated soon after specimens for laboratory analysis have been obtained before the culture result and selection of drug is influenced by the site of infection and patients history or by the association of particular organism
Prevention and prophylaxis: (Roger Walker et al). Cranberry juice:
It has been thought beneficial for the prevention of urinary tract infections. The benefit of drinking cranberry juice instead of antibiotics has reduced resistance of bacteria.
Antibiotic prophylaxis:
It is indicated to patients who are having reinfections. If the reinfection is after sexual intercourse then after intercourse a single dose of antibiotics is taken. In other cases low dose is beneficial.
Patient counselling of UTI: Drinking plenty of clear liquids will keep urine diluted.
Good personal hygiene following urination and bowel movements. Cleaning self front to back from vagina to anus.
Urinate frequently to wash out bacteria that may be present, avoid holding urine for prolonged periods of time.
Urinate after intercourse to wash out bacteria that may have been introduced into the urethra.
Avoid wearing tight jeans, wet bathing suites.
Present scenario of UTI: New studies reveal that the risk of urinary tract infection is high among boys who has not circumcised and had a visible urethral meatus.
Another line of UTI research has indicated that women who are “non-secretors” of certain blood group antigens may be more prone to recurrent urinary tract infections because the cells lining the vagina and urethra may allow bacteria to attach more easily.
Scientists have worked out an effective new approach to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) by dumping antibiotics. It involves so-called FimH antagonists, which are non antibiotic compounds and would not contribute to the growing problem of pathogens resistant to antibiotics.

Effect of Detergents on Plant Growth

Do different concentrations of different detergents (Tide and Surf Excel) affect the growth of root and shoot in Vigna Radiata (Mung bean)?
Plant growth is characterized by cell division and cell expansion along with the increase in the size of the cells. This growth is inhibited by the presence of certain toxic substances in the surrounding environment caused by damage at cellular levels. The present study reveals how different concentrations of different detergents (Tide and Surf Excel) affect the growth of root and shoot in Vigna Radiata (Mung bean).
This study was carried out by subjecting soaked green gram seeds (Vigna radiata) to three different environments. The seeds were allowed to grow in Control condition (Dechlorinated Tap water) and different concentrations of Surf Excel and Tide powder solutions (0.1% – 0.5%). The root and shoot lengths were noted after a time period of ten days.
It was found that the growth of both, the shoot and the root decreased as the concentration of both Surf Excel and Tide was increased. This was found out by comparing the mean lengths of both the shoot and the root grown in the control medium with those grown in Tide and Surf Excel solutions by conducting a 2 tail sample test. The results obtained showed a significant difference between all concentrations (0.1% – 0.5%) in comparisons between the control and the detergent solutions. However, when the two solutions were compared in terms of shoot growth with each other, a significant difference was only seen at 0.1% and 0.5% concentrations, while the shoot growth at all other concentrations (0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4%) showed no significant difference. In the case of root length, the significant difference was seen only in 0.1% concentration of solution between Tide and Surf Excel, while all other concentrations showed no significant difference. It was also interesting to note that Surf Excel relatively affected root growth more than Tide, while Tide relatively affected shoot growth more than Surf Excel.
CONTENTS (Jump to)
Research Question
Consequences of Water Pollution
Vigna Radiata (Mung bean)
Explanation of Research Question
Materials Required
Determination of Statistical Analysis
Mean Lengths of Shoot and Root in Surf Excel
Mean Lengths of Shoot and Root in Tide Powder
INTRODUCTION Research Question: Do different concentrations of different detergents (Tide and Surf Excel) affect the growth of root and shoot in Vigna radiata (Mung bean)?
Nature has some of the most amazing stories to tell, the most breathtaking sights to show and sometimes, even the most mysterious of questions to ask. Somehow, though all life on earth has been created to be equally beautiful and unique in its own way, the plant kingdom is something that always has the most astounding of wonders, flowers that are synonymous with beauty, fields that personify heavenly scenery and gigantic trees that are only a minute reminder of nature’s infinite power, are just the beginning of a long list of the incredible sights that the green kingdom beholds.
But as everything else in the world of today, these greeneries are also strongly hit by the one common and dramatically disastrous problem: POLLUTION!
Today the cry of pollution is heard from nooks and corners of the globe. Pollution has become a major threat to the very existence of not only to the mankind but also to all living organisms including plants. [1]
Plants are living beings which exhibit the characteristic of growth like all other beings. The most essential and initial period of the growth stage of the plant is termed as germination. This process is affect based on the laundry effluents that drains into the land and the river system. The laundry effluent consists of detergent chemicals. These detergents in higher concentration destroy the plant growth. [2]
Laundry detergents have long been associated with environmental degradation and pollution of water bodies. The fact that they have phosphates and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STTP), which are used to soften hard water for better washing, makes them environmentally unviable. In many countries around the world, phosphates have been banned as a detergent ingredient. India has no such regulations as yet, while the use of phosphates is not permitted [3]
Consequences of Water Pollution
The various effects of water contamination are extensive and affect not only the environment, but human beings and animals as well. Water pollution affects major and minor water bodies like oceans, seas, rivers and lakes, sources of everyday drinking water, which makes it a prevalent universal issue. Its effect on humans can be briefed in the facts of the countless health issues that have been associated with water pollution.
As earlier stated, water is said to be contaminated when toxins, pathogens, chemicals or any other form of waste is present in it. So it is very easy to imagine the widespread effects of water pollution with all the contaminants disposed in it.
The effects of water pollution are copious; some can be short lived effects, which are recognized immediately, while others can be extremely invisible and long lived, and might take months or even years to show up. Some effects are listed below;
When chemical toxins enter the water, the toxins move from the water to the animals that drink it, this shows that marine pollution can be harmful to even outside species, like humans and birds that feed on the contaminated marine life or drink that water. This can also be lethal as such infections can enter food chains and harm organism at all levels
Water pollution can cause lethal diseases in humans and other animal species, like typhoid and cholera.
Acid rain, a form of water pollution caused by chemicals in rainfall, contains sulphate molecules, which can harm marine life in relatively smaller water bodies like lakes and ponds.
Contaminants in water bodies can affect their physical and chemical properties as a whole, for example, their conductivity, their temperatures and acidity etc. In such cases, varies water temperatures, due to pollution, can kill the aquatic life and affect the ecological balance in these water bodies.
Our main aim is to reproduce our polluted environment by scaling it down to using instruments which are practical and feasible enough to use in any laboratory.
Detergents were introduced to the world in the 1920’s and are relatively new to the cleaning industry having been about for only 85 years, but are far more popular than their predecessors: The Soaps; even though soaps have been around for more than 3,000 years. Originally manufactured during the onset of World War I in Germany, detergents have gained quick appeal since their prelim production. Detergent is defined as a cleansing substance that acts similarly to soap but is made from chemical compounds rather than fats and lye [4] . Modern detergents contain a chemical called a surfactant, which can be defined as “A substance capable of reducing the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved.” [5]
Many of the detergents are phosphate based. Detergents with phosphate are a sustainable component. Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms including plants. In man, phosphorus is necessary for human health. Phosphorus compounds make up the structure of bones and teeth and are fundamental to the transfer of energy within cells, and thus to all body functions, from thought through to motion. Phosphorus is an essential element in DNA (genetic material) and in many proteins. Phosphorus is naturally present in foods and is taken into the body as phosphates. In plants, phosphorus plays an essential role in photosynthesis and all energy recovering processes. Phosphates are also one of the main nutrients in almost all agricultural and garden fertilizers, because they are crucial for plant growth. If it increases in the land and enter the river or sea then it causes eutrophication leading to algal bloom and further destruction of the aquatic ecosystem [6]
Detergents used
To redevelop the environmental pollution seen in aquatic systems in the natural environment to a smaller scale for laboratory experiments, I have used two different detergent solutions at different concentrations added to the plants, both of which have surfactant molecules having two parts. One is “water loving” and the other is “water hating.” The water-loving (hydrophilic) part breaks the surface tension of water. The water-hating (hydrophobic) part is attracted to oil and grease in soils, loosening and removing them from fabrics. Detergents usually contain more than one type of surfactant to address the needs of removing certain types of soils and cleaning different types of fabrics. [7]
Tide Powder: A heavy-duty enzyme detergent powder
Surf Excel: A heavy duty enzyme detergent bar
Deteregent Ingredients
Bleach Activator
Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetate (Sodium Salt)
Sodium Polyacrylate
Oxygen Bleach
Sodium Percarbonate
Process Aid
Palmitic Acid
Sodium Sulfate
Removes Water Hardness
Sodium Aluminosilicate
Sodium Carbonate
Polyethylene Glycol 4000
Suds Suppressor
Alkyl Sulfate
Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate
Whitening Agent
Disodium Diaminostilbene Disulfonate
Vigna Radiata (Mung Bean)
The Mung bean is the name of the gram seed Vigna radiata, an ovoid, greenish brown dicot which is native to parts of Bangladesh, Pakistan and India. The gram seed (Mung), as a species was recently shifted from the genus Phaseolus to the genus Vigna but is still cited as Phaseolus aureus or Phaseolus adiates in some cases.
Plant Taxonomy [8]
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Vigna
Species: V. radiata
History of Plant [9]
The history of this sprout can be dated to thousands of years ago, first discovered in Asia, the bean has been grown in Chinese pastures for well over 3,000 years. Keeping put to the easy farming techniques that were required back then, cultivators grow these using very little or no machinery . As of now, India and China are the chief manufacturers of these seeds.
Climate and Soil [10]
Mung beans are chiefly produced in South-East Asia but are also cultivated on smaller scales in hot and dry regions of South Europe and Southern USA. In India and Bangladesh, they are grown during two seasons. One is the Rabi season (starting November), and the other is the Kharif season (starting June). Mung beans are tropical (or sub-tropical) crops, and require warm temperatures (optimally round 30-35°C). Loamy soil is best for pusap cultivation.
Nutritional Values
Mung beans are a good source of Vitamins A, B, C