United States Foreign Policy
USA Foreign Policy during (1815-1941)
USA Foreign Policy during (1941-1989)
USA Foreign Policy during (1989-present)
Introduction Several countries today have established legal frameworks that determine how they relate with other nations. The United States of America has a comprehensive foreign policy which governs its relationship with other countries. “Since independence, the economy of U.S. has been flourishing and it is today one of the most developed countries in the world” (Hastedt 65).
This has given it a dominant position in the world political arena and it has also influenced how it deals with other nations. “The diplomatic affairs of this country are always under the guidance of the secretary of the State” (Carter 82). However, final decisions on diplomatic affairs are only made by the president.
America’s foreign policy has always been shaped in such away that it favors its interests. It protects its corporations and other commercial organizations from any unfair treatment and competition (Kaufman 15). This has always been done to ensure that no country challenge its economic position.
United States Foreign Policy U.S. has been using its power to suppress other nations that may be thinking of emerging as its competitor. For example it checked the influence of U.S.S.R. In order to continue dominating many countries, the U.S. government keeps on extending its authority and power over many nations.
“It has achieved this by simply influencing the social-economic and political institutions of some countries which are vulnerable to political influences” (Carter 130). Such practices are prevalent in countries which are poor and can not sustain themselves economically.
”Peace, prosperity, power, and principle,” have always acted as the guiding principles of U.S. foreign policy, and its interests revolve around them (Hastedt 29). The U.S. government has been striving to maintain these values, but the only thing that has been changing is the prevailing conditions which influence the manner they are achieved (Hastedt 30). We can therefore examine the foreign policies of U.S in the following phases.
USA Foreign Policy during (1815-1941) America came up with the policy of “isolation” after the end of its revolutionary war. According to this policy, US did not engage in conflict resolution programs and it always remained impartial whenever some European countries had a conflict with each other (Carter 101). For example, this was demonstrated during the First World War and it continued until the beginning of the Second World War. The main interest of US during the 19th century was to develop its economy and this influenced how it conducted its diplomatic activities with other nations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It forged trade ties with other countries which were ready to do business with it. In addition to these, it also engaged in building its territory through bringing more territories under its control. For example in 1819 it managed to conquer Florida; in 1845 it brought Texas under its control and the Russian Empire agreed to sell Alaska to US in 1867.
Imperialism was also partially practiced by U.S. “Foreign policy themes were expressed considerably in George Washington‘s farewell address; these included among other things, observing good faith and justice towards all nations and cultivating peace and harmony with all countries” (Carter 74). The US government in many cases declined to engage in signing treaties. For example it refused to be part of the “League of Nations” (Kaufman 67).
USA Foreign Policy during (1941-1989) There was a remarkable increase in U.S. engagement in peace initiatives during the post World War One, and this formed its key agenda in foreign relations. President Wilson came up with guidelines that were used in ending the First World War. The European powers had a meeting in Paris in 1919 in which they discussed the ways of solving the disputes which had previously led to war among them. “The Versailles Treaty was signed by the countries that attended the conference but U.S. government did not” (Hastedt 120).
This is because the US government felt that some of the members had contradicted some of steps which governed the treaty. U.S. also managed to carry out the disarmament program successfully in 1920s and it also helped Germany to reconstruct its economy which had been ruined by over engagement in war. U.S. tried to continue pursuing the policy of “isolation” during 1930s.
However, President Roosevelt joined the Allied powers during the Second World War and they managed to win it. Japan was forcefully removed from China by U.S. and they also stopped its possible invasion of the Soviet Union. “Japan was greatly humiliated and it reacted by an attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, and the United States was at war with Japan, Germany, and Italy” (Carter 190).
The economy of U.S greatly improved after the second war, while the other European countries grappled with economic challenges. It was now one of the greatest countries and its power and influence was felt in many countries.
USA Foreign Policy during (1989-present) The emergence of the cold war in the post war period led to the split of the world into two spheres. These two spheres were dominated by Soviet Union and U.S. Non Aligned Movement was developed as a result of this process. The Cold War period only came to an end towards the end of the 20th century. “A policy of containment was adopted to limit Soviet expansion and a series of proxy wars were fought with mixed results” (Kaufman 117).
We will write a custom Essay on United States Foreign Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Soviet Union completely collapsed after the U.S. war against Iraq (Gulf War). America joined this war in order to dislodge Iraq from Kuwait so that peace and stability could be restored in that country. After the war, U.S. shifted its policy from Iraq because it was trying to be a threat to its interests in the region of Middle East (Carter 195).
Conclusion America is still having an important role in world politics. Nonetheless, it is facing much opposition and competition from other countries like China. Its dominant role and influence has gone down and many countries from Africa are currently shifting their diplomatic relationships to the East. “U.S. foreign policy is characterized still by a commitment to free trade, protection of its national interests, and a concern for human rights”. A group of political scientists contend that the super powers seem to be having similar socio economic and political interests, and if they can find a good opportunity to pursue them together then we shall have a prosperous future.
Works Cited Carter, Ralph. Contemporary cases in U.S. foreign policy: from terrorism to trade. Washington D.C: Press College, 2010.
Hastedt, Glenn. American foreign policy. New York: Longman, 2010.
Kaufman, Joyce. A concise history of U.S. foreign policy. New York: Rowman and Littlefield , 2009.
American Government, Balancing Democracy and Rights Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Chapter One Landy and Milkis’s discussion demonstrates that the discovery of America was a process that hardly begun with Christopher Columbus but begun many years earlier when the first people crossed the Bering strait as early as 9000 BC today known as Alaska,2.
The crossing led to the creation of a new continent, a new civilization, new tools, and new interactions with European settlers. These settlers interacted with the natives and largely influenced the natives’ way of life. These interactions also led to constant conflicts with the natives and the settlers eventually losing to the settlers.
A typical example of the outcome of the conflicts could be linked to the discovery of 10,000 skulls by the Spanish in 1517. That was before Columbus’s visit. At the time, the new civilization groups from the south and Central America developed numerical systems, accurate calendars and tools for their self defense. Both the South and the North civilizations consisted of agrarian societies.
The growth of population, diseases, commerce, and dreams for new treasures, led to the voyages of Christopher Columbus into the new colonies leading to the establishment of new English settlements, French settlements, and the Spanish settlements. Religion played a critical role in colonial settlements in America.
Chapter Two The new settlements and the spirit of colonization, though for a time dampened by the Roanoke fiasco, were actively revived by propagandists like Richard Hakluyt. New settlers arrived after experiencing severe voyages into the Americas. The new English’s settler never integrated native Indians into their social lives.
Colonization of the societies was characterized by greed, diseases, political mistakes, kidnaps, wars and political unrests, and religious squabbles. In addition to that, the insatiable need for the commercial interest of the Europeans led to the establishment commercial ventures such as the Virginia Company among other commercial ventures. Commercial ventures and other interests led to the European contest for the colonization of North America largely influenced by the scramble for available resources.
That was also evidenced by various acts that gave England an advantage to collect taxes on goods exported from the Americas. The scramble led to the creation of several states among them being the south western Borderlands, etc., and dominant middle ground societies, culminating in the glorious revolution as a new administrative structure (Landy and Milkis), 34.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Chapter Three The administrative nature of the English led to the amalgamation of the colonies into the English culture leading to cultural influences in subsequent periods on the natives. With time, the colonial population grew exponentially outnumbering the native population. That was due to improved living conditions at the time.
In addition to that, it population growth and demand for labor led to the establishment of different servitude systems as a source of labor particularly in established plantations and the agrarian sector. Women were very important especially in the emerging agrarian economy as they were viewed as weak and basically meant to serve the needs of their husbands (Landy and Milkis),66.
The need for cheap labor especially in rapidly developing tobacco plantations reinforced the demand for more slaves Africa, driving the Portuguese who had practiced the trade to intensify it from West Africa. The trade contributed to the rapid growth of the new America that was experiencing new developments of witchcraft, religion, education, and political orders. The concept about law was the basis of the constitution that lead to the great imperial crises after the 1750s.
Chapter Four By the 1750s, the establishment of the British Empire experienced no objections from most Americans, who largely benefited from trade protection, trade benefits, and military protection. However, later differences were manifest leading to the 1775 war, the beginning of the American independence. That was largely due to political and religious tensions that were characterized by conflicts such as the Anglo French conflicts, and later wars between the French and the Indians.
These wars served the basis of a number of treaties, lack of commitments to run the colonies, and approaches to integrating colonies such as the great stamp act of 1765. A string of protests due to colonial resistance were catalyzed by incidents such as the Boston Massacre, leading to the basis of the philosophy of the revolution. The colonial masters were hated and people wanted new leadership, leading to revolutions that lead to the change in the course of history (Landy and Milkis), 102.
Chapter Five The turning point was intensified by a seven year war which commenced on April 1775 that was characterized by both political and military. The political affronts stemmed from the need to establish structures and the military affronts were identified with the British. That was the beginning of the war for independence with different perspectives on the administrative styles and structures.
That saw states mobilizing themselves for war traversing New England, Mid Atlantic region in 1776 to 1778, amassing resources for war, with a gradual influence and perspective of the war. The war has since been argued as a social or political.
We will write a custom Essay on American Government, Balancing Democracy and Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The consequences of the war led to the establishment of new institutions and state governments in a confederate. In addition to that, the revolution was the genesis of many unanswered problems such as the state of the native Indians, land distributions, and a new political order (Landy and Milkis), 128.
Chapter Six The confederation was a source of discontent for most Americans and the inability of the confederate to effectively and satisfactorily provide solutions for economic problems, instability, factions, and rebellion despite the adoption of a constitution leading to huge subsequent political wars.
However, advocates of a new government came up with several conventions that led to opponents and proponents of federalism, such as Hamilton.
That was when the federal program was enacted and the beginning of the rise of republicans and federalists. The establishment of national sovereignty was enforced and a number of treaties signed such as the jay treaty. Subsequent events led to the election of Thomas Jefferson to presidency leading to the dawn of a new era of political tranquility (Landy and Milkis), 163.
Chapter Seven Thomas Jefferson’s era was marked with a vision of educated and sturdy citizens, independent farmers, and a diversified economy. It was during Jefferson’s era when bureaucracies that dominated government operation were dismantled. The era saw the implementation of new learning institutions such as the University of Pennsylvania, the first medical school.
At that time, the spirit and ambitions that dominated current societies at the time were political and economic centralizations. However, these ambitions led to a war between America and Britain that settled leading to the period referred to as an era of goof feelings and nationalism in 1812 (Landy and Milkis), 183.
Chapter Eight At that time, diverse nationalistic views espoused by Americans included the quest for nationalism, with the adoption of the declaration of independence as distinguishing marks of the Jefferson era. America experienced a rapid growth of its economy in the 19th century, stimulated economic growth, a better transportation system, diversification of industries, rapid patterns of migration westwards, leading to the era of good feelings.
Agreements were signed in this period that saw different parts being incorporated together, establishment of courts, rising opposition, and new presidential elections that led to a new dawn in American history. Landy and Milkis), 216.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American Government, Balancing Democracy and Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Chapter Nine No distinctions of class were evident at the time when Andrew Jackson was inaugurated as president before a large assembly of people in 1829, an era commonly referred to as the age of Jackson. The era was characterized by a concerted war against class, legitimization of political parties, a distinct view of democracy, and views about the concentration of power in Washington. The period marked the removal of the Indians for settlers, and a strong federal bank. Landy and Milkis), 234.
Jackson was the driving force behind new approaches to the changing face of politics, later seen as a nationalist. However, new coalitions led to the capture of power and the election of the Whigs president.
Chapter Ten An exponential rise in the American population, rapid immigrations, and the rapid growth of the agricultural economy, urbanization, created the trend for economic growth. In addition to that, rapid industrialization with the advent and discoveries of new technologies, improved communications infrastructure, and efficient communication added to the economic growth of America. Canals were developed, elaborate rail transport system were developed giving rise to the new age of commerce and industry.
Factories were created and rapidly developed with new sophistications, improved living conditions, unequal distribution of wealth, changing cultural trends in the mid nineteenth century leading to a widening of the gap between the North and South Landy and Milkis), 260.
Reference List Landy, Marc and Milkis, Sidney, M. 2008. American Government: Balancing Democracy and Rights. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2 edition.