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Unethical and Ethical Issues in Prisons (Corrections) Research Paper

Introduction Every society usually has criminals or people who go against set rules and regulations. Prisons are mostly put in place so that such people can be confined therein for various reasons.

This includes ensuring that inmates get corrected and also to protect the public from their crime. Prisons have been there since time in history. They usually have measures such as high ramparts, dogs and maximum security to prevent inmates from escaping.

Prison systems have continued to transform in diverse ways. The operation of prison systems in various nations is usually known to differ in diverse ways. Numerous ethical and unethical issues can be traced in prison systems. This paper looks at these issues in depth. (Akers, 2000)

Unethical issues An analysis of prison systems shows that there are myriad unethical issues that are taking place therein. These issues can be noted among prison warders, prisoners and even the auxiliary staff working in the prisons. It is imperative to look at these issues so that relevant authorities can take corrective measures. (Carroll, 2003)

Homosexuality This is one of the unethical practices that are evident in the prison systems. Prisons are usually known to confine offenders in one place. They are never allowed to visit their spouses or families. This leads to a situation where the conjugal rights of prisoners are not met. Research shows that inmates resort to homosexuality within the prisons. This is not a healthy practice as some of them after leaving prison to continue with the vice despite having wives.

Through this, many marriages of ex-prisoners are easily broken. It is a very unethical practice since it does not result in a healthy society. Surprisingly, the issue of homosexuality in prisons has existed for quite a long time. Relevant authorities seem unconcerned about this issue, yet it plays a significant role in eroding moral standards within the society.

Furthermore, cases of homosexuality are usually noted to be occurring even between prisoners and prison warders. This puts a question mark on the role of prisons in instilling high moral values among offenders in society. (Carroll, 2003)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rape This is also another unethical practice within the prison system. Various researchers assert that rape cases in prisons continue to escalate year after year. People with the offense of rape are usually allowed to mingle with the other prisoners. Women are the worst hit in this case. Many women prisoners are often raped but never dare to report to the authorities due to fear.

Some men are usually raped by their fellow men. The situation is generally bad for children staying with their mothers in prison. Most of the children are usually born within the prisons as their mothers serve their sentence.

Rape is highly evident as many inmates seek medical attention when their private parts are damaged due to the force inflicted during the act. The challenge with rape cases in prisons is that the perpetrators are never mentioned. The affected parties fear since they are usually forewarned by rapists on dire repercussions in case they spill the beans. (Paula, 2004)

The raped prisoners stay with the pain and never talk to anyone. In the long run, they end up carrying out the same act on other prisoners as a revenge mission. Sometimes they as infected with HIV Aids and other sexually transmitted diseases through rape.

This is mostly carried out on younger prisoners who have not stayed within prison premises for a long time. The cycle then continues; this becomes the order of the day. This is quite unethical. (Paula, 2004)

Mistreatment of prisoners’ children Some women are usually put in prison when they have babies that cannot be left at home. Sometimes the women never have someone who can take care of these small children. They end up going to prison with their children. Some of them deliver their children while in prison.

Research shows that these children usually go through a lot of mistreatment as if they are the ones who committed the crime. The children are typically made to stay in confinement with their mothers. They are not given adequate bedding and sleep on a cold floor in the night. (Sissela, 1995)

We will write a custom Research Paper on Unethical and Ethical Issues in Prisons (Corrections) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The children are never provided with sufficient food or a balanced diet that is necessary for their growth. This is entirely unethical as these children are innocent and do not deserve such mistreatment. Sometimes the children are verbally abused by prison authorities. They are usually told that they are unruly as their mothers or parents. Some of these children go through sexual abuse while in prison premises. (Paula, 2004)

The prison environment is not the best for growing up children as they watch their mothers being mistreated, whipped and verbally abused. They grow up in fear; this affects their self-esteem in the long run. Older children are usually made to do tough chores as if they were criminals. Sometimes the children are typically confined indoors; this leads to emotional abuse. This is an unethical practice that needs to be corrected by relevant authorities. (Paula, 2004)

Drug trafficking and abuse It is usually expected that prisons play a significant role in changing offenders’ character; this may still be a mirage. Drug trafficking is mostly known to be thriving within prison systems. In this case, prison warders and authorities are usually noted to be actively involved in the business.

In some nations, prison warders assert that low payment stirs them to be involved in such practices. This does not justify the practice at all. Prisoners are usually known to be actively engaged in drug trafficking practices. They link up with other criminals who are generally not in prisons to carry out the practice.

Further analysis shows that some prisoners jailed for other offenses start drug trafficking while in prison. This puts question marks on the role of prisons in shaping the character of offenders. Furthermore, many prisoners still abuse drugs such as cocaine and marijuana. The drugs, they say, are readily available to them.

They claim that the drugs help them to forget their problems. This practice is mostly known among prison warders since most of them are suppliers. They only ensure that high-ranking authorities that do not condone corruption do not get to know about the practice. This practice within the prison system is quite unethical. (Akers, 2000)

Calls of nature Analysis of prisons across the globe shows that some of them have unethical practices. One such method relates to calls of nature for prisoners. It is clear that every human being has to attend to the call of nature. In some prison systems, prisoners are not provided for toilets and lavatories.

Buckets are usually put in every cell for inmates to use as toilets. This is bearing in mind that the cells usually are crowded. It is expected that any person who wishes to relieve himself will use the bucket in the presence of the other prisoners in the cell.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Unethical and Ethical Issues in Prisons (Corrections) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is no privacy when attending the call of nature. The human waste releases awful smell leading to sicknesses among prisoners. This is a very unethical act no matter the crime one has committed. It infringes against the right to privacy when attending the call of nature. Some of the rooms are littered with human waste making life within the cells unbearable.

Death penalty This is also a practice that is common in many prison systems across the globe. Some countries have eliminated the death penalty from their prison system. The death penalty is common for capital offenders such as criminals of robbery with violence and murder among other charges. There are nations where capital offenders are hanged.

The death sentence is not ethical. No one has the right to take another person’s life no matter the committed offense. People always need to be given a second chance in life rather than taking away their lives. Some of these people are fathers and mothers that have children looking up to them as parents even if they are criminals. Everyone has the right to life whether he is a criminal or not.

If people can be corrected by death, then, in the long run, there might be no more people in society. Research shows that some of the people who go through may be innocent hence killing people who are not criminals. Death penalty in the prison system is quite unethical and should be stopped.

Emotional and physical abuse Emotional and physical abuses are usually noted to be quite rampant in prisons. Physical abuse sometimes results in severe health repercussions throughout affected prisoners’ lives. Some prisoners suffer kidney problems due to physical damage while in prison. Other physical injuries make prisoners depend on drugs for the rest of their lives. Some injuries make it hard for affected prisoners to lead healthy lives where they can do physical work. This is not ethical at all. (Sissela, 1995)

There are some nations where men are usually hit in their private parts damaging the organs. This leads to a situation where they may never sire any children. This is an act that is highly condemned by governmental and non-governmental organizations. These organizations deal with human rights.

The extreme isolation of prisoners is emotional abuse. This leads to depression and suicide in affected parties. Abusive language is common in most prison systems. This leads to low-self esteem among prisoners. As prisoners leave prison grounds, some of them adopt an offensive language towards their friends and family. (Akers, 2000)

Escape from prisons

This has become very common in the prison system all over the world. This tends to happen even in situations where the prisons are usually given maximum security. The analysis shows that prison warders collude with prisoners in implementing the escapes. Prisoners usually pay prison warders money.

The prisoners are then allowed to escape. Prison warders usually pretend that they were not aware of the escape. Sometimes bribes are even given to higher authorities in prisons. This is entirely unethical since, in the long- run, crime may never be minimized or eliminated from society. (Garland, 2002)

Selling of ammunition The trade in ammunition is quite rampant in prisons. This is usually carried out by both the prisoners and prison authorities. Prisoners are mostly known to link up with other criminals who are not in jail in the selling of ammunition. To make matters worse, this trade is usually facilitated by prison authorities.

This beats the logic since prisons are mostly supposed to be a place where offenders go through correction. Corruption is mainly on the increase in prison systems as prison authorities supply and procures ammunitions. This is usually an unethical practice that enhances crime instead of alleviating. (Garland, 2002)

Ethical issues Training in practical skills

Despite the unethical matters mentioned above, there are also ethical practices evident in prison systems. One of the ethical problems notable in prison systems is the training of prisoners with practical skills. This includes skills such as tailoring, art, carpentry, and masonry among others. Prisoners who are usually equipped with such essential skills always use them later on in life. They find more meaning to life since such skills help them to start income-generating projects once they leave prison.

Research shows that, through such training, prisons have been producing quality products such as designer outfits and even quality furniture. The training project also tends to help prisoners market the products while still in prison and even after they leave prison. Most offenders assert that lack of income leads them to crime.

This venture is usually imperative as it solves this problem by helping prisoners gain skills that help them start income generating projects. This means that they do not resort to crime anymore. This means that moral standards of the society. (Sissela, 1995)

Allowing spouses to visit prisoners often

Changes have been taking place in the prison system across the globe. One factor that usually has adverse effects on prisoners is the denial of conjugal rights. This leads to homosexuality and rape cases.

Authorities in most prison systems usually arrange spouse visits for prisoners. Arrangements are usually put in place such that prisoners have rooms for conjugal rights whenever their spouses visit. This is mostly known to lead to improved moral standards for prisoners.

This reduces rape and homosexuality cases within prisons. As spouses and family members visit prisons, they give prisoners moral support. This makes offenders desire to join their families. Prison authorities also arrange for recreational activities for families to enjoy themselves as they interact with their loved ones in prison. This includes video watching and dances among other activities. (Garland, 2002)

Religious teachings

This is one of the ethical activities that are common in many prison systems across the globe. Prisoners are mostly taught the word of God that is quite imperative in shaping their character. Research has shown that, through these teachings, some of them change their lifestyle and have a very close relationship with their creator.

Governmental and nongovernmental organizations mostly support this venture. Some of them usually assert that they got their spiritual calling while in prison. They even start teaching their fellow inmates on religious doctrine.

These teachings help prisoners to know the expectation of their maker and the repercussions of disobeying God. This teaches them how they should live with other people well without hurting them in any way. They learn the advantages of high moral standards and blessings that accompany such a choice. This quickly leads to reformed people and society with high moral standards. (Albrecht, 1977)

Education

Education is also another ethical thing that can be noted in prison systems that play a significant role in improving the lives of prisoners. Some prisoners are jailed when they do not have any education. Some of them assert that the lack of schooling influences them to join crime.

Many prison systems across the globe have incorporated education to give prisoners a second chance to pursue their education. Prisoners are usually given an opportunity to study while serving their term. They are typically encouraged to pursue an education that is necessary for their success after their prison life. (Carroll, 2003)

Many enroll for elementary lessons, high school and college lessons in prison. This is usually free of charge hence motivates many prisoners to join. They pursue elementary, high school and even higher education in prison. This is mostly an extremely ethical practice in prison systems.

It helps in determining the future of ex-prisoners. The program usually tailored in such a way that, after gaining professional skills, they are generally helped to get employment. This often allows offenders to have a brighter future and leave the life of crime altogether. (Carroll, 2003)

Conclusion There are unethical and ethical practices that can be noted in prison systems. Some ethical practices include allowing spouses to visit inmates often and providence of education.

Prisoners are also given training in practical skills such as carpentry and given religious teachings that transform their lives. Unethical practices in prison include rape, homosexuality, emotional and physical abuse, the death penalty and escapes from prisons among other issues. These issues need to be corrected if these facilities are to improve the lives of prisoners.

References Albrecht, S. (1977): Re-moralization process, Application in relation to attitude Performance; Scientific Study Journal, 16, 263-274.

Akers, R. (2000): Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application. 3rd edition; Los Angeles: Roxbury Press.

Carroll, A. (2003): Business and society ethics and stakeholder management (5th Ed.); South-Western Publishing Co; Cincinnati Ohio.

Garland, D. (2002): Of Crimes and Criminals, in Maguire and Robert Rainer: The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd edition; U.K; Oxford University Press.

Paula C. (2004): Inner life: African- American women in- Prison’s voices, New York; University Press.

Sissela, B. (1995): Common Values; Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.

Business Law: Periodicals Review Essay (Article)

Nursing Assignment Help This case involves the United States Senate and individual vendors. The U.S. Senate could not adopt a motion that would revoke a requirement adopted by the health-care overhaul legislation, “which requires firms to report annual expenses to every vendor with over US$600.

Abolishing the provision, known as “the 1099 rule,” would reduce U.S. tax revenue by more than US$19 B over the ten years” (1). Two alterations, which would have repealed the condition, were objected.

According to a preliminary study issued on Nov. 19 by the congressional Joint Committee on Taxation, the provisos would have led to $19.3 B losses in taxes collected up to 2020. For Josten Bruce, “this law could force more than 40 million entities, including governments, nonprofits, and both small and large businesses, to comply with onerous data collection and IRS information filing burdens.”

Jordon, S. (2010). Most small businesses eligible for tax credit under health care law. Live Well – BCBS.

This involves businesses with fewer than 25 members of staff. This could see firms with less than 25 workers that pay wages averaging less than US$50,000 per person to qualify for tax credits “on their 2010 federal income taxes under the new federal health care law.”

The “Small Business Health Care Tax Credit” is a means of the law to establish and sustain employer-oriented health cover by cutting down costs so small firms could offer health insurance for employers.

“The tax credit can be up to 35% of health care costs for business employers and 25% for not-for-profit employers.” This is an incentive for small businesses to offer insurance services to their employees with an aim of benefit from the low insurance coverage costs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, for those who do not provide insurance they would be faced with hefty penalties. However, if firms do not claim the credit on their current year incomes, they can claim it on their subsequent year’s incomes.

Bravin, J. (2010). Supreme Court Weighs Arizona’s 2007 Immigration Law. The Wall Street Journal.

This case involves businesses that hire aliens and the Arizona law courts. The United States Chambers of Commerce, organized an alliance of businesses and civil-right movements supported by the Obama administration, argue that the Arizona action infringes the ‘1986 federal Immigration Reform and Control Act,” whereby federal laws exceed all “state or local laws creating civil or criminal measures.

Those against the legislation argue that Arizona is masquerading civil sanctions as a licensing legislation. “You read the definition of ‘license’ in the Administrative Procedure Act and this is awfully close,” said Justice Stephen Breyer.

According to Breyer, the 1986 legislation would stabilize competing goals, that is, halting the hiring of illegitimate aliens while preventing bigotry based on national grounds. In addition, if this came into enforcement, it would substantially differentiate federal and state laws.

Kenworthy, M. D. (2010). Health Care Lawsuits on a Collision Course to Supreme Court. Fox News.

This case involves the Obama administration and the Supreme Court. The Obama national health care legislation has come to a cliff as two federal court cases taxing the constitutionality of the legislation are racing to end of this month. “The state of Florida and more than twenty states and the National Federation of Independent Business have questioned the federal law. There are other counts against the “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act” making their way through the court system, however for now, the outcomes of the law are on hold” (2).

We will write a custom Article on Business Law: Periodicals Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the law goes through, it is expected that all businesses with a large workforce will have to provide health insurance coverage for its employees. This is good news to the employees as they would have access to affordable insurance coverage and medical attention.

Cheney, J. (2010). New Law Offers Tax Savings to Real-estate Industry. Business West.

This case affects the real estate players and the potential investors. The Obama administration has signed into legislation the “Small Business Jobs Act of 2010”. The bill is made up of two major “provisions for the real-estate industry: enhanced Section 17 depreciation and the return of ‘bonus’ depreciation.” Both provisos are efforts to offer incentives to small-business owners, though owners of several big firms will benefit also.

This is expected to have an impact on land laws. If there are new land developments or qualified property buys more than US$2 M, non-deductable income can be off-set by taking the bonus 50 percent depreciation. Firms can also choose to disallow real assets from qualified Section 179 property if the regular US$2 M limit is close to been met.

Rasmussen report. (2010). Healthcare law. Rasmussen reports.

This concerns the American citizens and the legislators. Over the last decade, the American citizens have been trying to have a health care policy that would ensure that all Americans are fully covered by an overall health insurance policy.

This came as a result of insurance agencies opting to cover a specific issue in health while leaving out some issue. Hence, people who had a prior health condition were often left out of the insurance policy. In addition, should one develop an illness post the insurance contract could find themselves with no insurance claim if the illness was terminal for instance, cancer.

Therefore, the government under the leadership of Obama, begun an aggressive plan that would ensure that majority of the Americans had access to a comprehensive insurance policy. This was achieved by the congress adopting the legislative into law.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Law: Periodicals Review by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This law has impacted the business community and the general public in different ways. The insurance industry will have to change their insurance policy in order to cope with recent changes and demands from various stakeholders while the community will undergo a positive change since they are now covered comprehensively by the new law.

Daly, M. (2010). Obama to sign law for Indian tribes black farmers. Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 2.

This article focuses on the American natives, the Indian tribes, and the US government. The article highlights the desire by the government to compensate the Indian tribes for the loss they suffered during capitalism whereby, they lost their land to corporates and other individuals as capitalism was sweeping through America.

The president, Obama is in the course of signing into law a new legislation that will pay the American red Indians and black farmers over $ 5 billion. In November 2010, the congress passed a policy that would seek to settle suits that were filed more long time ago.

This comes as a result of the president seeking to settle past injustices on minorities and ensure a healthy business environment between different races. In addition the compensation will enable the people regain their lost livelihoods and improve the American economy while elevating poverty and creating new sources of livelihoods.

My franchises law. (2010). Franchises and the law. The wall street journal. 4.

This article focuses on franchises law. It was targeting entrepreneurs who were interested in franchising existing markets and the owners/custodians of the franchise. The franchise law analyzed the factors that both sides should take into consideration before finally getting into a contract.

These factors involve the legal aspects, for instance what the franchise contract covers and the various issues of litigation between the franchiser and the franchisee and how to avoid pit falls during the whole process. It also provides a number of sources that one can consult during the whole process and the attorneys to consult who have specialized in business law.

The purpose of franchising law is to protect upcoming entrepreneurs from exploitation by the franchisers and follow a stipulated legal process that will ensure a fair play. This franchise law will assist the business community especially those involved in franchising as there are stipulated framework on whole the whole process should be undertaken thus, avoiding legal litigations that might crop up later.

O’ Connor, P., et al. (2010). Tax plans spurs deal making. The wall street journal, 8.

The article focuses on the government’s proposal under President Obama to cut down taxes on small businesses across the United States.

The governments hopes to increase the rate of consumer spending as by introducing tax cuts, the cost of doing business will be less which will have a ripple effect to the customers as the cost of products will be much less than before. In addition, the law will spur up spending by employees of the small business as they will now have more disposable income with them. This deal is to enable small businesses disbursement of more than 90 % of their investments in 2011.

By doing so, small business owners would be in a position to purchase new equipment and hire new workers thus boosting the American economy. This law is expected to come in place late December and carry on into 2011. This proposal when passed would spur up the economy by allowing more growth of small business which in turn will result to hire rates of employment, more efficient production and a hire spending by the consumers.

Freilich, A. (2010). Reforms to Australian Consumer and credit Law. American Bar association, 15.

This article focuses on the Australian consumers and the business fraternity. The law most importantly covers consumer law among others. The law has covered two vital areas of the consumer law that include the introduction of the Australian Consumer Law and the National Consumer Credit protection package.

Apart from protecting the consumers, the law also seeks to introduce a uniform law in the whole State in order to avoid contradicting laws from one state to another. Therefore the new law sought to change the existing laws that had made a provision for different consumer protection laws under three forms of government in Australia in 2009.

Therefore the responsibility for the upholding of the consumer laws fell on all three forms of government as they were all shared equally unlike the previous period. By so doing, the consumers will be easily protected by the laws in place especially now that there will be a framework in existence that will offer a uniform protection across the common wealth.

References Bravin, J. (2010). Supreme Court Weighs Arizona’s 2007 Immigration Law. The Wall Street Journal. Web.

Cheney, J. (2010). New Law Offers Tax Savings to Real-estate Industry. Business West.

Daly, M. (2010). Obama to sign law for Indian tribes black farmers. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, 10.

Freilich, A. (2010). Reforms to Australian Consumer and credit Law. American Bar association, 7.

Jordon, S. (2010). Most small businesses eligible for tax credit under health care law. Live Well – BCBS. Web.

Kenworthy, M. D. (2010). Health Care Lawsuits on a Collision Course to Supreme Court. Fox News. Web.

My franchises law.(2010) Franchises and the law. The wall street journal.

O’ Connor, P., et al. (2010). Tax plans spurs deal making. The wall street journal, 8.

Rasmussen report. (2010). Healthcare law. Rasmussen reports, 15.

Young, J. (2010). Repeal of Health Law’s ‘Onerous’ Business-Expenses Rule Fails. Bloomberg. Web.

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