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Types of Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment and evaluation has become critical issues especially in the field of teaching and learning; it requires watchful consideration by every teaching practitioner in any educational institution. This is also the area where many teachers sink into the pool of confusion. But it has its key function, which is to collect information on the achievement of every individual student and judge their everyday progress. In other words, it serve vital role in the process of effective teaching and learning.
Therefore, this essay will explain my understanding of assessment and evaluation from the perspectives of development, formal, informal, special needs, and standards in brief. However, to do this, we first need to define assessment and evaluation.
The word assessment is derived from the Latin word ‘assidere’ meaning ‘to sit beside’. It is obvious that simple tone of this phrase is soothing, and it suggests mutual confidence and understanding. So, it indirectly tells that existence of positive association between assessment and the process of teaching and learning in schools is necessary.
By and large, assessment is a process of collecting information relative to some identified aims and objectives involved with students’ progress and achievement in the process of teaching and learning. More specifically, classroom assessment refers to the process of gathering, recording, interpreting, using and communicating information about their progress and achievement during the development of knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes.
According to Lloyd-Jones and Bray (1986) assessment is referred to the process in which certain quality of a student’s education is measured, by the teacher, an examiner or the student. It is means to measure worthiness of students’ performance. Assessment, therefore, involves much more than testing. It is an ongoing process that encompasses many formal and informal activities intended to examine and improve teaching and learning in all areas of the curriculum.
On the other hand, evaluation is more or less defined as the process of judging relative merit, value, or worthiness of educational programs, or techniques by using realistic information generated through assessment. It helps in updating the nature and degree of learning; plays pivotal role in curricular decision making; and it favour better links between learning, and the aims and objectives of teaching. Moreover, it creates strong bond between learning and the environments in which learning takes place. Therefore, in educational setting, assessment and evaluation seeks evidence that the learning activities designed for students are effective.
Assessment and Evaluation from the perspective of development Why do we assess and evaluate? This is the first question that knocks in my mind whenever I look assessment and evaluation from an angle of development. Generally, teachers plays vital role in developmental assessment and evaluation of students’ learning and programs for many reasons:
Firstly, assessment and evaluation help teachers and student affair administrators to enhance their understanding of the needs of a persistently varying student population. In addition, it will help in identifying developmental delays in students and to develop strategies for intervention. For that, I would prefer to use the concept of integrated model of child development. It is because the model covers up all developmental areas such as sensory, behavioural, language, motor, perceptual, social cognitive and emotional skills. So it can also be used to improve holistic development of students as a student, self, and valuable citizen of the nation as it reflects their personality as well as their degree of achievement in the field of learning.
Secondly, assessment is also meant to develop efficient educational institutional plans and policies to meet students’ developmental needs and learning styles. They are crucial for advancing the quality and easy accessibility of programs and services.
Thirdly, we cannot avoid its greatest contribution in curriculum development. Through assessment and evaluation, we will be able to help curriculum developers for deciding how we might improve courses and programmes. At the same time, as a teacher we can contribute in doing revision on curriculum, course materials, teaching methodologies, etc. It is because assessment results can specially provide a potent rational for securing scaffold for curriculum changes, development and review.
Formal and Informal Assessment and Evaluation A formal assessment is also sometimes known as summative assessment. And it is generally assessed in the form of quiz, test, or paper and is graded based on how well student is able to perform. A summative assessment is normally carried out at the end of unit or module.
Furthermore, formal assessments are categorized into criterion-referenced tests and norm-referenced tests. Criterion-referencing is assessment based on certain criterion or principle, and norm-referencing is graded assessment based on the comparisons of learners’ achievement against one another from time to time.
I prefer more of criterion referencing method than norm-referencing because it can be used to judge students’ achievement and progress on a series of key criteria set based on reasonably expected learning outcomes and objectives. Whereas, norm-referencing is based on the hypothesis, that a more or less similar range of human performance can be anticipated for any student group.
On the other hand, Informal assessment is referred as formative test, and it is a continuous process of assessment and evaluation. Feedback plays vital role here as it allows both learners and teachers to evaluate learning and spot out the areas for improvement.
But which one could be the best form of assessment, formal or informal? In my opinion, the use of informal assessments is best for the overall learning. It facilitate teachers to assess students through a range of classroom-based activities, identify students weakness then and there and start work for the improvement, rather than waiting at the last minute like informal assessment.
Assessment and Evaluation for special needs students Students’ having problems such as: motor, linguistic, cognitive, behavioural, organizational, speech and physical disabilities are usually referred as special needs students, and it also includes gifted students. They should not be left out without normal education. Special arrangements or special needs accommodations should be offered to them in order to pursue their academic goals and achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency.
Similarly they also need to be evaluated and identified their strengths, weaknesses and give guiding principles to make effective progress in attaining their academic goals. Other than teachers and peers, students’ family should involve in it. So, I feel that, by building an alliance with their parents; obtaining students’ developmental history and current family experience; and discussing issues with them would help greatly for addressing challenges in guiding special needs students to succeed like other normal students. Moreover, evaluation will be holistic and addresses all aspects of functioning. For that we should not forget to take students’ individual learning styles into account as all students do not have same learning capability and ways.
Sometimes students with special needs are integrated in regular classrooms because the main idea of assessment and evaluation in this field itself is to see whether a student is able to adapt, make progress and met objectives in normal class like normal students. Assessment indicates whether the student learned the materials intended and what are some of the drawbacks areas to be improved.
So schools and teacher must give all students an equal opportunity to education. Infect, they should provide counteractive assistance to special needs students. Never the less, we as a teacher, in order to select education program and activities suitable for our students, we must carefully evaluate our options and consider the specific needs of our disabled students.
Standards based Assessment and Evaluation Here, it includes two types of educational standards, a content standard and a performance standard. A content standard defines the knowledge, concepts, and skills acquire at each grade level, while performance standard state the level of performance that is considered acceptable aligning to the benchmark set by the teachers.
Standards-based assessment and evaluation is meant to identify students with different pace and capabilities in learning, so that we can design strategies to help them and make all of them achieve and master to the level that they are required to retain certain benchmark in learning.
Understanding ‘Standardized Test’ and its characteristics is necessary when we discuss about assessment and evaluation from the perspective of standard as it is one of the instrument required in standard assessment and evaluation process. Range of knowledge and understanding in specific subject is being assessed through standardized testing on students. And it is a snapshot in time where assessments are administered and scored in the same way for all students.
For example, multiple-choice questions and written responses to be answered within a given time frame are examples of standard test. That means students are not allowed to use outer resources or references in order to complete the test. Their performance on these tests decides whether they will be promoted or not from one grade to the next. And this is what almost every school district now administers it.
However, it is important for us not to get confused of Standardized tests with the standards movement, which approve definite grade-level content and performance standards in main subject sphere. Frequently, regulated uniform tests are not associated with state and district content standards, and these causes noticeably lose of connection between what is being taught and what is being tested. So as a teacher we have to process our teaching according to the curriculum.
The standard evaluation will enable other school improvement plan and projects, and to bring advance changes in curriculum and pedagogy, and incorporation of new assessments. So standardized assessment and evaluation is uniformly regulated test which it refers to when every student at a particular grade level has to undergo the same test with same question, at same time frame in same year throughout the country.
In the nutshell, we would find that the descriptions given in above paragraphs are all views from different perspectives constructed by hypothesizing the both special needs students and normal student as an active in structuring their own learning in the context of social interaction; role of educational institutions and teachers in establishing the child’s stage of development in any aspect of learning, and that information collected through various assessment and evaluation methods will then be used to ‘scaffold’ the next learning and curriculum development.

Self Education and Self Development

INTRODUCTION This assignment will examine the definition of self analysis, self development, continuous self development, their importance and how it influences one’s future career as a manager. Self analysis and continuous self development has been described in different contexts and topics by various authors and the best way to understand its complexity is by been aware of oneself.
Pedler, Burgoyne and Boydell (2007), describes self development as a personal development, with the person taking primary responsibility for their own learning and choosing the means to achieve this. In identifying developmental needs it is important for one to explore this six sources which are work itself, self reflection, feedback from others, individual psychometric and self diagnostic measures, organizational metric and lastly professional metrics (Megginson and Whitaker, 2003).
Mumford (1993) believes that self development is ‘an attempt to improve managerial effectiveness through a learning process’.
Burgoyne (1999) suggests that developmental aspect of ones career is about how you change, learn and develop the knowledge, abilities and value that you acquire through both formal and informal learning.
Argyris (1985) maintains that the door to self development is locked from inside and no one can develop anyone but themselves. At the same time,, the importance of self development to managers will be identified. Firstly, self development helps manager to continue to grow up to the best that is within them (Warren, 2001). Secondly, self development helps managers to develop their skills, knowledge and insight by sharing experience with others (Mumford, 1993).
By contrast, awareness is defined as a process that helps us to move from unconscious to conscious incompetence (Routledge and Carmicheal, 2007) which seems to play an important role in learning.
Self analysis can be seen as a process that leads to self awareness. In managing an organisation, it is important for you to be able to manage yourself before you can manage others (Pedler and Boydell, 1999). It is believed that an individual that is self aware has a better understanding of his or herself.
Goleman (1998) proposes that self analysis is a candid sense of our personal strength and limits, a clear vision of where we need to improve, and the ability to learn from experience.
Furthermore, Telford (2006) claims that from the moment we are born and first reach out to other human beings; we begin the lifelong process of trying to make sense of ourselves, others and our relationships.
Self awareness is a hallmark of effective managers (Caproni, 2005). He went further by saying successful managers know what they want, understand why they want it and have a plan of action for getting it. Additionally, Goleman (1998) states that self awareness is knowing one’s internal state, preferences, resources and intuitions.
However, the importance of self awareness to manager will be identified. Self awareness helps managers to regulate and control their emotions and have a better understanding of the emotions of others (Goleman, 1998). Peter (1987) suggests that self awareness helps manager to have an orientation toward change.
It is important for managers to continuously develop their selves in order to have a competitive advantage over their competitors in the business world. A manager’s character is a reflection of his or herself which has a direct impact on the performance of an organisation. To achieve good organisational performance, a manager needs to be aware and learn about his or herself which is through self development (Burgoyne, 1999).
The notion of continuous development is based on the Japanese concept of kaizen which means change for good or for better (Armstrong and Stephens, 2005).Continuous development is an approach to management and it is define as learning from real experiences at work (Wood, 1998).
However, it is crucial to look at what management is in different contexts by different authors.
According to Armstrong and Stephens (2005) ” management is concerned about deciding on what to do and then getting it done through people and use of effective resources”
Adair and Allen (2003) believes that management is about running the business in ‘steady state’ condition, the day to day administration, organising structure, establishing systems, controlling especially by financial methods.
In the same, Cole (2004) proposes that management is the ability of an organisation to effectively plan and bring the plan into limelight through the help of employees.
Mintzberg (1989) in his own work went into details of the qualities a good manager must possess and this includes interpersonal communication, being well informed and being able to make decisions for an organisation. It is seems that people do not understand the difference between manager and a leader. Management involves coping with complexity, while leadership is about coping with changes (Kotter, 1990). Covey (1999) claims that management focus on doing things right while leadership focus on doing the right things
CONCLUSION To be an effective manager in future, it is important to be knowledgeable and understand that business environment is constantly changing, you learn to change rather than become a victim of change (Pedlar, Burgoyne and Boydell, 1986).
Clifford and Thorpe (2007) agrees that ”learning needs to be continuous because of the pace of change and an organisation that do not learn faster than the rate of change in the environment will eventually die”.
After reviewing books, articles and journals by different authors on self development, self awareness, it can be argued that self development, self awareness and continuous self development are essential to one’s future career.
Summary of critical incident (use detailed critical incidents from your module activities, residential weekend, past experiences etc)
What happened, or what did I do?
During the residential weekend, the critical incident was building of tower of Toki. My job was sorting of symbols on the cards and explaining the process to my team members. I also contributed in calculating the number of moves for the building of the tower of Toki by representing the moves with different denomination of coins and preparation of the proposal by extracting the cost per each blocks. Although we did not win the competition but I learned what is called ‘team sprit’ from the way the team members believed and encouraged one another.
How does this reflect the findings of your chosen self analysis toolkit? Behavioural traits of individual can fit into team roles (Belbin, 2004). Based on Belbin result my preferred roles in a team are that I am a completer finisher, resource investigator, team worker and implementer.
Being a completer finisher means painstaking, conscientious, anxious, searches out errors and omissions and also to deliver on time. This attributes reflected in my person during the building of tower of Toki at the residential, where my team members ran out of ideas and decide to setback and abandon the task. I took up the challenge of making sure that the task was completed by spending more time in calculating the number of moves for building of the tower of Toki and also submitting our proposal at the right time.
This brings me to the role of a resource investigator. A resource investigator is an extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative, explores opportunities and develops contacts. This also reflected in my attitude at the residential during the sorting of cards for the tower of Toki, some of my team members had communication problems as we are all from a different cultural background I had to explain the card process as many times as possible to my team members before they could understand. I was able to communicate effectively and I also develop contacts with all my team members and my various facilitators.
Being a team worker means co-operative, mild, perceptive, and diplomatic, listens, build, averts friction and these attributes also reflected in my person during the residential weekend when one of my team members was giving her ideas, I gave her my audience and I showed interest in the message she is trying to pass to the team even when everybody seems not to understand what she was saying because of the communication barrier I was tact and skilful dealing with all my team members.
The feedback that I got at the residential during different task from my various team members and my facilitators supported my stated preferred Belbin roles, based on this feedback it appears that Belbin report is quite reliable.
What are the implications for future career or personal development According to my Belbin result, I realized that I am more of people and action oriented person which was supported by feedback from my team members and facilitators at the residential weekend. As a future manager being action and people oriented person appears to be good qualities because managers are concerned with dealing with people and making decisions (Armstrong, 2008).The implication of these attributes is that I will be able to build relationships, develop networks, manage people and create contact with my workers.
Pedler, Burgoyne and Boydell (1986) suggested a number of qualities or attributes of a successful manager which are social skills and abilities, creativity, self knowledge, proactively and so on. However, I need to work on my creativity to be a successful manager to be able to make effective and efficient decisions which I also got feedback on during the residential weekend.
Self Analysis Toolkit _____JOHARI WINDOW________
Summary of critical incident (use detailed critical incidents from your module activities, residential weekend, past experiences etc)
What happened, or what did I do?
During my high school days, I never use to talk or share my ideas because I was shy, not confident about myself, like keeping to myself and I am an introvert. I was always avoiding any form of publicity.
How does this reflect the findings of your chosen self analysis toolkit? One of the toolkits used in discovering myself is the Johari window and it is made up of four different windows which include: open, blind, hidden and unknown. I got a constructive feedback from my classmate and friends from my country using the adjective list.
Based on the feedbacks from my classmate, friends from my country and personal reflection, I have been able to discover some attributes which I possessed. These attributes are friendly, helpful, kind, organized, introverted and trustworthy which is also confirmed by my adjective list result except from been calm which falls in the hidden window which is not known to people.
However, the feedback through adjective list was able to list some other attributes which are not known to me and these attributes are able, adaptable, brave, caring, confident, dependable, intelligent, knowledgeable, loving, matured, modest, quit, religious, sensible and shy. From my blind window I never thought about myself as been dependable, brave, adaptable and confident but Johari window has helped me discover new things. It seems that studying here in united kingdom helped me to realize that I am capable of doing some things which I never thought I could do such as presentations, addressing group of people and asking questions in the classroom.
From this result, I want to refer back to the attribute of dependable, it seems that Belbin result also supported this attribute because as an implementer and a completer finisher that I am, people can rely on me that a job will be done and deliver on time.
Belbin identify me as a resource investigator and one of the attribute of a resource investigator is been an extrovert, although I sometimes switch my mood and it might be very difficult to know which of the attribute I actually posses but it would appear that Johari window is right based on my personal reflection and feedback from people. All other attributes of been a resource investigator such as communicative, developing contacts appears that it is right because Johari window also supported it by saying that am friendly.
(see Appendix 2)
What are the implications for future career or personal development Atwater and Yammarino (1992) describes self awareness as the ability of a person to reflect on the feedback from others and imbibe it into one’s evaluation. Based on my result, being shy and an introvert is what I need to work on, this I intend achieving by assessing myself and get to realize those things that I am capable of doing just as I have discover from doing presentations that I am confident. As a future manager, I need to be more open and transparent with my employees to be able to get new ideas, opinions and feedback. It seems that where there is transparency and with my qualities of been friendly, helpful it is likely to achieve high organizational performance from employees.
Self Analysis Toolkit:
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Summary of critical incident (use detailed critical incidents from your module activities, residential weekend, past experiences etc)
What happened, or what did I do?
In my country, after undergraduate courses there is one year compulsory placement imposed by government for one to have knowledge about business environment and of course working experience. Where I did my one year placement back in my country, we have this supervisor who was so temperamental and nasty.
How does this reflect the findings of your chosen self analysis toolkit? Goleman (1995) define emotional intelligence as ‘the capability for recognizing our feelings and that of others, for motivating ourselves, managing emotions well in ourselves as well as others’. Referring back to the aforementioned critical incidence, Everybody sees my supervisor as a very difficult person to deal with because of her attitude, at the initial stage her attitude towards me affect me and I was always thinking I can’t cope with her and I was looking for a way to resign. Later on, I got to understand her kind of person knowing fully well that I can not change her. I had to ignore her totally making sure that her attitude towards me didn’t affect my performance at work and was determined to gain experience and learn new things from other members of the organization since she has proving difficult. Bennis (1989) believes that if a leader is self aware, they demonstrate determination, farsightedness and strong convictions in their belief. The result of my emotional intelligence discovery test reveal that I have high scores in self awareness, self regulation, motivation, empathy and social skill based on my self perception which means I am aware of my emotions and their effect, I know my strengths and limits and so on. (See Appendix 3). The result of the emotional intelligence discovery test supported the critical incidence by revealing my high scores in self regulation which means that am capable of controlling and regulating my emotions, keeping disruptive emotions, impulses in check and ability to stay calm, clear and focused when things do not go as planned.
Based on the result of my emotional intelligence and the role I played in the critical incidence it appears that the emotional intelligence test is good and reliable.
What are the implications for future career or personal development People are regarded as the most important resources available to managers, it is through this resource that all other resources will be managed (Armstrong, 2008). The implication of the discovery test for my future career is that I will be able to recognize people’s feelings and manage relationships with them and this might lead to the success in the organization.
However, I had a low score in self esteem which means that I don’t have a strong sense of my own self worth and capabilities. To be a successful manager, I need to have a strong sense of my own self worth and capabilities by having confidence and believing in my own ideas.
TASK THREE STRENGTHS Based on the three toolkits, I have been able to analyze both my strengths and weaknesses. With respect to my strength, my analysis reveals that my main strength is that I am more of people and action oriented person and my strengths are helpful, organized and trustworthy Moss (1992) agrees that these are some of the qualities a manager must posses. I am also adaptable, brave, caring, dependable, modest, intelligent, matured and confident which I never thought of myself as been confident but with the help of presentations and seminars I have been able to build my confidence to a certain level. Practicing continuous reflective review to aid my learning and development process (Megginson and Whitaker, 2007).
In my future career, I need to possess self knowledge this has been the basis of this paper and relevant professional knowledge (Boydell, Burgoyne and Pedler, 2001). All this identified strengths needs to be worked on and developed properly.
WEAKNESSES My weaknesses based on my personal reflection and constructive feedback from friends and class mate it reveals that I am shy, introverted, quite, and I sometimes don’t express my own opinion about something which means I might not be transparent or open.
I am not too creative and sometimes lack confidence in my own ideas and opinion which I am trying to overcome with time. Goldsmith (2006) claims that confidence is very important for organizational and one’s usage. He identified several ways of building self confidence.
In order to improve on my weaknesses I have decided to believe in myself not to compare my strength or weaknesses with others, take responsibilities for my decisions and engage in activities with my classmate. I will also try to motivate myself and also be optimistic (positive about something).
Self development and self analysis is a good way of understanding oneself and the knowledge of it will be useful to individual who is involved in the process (Boydell, 1981).
IMPLICATION FOR MY FUTURE CAREER DEVELOPMENT After analyzing my strength and weaknesses there is need to overcome my weakness to become strength and the attributes I need to work on are introverted, shy, quietness, transparency, not confident in my own ideas, views and opinion although feedback from people appears that I am confident but personally I sometimes don’t believe in myself. As a future manager, identifying my strength and weaknesses seems to give me an insight of what I need to improve on and the attributes I also need to develop to be an ideal manager.
As mentioned earlier on I am more of action and people oriented person which will help me in managing employees in an organization but the need to also be a cerebral oriented person is also important as a manager because a manager needs to be creative. I also want to be a better communicator because good communication across all level improves performance and aid organisational development (Darling, 2007).