Budget “A budget is a plan, expressed in financial and/or more generally quantitative terms, which extends forward for a period into the future” (Gowthorpe, 2003) . A traditional budget is usually prepared by reviewing past year’s budget and actual expenses, with addition or deduction towards extra business activities or reduced business activities planned and also by effecting changes towards changing factors, such as growth, inflation etc… It is basically to tie managers to predetermined actions in order to achieve the planned budget. It is usually based on organizational hierarchy and centralized leadership .
Benefits of traditional budgeting and budgetary controls are :-
Income of budget period can be matched against budget period expenses to know whether operations will result in profit and how much profit.
Actual performance can be compared with budget to know variances so that corrective actions can be taken.
Budget based reports facilitates assessment of costs of goods and services provided and accomplishments of the business entity.
Problems associated with traditional budgeting and budgetary controls are :-
It is futile to predict what will happen in the next 12 months Serven (cited in Banham, 2000) argued, “The customary system of trying to accurately predict what will happen in 12 months and budgeting accordingly is an exercise in futility”.
Most budgetary processes are costly and inefficient. It takes a long time to complete and by the time it is completed, it becomes no longer applicable as business environment has changed.
According to Stewart (2004), there are ten reasons why budget cause problem, as shown below.
Though traditional budgeting have many weaknesses, but most companies still rely on it because of it’s unchallenged position in the top division of accepted management practices (Hope
Difference Between Cost Control and Cost Reduction
Introduction A cost reduction program is a type of method which is to improve profitability of the organization or by expected to get a good result that flow to the bottom line of the financial statement and exempted from any serious damage to the organization itself. As this program is much more about reducing cost or reducing expenses of the organization, so a good cost reduction program is all about how to control the damage of an organization. Furthermore, a cost reduction program is said can be improved the profitability of an organization because by reducing expenses, profits are increased without making others changes.
On the other hand, if the cost reduction program can matched with a sales improvement program and perhaps, finally it will get the double profit. A cost reduction program must be a complete plan that is results-oriented. A structured cost reduction program will put the company on track to achieve maximum profitability and achieve the highest performance. Moreover, this program also implies a series of program that retain all of the essential characteristics and quality of the product and thus it must be confined to permanent and genuine savings in the costs of manufacture, administration, distribution and selling, brought about by elimination of wasteful and inessential elements form the design of the product and from the techniques and practices carried out in connection therewith.
What is the different between cost control and cost reduction? In fact, cost control also known as cost management or cost containment; it controls the costs of the organization at the given level. Besides, cost control emphasis on ensuring that the cost does not exceed the standard budget of the organization. Businesses use cost control methods to monitor, evaluate, and ultimately enhance the efficiency of specific areas, such as departments, divisions, or product lines, within their operations.
However, cost reduction is a power exercise or is an exercise which will out all of the effort to saving cost from whatever level they are. Cost reduction does not have any standard, or anything is accepted as ideal. Every element of cost is scrutinized, every operation is screened and every procedure is analyzed to identify the ways and means of reducing costs. Cost reduction can result in saving the product cost, manufacturing cost s, and life cycle cost.
There are two different concepts between cost control and cost reduction. Cost control is achieving the cost target as its objective while cost reduction is directed to explore the possibilities of improving the targets or company profitability. Therefore, cost control will end the exercise when achieved the organization target or objective. While cost reduction is a continuous process and it has no visible end. Furthermore, cost control try to attain the lowest possible cost under existing conditions whereas cost reduction does not recognize any condition as permanent since a change will result in lowering the cost. If the cost control emphasis is on past and present, while the cost reduction emphasis is on the present and future. Besides, cost control is a preventive function whereas cost reduction is a correlative function. It run even when an efficient cost control system exists.
The difference between both of it can be summarized as cost control ensuring the costs is in accordance with established standards whereas cost reduction is concerned with try to improve the cost by continuous and without accordance with any of the standard.
The main benefits of cost reduction programs are it can enhance profitability and enhance cash flow of the organization. It presents the key elements and factors to consider in program design and implementation. Cost reduction program is also can ensure the results will match with the goals or objective and the values of the organization. It is a widely-acknowledged fact that cost reduction program is one of the most challenging responsibilities or tasks that a company needs to undertake, especially when there are so many ways open to cost-conscious managers. Finally, an integrated tax reduction program can reduce the onerous financial burdens that can stable a company’s development and can free up precious capital that can be result to the firm’s long-term benefit.
Literature Reviews/Case Study/Research Findings There are five cases and cost reduction methods in these literature reviews. The methods including Target Costing (TC), Activity-Based Costing (ABC), Just in Time (JIT), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and Value Engineering (VE).
Case study 1 (Target Costing) Definition: Target costing also called product costing method in which an attempt at the planning and development phase of a product life cycle to attain a specified cost that is decided by management. This approach is to seek the lower costs by designing a quality product that reduces costs in the production phase. It can be described as a systematic process of cost management and profit planning.
Case study: In 1993, Toyota uses target costing approach to generally reduce costs at the design stage. By using this approach, Toyota sets goals for cost reduction and then tries to achieve these new targets through design changes that will accomplish the cost reduction goal. Toyota was comparing the costs of the new design with the old design in order to guarantee a cost reduction after implementation of the new technique. This is the main idea that Toyota uses to achieve their companywide goals. There are several steps in the sequence of price, production, and cost decisions.
First, Toyota decides what the new retail price of the automobile by taking the old price and adding the value of any new functions. The sales division comes up with the suggestion for the production volume by taking past numbers and indexing them to market trends and the state of competitors.
Second, Toyota is focus on cost planning. This cost planning is based on the product plan and targets for retail price and also production volume. The purpose of using cost planning by Toyota is for determine the amount by which costs can be reduced through better design of the new model. Toyota establishes a profit target that is subtracted to determine their target cost. These cost planning decisions are made for three years before they release the model.
Toyota estimates the approximate costs of a new model by sums of the cost variations of the new model and the old model. This technique is very beneficial to Toyota, because it tends to be less work and provides more accurate results. In addition, it also helps the specific divisions understand the cost fluctuations. Besides that, Toyota removes variable costs both models incur such as wages and indirect costs by using this approach. Meanwhile, they use their decisions on costs that change between the two models in design and production volume.
The main point in this case study is to show how cost planning at Toyota is focused on the design phase. Toyota does this by setting goals for cost reductions through design changes. Toyota takes these goals and then assesses them to different divisions to make the necessary changes. Toyota believes that by changing product design to produce lower price to achieve a higher level of profitability.
Case Study 2 (Activity-based Costing) Definition: Activity-Based Costing is a costing model that identifies the cost pools, or activity centers, in an organization and assigns costs to products and services (cost drivers) based on the number of events or transactions involved in the process of providing a product or service. The concept of Activity-Based Costing has been considered a sophisticated method of cost calculation since the early 1980s.
In addition, Activity-Based Costing (ABC) assigns manufacturing overhead costs to products in a more logical manner than the traditional approach of simply allocating costs on the basis of machine hours. Activity-Based Costing first assigns costs to the activities that are the real cause of the overhead. It then assigns the cost of those activities only to the products that are actually demanding the activities.
Case study: Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG) is the world’s largest manufacturer of commercial airplanes. It comprises approximately 60% of Boeing’s total revenues. BCAG Wichita is a cost center manufacturing plant producing fuselages, noses, struts, nacelles, and thrust reversers for 737, 747, 757, 767, and 777 airplane models. In May 1999, the plant employed approximately 16,835 employees directly, and was responsible for indirect employment of 53,100 workers within the state of Kansas. As part of its overall drive to gain and retain world-class aerospace manufacturing status, BCAG Wichita is focused on developing a lean, efficient design and production system supported by an effective cost management strategy.
The cost management strategy supports initiatives designed to link the manufacturing process and support activities so as to simplify the whole production process, while maximizing benefits from the use of lean business practices. Cost management strategy initiatives include simplifying production, shortening flow and cycle times, increasing quality and inventory turnover, identifying core products and processes, and linking the design and manufacturing process to decrease product time-to-market. Activity-Based Costing links and supports the manufacturing process. It provides information to tailor business streams and material management, costs of activity and processes, value added versus non-value added analysis and profitability analysis used to improve the make versus buy decision-making process. ABC also provides analysis of set-up and run costs, costs of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, costs of asset failure, and costs of manufacturing capacity, thereby allowing manufacturing managers to manage the assets under their control more effectively. Finally, ABC provides analysis on the costs of design changes in configuration as impacted on the manufacturing floor, costs of incorporating complexity into a configuration design, and the costs of quality.
The highest hurdle in achieving this type of cost management architecture lies in moving the corporate financial department from its classic accounting role as scorekeeper or policeman to the role of business partner. In a business partner role, the corporate financial department can support strategic decisions relevant to the company’s continued competitive advantage by providing financial data that highlights the impact of these decisions. BCAG Wichita views a successful implementation of ABC as one that fulfills three major roles:
Addresses the size, complexity, and diversity of the manufacturing process,
Facilitates the integration of financial decision makers into a more supportive business partnership role, and
Implements effective cost management strategy initiatives.
Case Study 3 (Just in Time) Definition: Just-in-time (JIT) production also known as lean production, it is a ‘pull’ system of production, means the actual orders provide a signal for when a product should be manufactured. When there is Demand-pull, it enables a company to produce only what is required, with the correct quantity and correct time. These features of Just-in-time production system accomplish close organization among work- stations. Therefore, its objective can be defined as producing the right part in the right place at the right time (in other words, “just in time”).
Case study: From July 1990, top managers of Daioku have begun completing the Kanban production system-moving from the traditional push-type production management to pull-type production management. This type of system produces only quantities necessary to fulfill the demands of the next operation. The quantity is pulled when it is needed, where it is needed, and in the exact quantity which is needed.
For instead, since beginning the implementation of Just-In-Time, many difficulties have occurred. The difficulties include:
Combining the data and material flows instead of classifying them.
Post the products, its store and manufacturing process instead of a flow without any post.
Changing from L-shape assembly line into V-shape assembly line. This requires a set of new equipments and techniques.
Problems exist between Daioku and supplier (subcontractors), for instance, traditional ways of shipping material based on the pre-determined plan is now being eliminated and every supplier are now required to collect the “Kanban” back from the order-post and ship their material based on the information in the Kanban.
Everyone in the firm required to participate in Just-In-Time. They need to determine how to make the shop floor operations become easier and efficient.
Daioku carried out discussions and meetings to find solutions to the problems in the year of 1992. Therefore, Daioku sent their experts to help suppliers to solve their problems gradually. In Daioku, The inventory part was reduced the dramatically in this year.
By using Just-In-Time method, the stock levels of raw materials, work in progress, components and finished goods can keep in a minimum. However, this requires a carefully planned scheduling and flow of resources through the production process. Just-in-time method promotes continuous enhances on the products. At the same time, this method can eliminate waste. Waste results from any activity that adds cost without adding value. For example, the unnecessary moving of materials, the accumulation of excess inventory, or the use of faulty production methods that create products requiring subsequent rework. Just-In-Time should enhance the profits and return on investment by reducing inventory levels (rising the inventory turnover rate), reducing variability, improving product quality, reducing production and delivery lead times, and reducing other costs (like those associated with machine setup and equipment breakdown). In conclusion, Just-In-Time production system aims to (1) meet customer demand in a timely manner (2) at the lowest possible total cost and (3) with high-quality products.
Case Study 4 (Enterprise Resource Planning) Definition: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a computerized inventory control and production system that was born from Material Requirements Planning systems (MRP). It is a system that organizes functions of an institution. It assists in account, finance, human resources and e-commerce applications through creation of databases and graphical user interfaces. It unifies the tasks of institutions like corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, powerful institutions and industries and businesses establishments. There are some businesses start to compete on a global scale, it is critical to streamline operations and processes in business to reach a higher level of productivity and efficiency in information exchange and supports e-commerce applications, for example supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). On the other hand, software that comes up with functionality to various systems that will coincide with one another as a whole is required to combine all of the information or operations of a company into a single unit. Central database is one of the most outstanding parts of the ERP system.
Case Study: By October 1997, a group of 50 top business executives and 10 senior IT professionals had been congregated to device the SAP project to come up with a set of best practices that would become common work procedures for every Nestlé division which are manufacturing, purchasing, accounting and sales by adopted new pan-Nestle’ way.
Firstly, in order to implement the technical side, a common structure across the company, the vanilla would be code 1234 in every division. The SAP system customize around the uniform affair procedure. The group decided that they are not to use SAP in supply chain because the ERP supply chain module adopted was brand-new and therefore risky. Furthermore, Manugistics’ supply chain module followed all the SAP standards and could easily be integrated.
Nestlé implement five SAP modules which are purchasing, financials, sales and distribution, accounts payable and accounts receivable and the Manugistics’ supply chain module which deployed across every Nestlé division, by March 1998. Besides that, the purchasing company for confections pursues the identical best practices and information as the purchasing company for beverages.
To beat the Y2K deadline, the best project group had overlooked the integration points between the modules. All purchasing departments now used general names and systems, and followed a general process, but their system was not integrated with the financial, planning or sales groups. A salesperson may have given a valuable customer a discount rate and entered it into the new system, however the accounts receivable department wouldn’t know about it. Hence, it would appear to the accounts receivable operative as though the invoice were only partially paid as customer paid the discounted rate. The project team had essentially replaced divisional silos with process silos to unify the company’s separate brands.
The time constraints necessitated by Y2K had put too much pressure on the people in charge of executing the changes. The project team had lost the big picture of how the various components would work together. Hence, the existing modules had to be integrated and the team still needed to roll out another two more SAP modules which are sales and distribution on the domestic side, and accounts receivable as well as a new module for the supply chain. Since Dunn had rejected the SAP supply chain module two years before, therefore, it leads to decision to replace all but a couple of parts of the Manugistics system with APO.
The last state of design was completed on April 2001 and giving the project teams a highly detailed road map to follow. One month later, Tom James came on board as director of process change for the Best project with the responsibility as a connection between the divisions and the project team. He was so surprised by the poor relationship between divisions and project team. They conducted surveys that were involved of how the workers affected by the new systems were dealing with the changes and the feedback was the users were not prepared to make process alter.
ERP projects are famous and need a long period and a lot of money to done it. Dunn maintains the slow and steady wins the race. Nestlé United State accomplishes the significant ROI with the greatest bulk of savings from better demand forecasting.
The old process included a sales man giving a number to the those men and demand planner do not know what the hell they are talking about then the factory changes the number again.
With SAP in place, general databases and business processes lead to more trustworthy demand forecasts for the various Nestlé products. Furthermore, because all of Nestlé United State also using the same data then Nestlé can forecast down to the distribution center level to diminish the inventory and the redistribution expenses that occur when too much of a product is sent to one place and not enough to another. The supply chain improvements accounted for a major chunk of the $325 million has saved from SAP.
Case 5 Value Engineering (VE) Definition: Value engineering (VE) is a systematic method to improve the “value” of goods or products and services by using an examination of function. Value, as defined, is the ratio of function to cost. Value can therefore be increased by either improving the function or reducing the cost. It is a primary tenet of value engineering that basic functions be preserved and not be reduced as a consequence of pursuing value improvements. 
Value engineering is sometimes taught within the project management or industrial engineering body of knowledge as a technique in which the value of a system’s outputs is optimized by crafting a mix of performance (function) and costs. In most cases this practice identifies and removes unnecessary expenditures, thereby increasing the value for the manufacturer and/or their customers.
Case Study: This project was for an underground car park beneath a new shopping centre in Three Waters, Madrid. A fully ducted ventilation system was the approved design contained with the Spanish Building Regulations. However, this would be costly to install and would impact on the development programmed. Therefore, the purpose of the simulation was to demonstrate that a non-ducted, mechanical system would also meet the Spanish Building Regulations. The planning requirements often mean extensive car parks to proposed offices, residential and retail developments. The ventilation of these car parks can present a significant cost to the developer in terms of capital expenditure for plant, energy consumption and maintenance, as well as the implications for the programmed if extensive ductwork and plant has to be installed. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is most effectively used at early design stage, also can be used as a tool for solving existing problems. The specific objectives of a project can vary considerably. The key objectives of the simulations are normally to ensure that the distribution and concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), is in accordance with Building Regulations. The Building Regulations comprise a number of Approved Documents. These Approved Documents contain design options which if adopted, the scheme is ‘deemed’ to comply.
Applying Value Engineering can identify potential savings in capital, maintenance and energy costs without any adverse effect on performance. Computer simulation is therefore, becoming an essential value engineering design tool. For example, a designer may question why 6 air changes per hour (ACH) should be provided when 4 ACH will accomplish the desired result. The benefits of simulation are that the proposed designs can be tested against the acceptance criteria contained within the Building Regulations before any financial commitment is made.
In conclusion, Three Waters using [i] of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as a tool for value engineering can significantly benefit new and existing developments by avoiding unnecessary capital expenditure, reducing construction time, and providing reductions in energy consumption, CO2 emissions and maintenance.
Analyses/Discussion Cost reduction programs have classified in many types and each type of the program will provides different benefits to the companies. In this part, we are going to give the analysis of the advantages and benefits the types of cost reduction methods which shown below. Finally, analysis of cost reduction will show in the end of this part.
Total Quality Management (TQM) TQM is the one of the famous method that uses the focus of quality of management process. This will increase the productivity and efficiency in the business and in the manufacturing process. If the process is used from the beginning during the manufacturing process, there is less likely of chance for incorrectly producing products or devices. Therefore, it would bring the correct product in the end of process in creating less waste in raw materials and less lost hours due to repeating of the process. TQM method is not only will increase the productivity, but it also increases the level of pride in the employees. This is because each employee becomes responsible for a higher level of quality in his or her work.
Kaizen Costing (KC) Kaizen costing is the maintenance of present levels for products currently being manufactured via systematic efforts to achieve the desired cost level. In general, it is the process of cost reduction during the manufacturing phase of a product. The word “KAI” is means modify and change and “ZEN” means think, make good, and make better. So, in overall, kaizen costing is focuses on continuous and gradual by small betterment activities rather than large or radical improvement made through innovation or large investments in technology.
Basically, kaizen costing imply four effects, there are paying attention to the quality and productivity, acquiring little by little kaizen and problem-solving ability, perceiving the work place as their own, and understanding the meaning of kaizen. Kaizen costing meets the goal with the continual and relentless reduction of non-value-added activities and costs, the elimination of waste, and improvements in manufacturing cycle time all contribute to the effort. In additional, kaizen costing has brings the benefit of reduction in production time, reduction in rejection, energy saving, and improved quality.
Value Engineering (VE)/Value Analysis(VA) Value engineering (VE) or value analysis (VA) is a process of systematic review that is applied to existing product designs in order to compare the function of the product required by a customer to meet their requirements at the lowest cost consistent with the specified performance and reliability needed.
The key focus of the value engineering is the management of “functionality” to yield value to the customer. For instance, not that long ago, consumers of electric kettles were offered a variety different types of metal-based boiling device. The value of a kettle is derived through heating water and therefore its functionality can be determined as temperature, capacity, reliability, safety, and else. With the same functionality of the boiling water, designers would probably look towards a kettle which made of plastic. Plastic has the same functionality as metal in terms of containing and boiling water. However the switch from metal to plastic does not impair this value and functionality with the customers. This is because the customers just want to boil water, but it gives result in a cost saving for the manufacturing company.
The benefits of effective VE process can be summed up including speed of getting an effective design into the market without problems and through error-free manufacturing and assembly processes, reliability and durability of the product in the market which enhances the reputation of the product and the company, low overall cost which enhances product margin and also releases finances within the business as well as allowing the ability to engage in price competition, enhanced quality and compliance with minimal costs of warranty that allows a company to differentiate its products based this perceived quality of use and esteem, and finally the value engineering process satisfies the primary goal of any business which is to make a profit and survive.
Activity Based Costing (ABC) Activity-Based Costing method is a tool which could bring about significant improvement in the quality of overhead cost allocation. The ABC process is able to incorporate both physical measures and causal principles in the costing system. The basic idea of ABC is to allocate costs to operations through the various activities in place that can be measured by cost drivers. In other words, cost units are assigned to individual activities, such as planning, packing, and quality control using a resource cost driver at an initial stage with the costs of these activities being allocated to specific products or cost objects in a second phase of allocation via an activity cost driver.
The advantages are providing insight into the fastest- growing and least visible element of cost-overhead, improving profitability by monitoring total life-cycle cost and performance. It also improves the effectiveness of budgeting by identifying the cost or performance relationship of difference service level. It encourages continuous improvement and total quality control because planning and control are directed at process level. At last, is facilitating elimination of waste by providing visibility of non-value added activities and improving make or buy, estimating, and pricing decisions that are based on product cost that mirrors the manufacturing process. As a result, ABC can support managers to see how to maximize shareholder value and improve corporate performance.
Enterprise Resource Planning ERP can be describes to integrate all departments and functions across a company onto a single computer system that can serve all those different departments’ particular needs.
Hence, it is extremely important to know how to use effectively Enterprise Resource Planning for a success implementation. In order for Enterprise Resource Planning system to succeed, it must be capable of successfully integrating manufacturing with the other processes of a company. Besides that, Enterprise Resource Planning is not the cure to all the problems a business will face. A number of advantages and disadvantages exists to this technology, and those who know this will be the most likely to succeed.
By the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning, it comes up with a number of advantages that helps to solve a number of problems that have plagued large organizations in the past and used to integrate the many processes of a company or organization. Scalability is also an advantage, like Enterprise Resource Planning also helps to improve the production levels and to control costs more efficiently, and this enabled us to control the whole enterprise more efficiently.
As a result, Enterprise Resource Planning is no longer just a competitive advantage in this globalized world. It is very important requirement for every enterprise. To truly be effective, it may be necessary to combine the benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning with those of Customer Relationship Management (CRM).
Just in Time (JIT) Just in Time is a set of techniques to improve the return of investment of a business by reducing in-process inventory and its associated costs. In addition, the process is driven by a series of signals, or Kanban that tell production processes to make the next part. Just In time causes dramatic improvements in a manufacturing organization`s return on investment, quality, and efficiency.
For an example, Toyota Motor Thailand had implement Just In time methods during the crisis on July 1, 1997. Toyota Motor showed a strong commitment to uniting with whole workforce as well as suppliers and dealers to ride out the crisis. This commitment was shared with the labor union, and the entire company together with the Toyota Group implemented through measures to make operations more leaner, utilizing the resulting excess labor to implement improvement initiatives as well as additional education of employees and suppliers. Based on the concept of “just in time”, energy was supplied to each process when it was needed and in just the right amount; personal wastebaskets were reduced to one quarter of their original size to encourage less paper usage; and localization was promoted by expanding local procurement to Tier 2 and Tier suppliers. Meanwhile, Toyota Motor Thailand also directed energy into the education and training employees. As a result of these efforts, without having dismissed a single full-time employee, inventories were cleared in January 1998 and production began to rise again. In 2004, Toyota Motor Thailand produced 273980 vehicles. Toyota Motor Thailand paved the way for the strides forward it is making today.
There are several examples of advantages of JIT. Both inventory and the cost of holding it go down as the inventory-reorder quantity and the maximum inventory level drop. However, because inventory requires incurring an ordering or setup orders that mu