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Time Management: Theories and Application Report

Executive Summary There are a number of theories which have been developed in relation to time management. This paper provides an analysis of these theories and demonstrates how they can be applied to increase my studying efficiency. The first theory used is the Bucket of Rocks Theory which offers insight into the order in which a person should work on his activities.

The second theory discussed is Lakein’s ABC system which involves categorizing tasks in order of priority. The third theory discussed is the Inventory System which involves reviewing actions in retrospective and learning from them.

Another theory used is the Time Management Grid which identifies tasks to be done and categorizes them in different quadrants based on their importance.

Goal setting theory which involves coming up with challenging and achievable goals is also suggested as one of the means through which time can be managed. Another time management principle is the Time Management Windows Principles which borrows from Johari’s window.

This principle considers that time can be wasted in a group setting if effective communication is hindered. Pareto’s 80/20 rule which identifies that only 20% of our activities produce 80% of the results we desire is also utilized. Finally, the paper discusses Assertiveness which can assist an individual to avoid wasting time.

These theories were tested and the results reported in my bid to maximize on my study time. From the usage of these theories, I discovered the best way to manage my time and gain optimum results.

Contents Introduction

The Need for Time Management

Theories on Time Management

The Bucket of Rocks Theory

ABC System

The Inventory System

Time Management Grid

Goal Setting Theory

Time Management Windows Principles

Pareto’s 80/20 Rule


Action Plan: Outcomes and Measures of Achievements


Introduction Time is an important asset to an organization and its efficient usage is a key role of the manager. Time is a non renewable resource and once it is gone, one cannot recover it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With this in mind, it makes sense to make the best of the available time by prioritizing and doing the more important activities first. To effectively manage time, the manager needs to have good time management skills. Time management is defined by DeJanasz et al. (2006, p84) as “the ability to allocate our time and resources to accomplishing our objectives”.

Time management is undertaken to try and come up with the most efficient manner in which to utilize the time that we have available. It is therefore a practice that is aimed at increasing productivity and efficiency. This paper will provide an analysis of a number of theories that can be used to help a person to better manage their time.

The Need for Time Management Time is a finite commodity and its proper use may lead to increased productivity by a person. Mancini (2003) declares that a person’s ability to manage their time is one of the key causes of success or failure in a person’s life. It is therefore of great importance to properly manage time in order to ensure higher chances of success in life.

Before one can set out to maximize on their time usage, it is necessary for the person to document how time is spent currently. Mancini (2003) suggests that a person should first recognize the kinds of choices that they are making with regard to time usage at the moment. An activity log is one of the tools which can assist in discovering how time is spent.

One may assume that they are using their time in the most efficient manner and it is only after performing a self-analysis that the person realizes that they are guilty of mismanaging time or even wasting it.

With this realization, an individual may wish to undertake steps to better manage their time. There are a number of theories which if properly utilized can assist people to manage their time more efficiently. Some of these theories are articulated below.

Theories on Time Management The Bucket of Rocks Theory

To properly manage time, one needs to know the level of importance that each activity holds. The Bucket of Rocks theory (also referred to as the Pickle Jar Theory) offers insight into the order in which a person should work on his activities (Mancini 2003).

We will write a custom Report on Time Management: Theories and Application specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theory proposes that you put big rocks in a bucket (this will represent the important thing) and then you fill it up with pebbles followed by sand and then water. The smaller substances represent increasingly unimportant tasks (Forsyth 2010).

According to this theory, we are supposed to do the important things (big stones) first and then move on to the less important things (pebbles and sand) and finally if we have the tie, we can do the unimportant things (water). If we begin working on the unimportant things or the less important things first, we will not have the space to do the important things in our lives.

ABC System

Every person is on average faced with many activities which require attention. In many instances, the time available may not be sufficient for all the activities that need to be done.

In order to use time more effectively, a person needs to prioritize on the tasks that need to be undertaken. The ABC system developed by Alan Lakein can provide an efficient means for prioritizing. Mancini (2003) demonstrates that using the ABC approach can facilitate an individual’s prioritizing.

The letter assigned to a given task denotes its priority level with A being the tasks with highest urgency, B the tasks that have low urgency but are of importance and C being tasks that are not urgent and whose completion can be postponed. Mancini (2003) states that the tasks can be broken down further as A1, A2, A3 etc with A1 being the most urgent and important task.

From the ABC list, one can ask themselves questions such as “I’m I putting of an A priority because it is unpleasant?” From the ABC list, one can ask themselves questions such as “I’m I putting of an A priority because it is unpleasant? Will I manage to achieve the C priority tasks before they become A’s?” Such questions will result in insights being gained into how to accomplish the most important and critical tasks first.

The Inventory System

As we undertake activities, we learn from them and are in a position to do them better subsequently. The inventory system is a results-oriented approach that is based on the premise that one learns the most by reviewing how they handled the day and applying these lessons to the next day’s behavior (Forsyth 2010).

This theory argues that a retrospective analysis of activities done represents a more behavior changing approach to dealing with situations in life. Mancini (2003, p.162) declares that “behavior modification is a significant time management strategy”. As such, while the inventory system is not in itself a time-saving measure, it results in the establishment of time-saving behavioral changes in a person.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Time Management: Theories and Application by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Time Management Grid

This theory involves placing the activities that need our attention on a grid. The grid then reveals how each activity is being categorized based on how soon it needs to be done (Harris 2008). The grid consists of 4 quadrants and each quadrant has a different priority level.

The first grid which is quadrant one has tasks that have the highest importance and bear urgency and therefore should be done immediately. The second grid has important activities that are not as urgency. Harris (2008, p.22) refers to the activities in this quadrant as “quality time” which means that while the activities are of importance to the success of a company, they do not require to be done immediately.

The third grid consists of activities that bear urgency but are of no importance. This grid is therefore also known as the distraction grid since the activities contained therein do not bear much importance to helping one achieve goals. The forth grid contains activities that are neither urgent nor important.

Goal Setting Theory

Goals assist us to properly focus and work towards achieving the things that are important to us. The Goal-setting theory advanced by Locke can be used to effectively manage a person’s time. This theory is based on the premise that a person will be more motivated to perform if they have clear and specific goals and objectives. According to this theory, high performance can only come from clear expectations (Pynes 2008, p.155).

Personal goal setting enables a person to plan and therefore live life in their own way. By setting goals that are both challenging and achievable, a person will have a clear idea of what needs to be done and will be motivated to work towards the set goals. A person will therefore avoid wasting time on activities that do not assist in the fulfillment of the desirable goals.

Time Management Windows Principles

In many work environments, we are required to work with other people to achieve desired goals. While working with people may lead to higher productivity, it can also hinder out ability to manage our own time (Butler

Hiram Rhodes Revels Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Hiram Rhodes Revels was born on the 27th of September 1822 in Fayetteville (North Carolina). He was born as a free child, meaning that his parents were not slaves. His father (a clergyman) was of the African descent while his mother was of the White descent; a Scottish to be precise.

His early education was problematic given that during that time, it was illegal to educate Black children and this forced him to attend a school which was taught by a Black woman who was also free. During his early years, he mixed education with work, where he worked as a barber for some time (Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1901).

After completing his education in 1844, Revels joined the Quaker Seminary as well as the Darke Seminary (for Blacks). After some training in the seminary, he was ordained as a pastor of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church in Indiana in 1845 where he served till 1849 when he was elected as an elder during a conference of the church leaders.

At this point in time, he got married to a free Black lady from Ohio called Phoebe Bass with whom they were later to be blessed with six daughters (Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1901).

Between 1850 and 1853, Revels concentrated on evangelical work taking the gospel to various places including Tennessee, Kansas, Kentucky, Illinois and Indiana.

He also served as a pastor of the AME in Missouri in 1853, where he preached the gospel to fellow Blacks (who were not free) and their masters as well. Despite his cautious approach (not to incite blacks) in his gospel, he earned himself an imprisonment in 1854 where he was accused of extending the privilege of gospel to the Blacks who were slaves. He was released in 1855.

Upon his release from prison, he joined his brother Willis to spread the gospel in Baltimore, where he also became a principal of a school before joining the Knox College in Illinois from 1855 to 1857 courtesy of a scholarship by well-wishers. By this time, he had become very influential and popular especially among the Blacks (Thompson