Can The Intelligence Be Tested?
Introduction There is no single definition of intelligence that is generally accepted. However, different scholars have from time to time come up with theories that may be used to understand the concept of intelligence. The theories of intelligence may be broadly categorized into two; the general intelligence theories and the multiple intelligence theories.
Spearman was the first person to try and explain the concept of intelligence (Sternberg, 1985). Spearman, in his work, also known as the two factor theory, proposed that there was a positive co-relation between an individual’s academic test scores and their abilities. The two factors that he suggested made up a person’s intelligence were: the G-factor or the general factor which could be measured and quantified, and the S-factor also the specific factor.
He suggested that the G-factor mainly dealt with a person’s general knowledge while the S-factor was more specific, in that, it referred to the individual’s specific abilities. Therefore, in conclusion, he insinuated that a person’s level of intelligence could only be determined through academic tests according to Gardner (1983).
The second scholar, Thurstone who rejected spearman’s proposal came up with his own theory. He suggested seven measures of intelligence as being; numerical reasoning, verbal meaning, memory, inductive reasoning, perceptual speed, spatial ability and word fluency. Unlike Spearman, he believed intelligence could be looked at from a more diversified dimension.
Later, Cattell also came up with his own theory. To some extent, he agreed with Spearman’s theory but he added two more factors. These factors were fluid intelligence which he explained as being the capability of an individual to find solutions to problems with no earlier information. Crystallized intelligence, which he defined as being the capability to solve troubles using precedent events, was the second one.
In 1983, Gardner the pioneer of the multiple intelligence theory came up with the theory that implied that, intelligence was a diverse concept and therefore needed to be measured using multiple tools. He identified eight types of intelligence; bodily kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, interpersonal, musical, intrapersonal, verbal linguistic, naturalistic and visual spatial Gardner (1983).
Sternberg (1985), agreed with Gardner’s theory but he claimed that the types of intelligence included; analytical intelligence, creative intelligence and practical intelligence. Further, he claimed that a person’s intelligence depended on the surrounding environments. This simple deviation from the theory developed by Gardner was the basis of the subsequent researches that have been carried out in the recent years on the topic.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Findings Based on these studies, the theories that best explains intelligence are the multiple intelligence theories of Gardner and Sternberg. This is because they give a broader description of what intelligence is. They not only take into account the academic perspective but also the non academic perspectives of intelligence. Gardner’s theory for example, gives importance to interpersonal and intrapersonal skills which today an individual cannot survive without. Sternberg also explains how intelligence can be shaped by one’s surroundings.
Can The Intelligence Be Tested? Multiple intelligence theories cannot be subjected to a simple test as it would be very difficult, impossible even, to measure a person’s non-academic abilities.
Things like interpersonal skills are things that can only be measured over time and not through a simple aptitude test. Therefore, it follows that it is simply hard to measure intelligence based on the theories presented above.
References Gardner, H. (1983). Frames Of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Organizational Development Concepts
Nursing Assignment Help Introduction One company that can be said to have changed the automobile industry is Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC). Since its establishment in the year 1937, Toyota Motor Corporation has evolved to become one of the best car selling companies in the world. At the same time, Toyota is estimated to provide employment opportunities to about 317,000 people at the moment, working as dedicated employees of the company.
Major activities of Toyota Company started after the Second World War, when the company started to design and manufacture automobiles in large number.
The history of Toyota Company is associated with Kiichiro Toyoda who was an excellent inventor and established Toyoda Automatic Loom Company that largely relied on his prolific designs (Toyoland, n.d). As part to generate more capital resources, the company Kiichiro Toyoda licensed part of the designs to the British and the generated money was used to establish Toyota Motor Company, an idea that received government’s support due to its military applications (Toyoland, n.d).
Before the establishment of the company, Japanese armies relied on imported trucks, and as a result of depression that affected the world and the country at the same time, resources to import trucks became scarce (Toyoland, n.d). As a result, domestic production was seen as an avenue to reduce costs, create employment opportunities, and empower the country to be self-reliance (Toyoland, n.d).
Some of the automobile designs by Toyota Motor Corporation in the history include: Model A1 and G1 models, model AA, sedans, phaetons or model AB, Toyota model, GB truck, G1 truck, Toyopet or the model SA, SD models, RH model, Landcruiser, Crown, Corona, Avalon, Camry, and Lexus (Toyoland, n.d).
Toyota at the same time throughout history has been able to establish plants in other regions of the world specifically in Latin America and USA. Today, Toyota Motors has evolved as the global largest designer and “manufacturer of automobiles, both in unit sales and net sales” (Toyoland, n.d). For instance in USA alone Toyota has succeeded in eclipsing Honda and sustained fierce competition to GM and Ford motors (Toyoland, n.d).
Further, in 2002, Toyota Motors incorporated 2010 Global vision, which according to the company is a vision aimed at achieving mobility needs in away that considers and respects environment and the people (Toyoland, n.d). Major themes in this Global vision include “Toward a recycle-oriented society, toward the age of IT and ubiquitous networks, toward a mature society, and toward motorization on a global scale” (Toyoland, n.d, p.1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Toyota’s Organizational Structure and strategy Richard D. Daft, writing in the book titled ‘Organizational Theory and Design’ observes that in defining what organizational structure is, it is important to put into consideration three important aspects: organization structure constitute formal reporting relationships that include number of levels in the hierarchy and span of control of managers and supervisors (Daft, 2009).
Second, organizational structure establishes the grouping together of individuals into departments and of departments into total organization. Lastly, organizational structure constitutes the design of systems to ensure effective communication, coordination, and integration of efforts across departments (Daft, 2009).
According to the author, these three elements involve both the vertical and horizontal aspects of organizing, with each representing a structure that is more appropriate in certain specific organizational orientation. Accordingly, an ideal structure should be in a position to encourage employees to provide horizontal information and coordination where and when it is needed (Daft, 2009).
From 2003, Toyota Motors was seen to be causing ripples in the automobile industry as it undertook initiatives at high speed catching up with the industry’s perennial leaders and dominant players like GM, Ford, and Chrysler (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009). Many people viewed this as a risk strategy, which upon failure would have severe negative impacts on Toyota Motors.
However, on gradual note, the strategy has been working out as some instances of literature postulate that Toyota Motors has been able to outperform one or two of these companies (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009). As the strategy appeared successful, Toyota put in place strategies to re-invent itself and one of the re-invention strategies was to introduce new designs.
One of the changes that has characterized Toyota introduced by the management include introduction of a number of new designs such as introduction of Prius hybrid model in 2004 (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009). When the success of this model was realized, Toyota was motivated to introduce another hybrid luxury sport-utility vehicle known as the RX 400h and today the company offers these two designs in the world’s market estimated to be about 50 per cent (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009).
Accompanying Toyota’s introduction of new designs in the marketing is the company’s well-established and known reputation that, on wider global scale characterizes the company as one of the world’s leading corporation to be involved in massive cost cutting. The company has continuously invented and improved guided by the kaizen (continuous improvement) philosophy. Kaizen has further been strengthened by the company’s kanban (just-in-time inventory) systems (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009).
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