There are several variations on inflation:
Deflation is when the general level of prices is falling. This is the opposite of inflation.
Hyperinflation is unusually rapid inflation. In extreme cases, this can lead to the breakdown of a nation’s monetary system. For example, one of the most notable examples of hyperinflation occurred in Germany in 1923, when prices rose 2,500% in one month!
Stagflation is the combination of high unemployment and economic stagnation with inflation. This happened in industrialized countries during the 1970s, when a bad economy was combined with OPEC raising oil prices
Findings: Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but separated two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world’s most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world’s busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP equal to that of the four largest West European countries. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in consumer electronics and information technology products. It was hard hit from 2001-03 by the global recession, by the slump in the technology sector, and by an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003, which curbed tourism and consumer spending. Fiscal stimulus, low interest rates, a surge in exports, and internal flexibility led to vigorous growth in 2004-07 with real GDP growth averaging 7% annually. The government hopes to establish a new growth path that will be less vulnerable to the global demand cycle for information technology products – it has attracted major investments in pharmaceuticals and medical technology production – and will continue efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia’s financial and high-tech hub. Singapore’s annual inflation rate was at 6.7% in March – the highest since 1982 – and the republic is now paying a high price in becoming a global city of fine living.
Causes of inflation: Cost Push Inflation
Cost-push inflation occurs when businesses respond to rising production costs, by raising prices in order to maintain their profit margins. There are many reasons why costs might rise:
Rising imported raw materials costs perhaps caused by inflation in countries that are heavily dependent on exports of these commodities or alternatively by a fall in the value of the money in the foreign exchange markets which increases the price of imported inputs. A good example of cost push inflation was the decision by British Gas and other energy suppliers to raise substantially the prices for gas and electricity that it charges to domestic and industrial consumers at various points during 2005 and 2006.
Rising labour costs – caused by wage increases which exceed any improvement in productivity. This cause is important in those industries which are ‘labour-intensive’. Firms may decide not to pass these higher costs onto their customers (they may be able to achieve some cost savings in other areas of the business) but in the long run, wage inflation tends to move closely with price inflation because there are limits to the extent to which any business can absorb higher wage expenses.
Higher indirect taxes imposed by the government – for example a rise in the rate of excise duty on alcohol and cigarettes, an increase in fuel duties or perhaps a rise in the standard rate of Value Added Tax or an extension to the range of products to which VAT is applied. These taxes are levied on producers (suppliers) who, depending on the price elasticity of demand and supply for their products, can opt to pass on the burden of the tax onto consumers. For example, if the government was to choose to levy a new tax on aviation fuel, then this would contribute to a rise in cost-push inflation.
Cost-push inflation can be illustrated by an inward shift of the short run aggregate supply curve. This is shown in the diagram below. Ceteris paribus, a fall in SRAS causes a contraction of real national output together with a rise in the general level of prices.
Average earnings comprise basic pay income from overtime payments, productivity bonuses, profit-related pay and other supplements to earned income
Productivity measures output per person employed, or output per person hour. A rise in productivity helps to keep unit costs down. However, if earnings to people in work are rising faster than productivity, then unit labour costs will increase
The growth of unit labour costs is a key determinant of inflation in the medium term. Additional pressure on prices comes from higher import prices, commodity prices (e.g. oil, copper and aluminium) and also the impact of indirect taxes such as VAT and excise duties.
Prices also increase when businesses decide to increase their profit margins. They are more likely to do this during the upswing phase of the economic cycle.
The major causes of inflation and effect in Singapore: Singapore’s inflation rate is double that of Malaysia, it is higher than Hong Kong and Australia. While inflation is generally higher around the world, Singapore’s inflation is far higher than the average for several reasons, here are the main ones:
. One million people added to Singapore’s population in recent years causing the population to rise from 3.7M to 4.6M
An overheated economy that grew by 7% per annum.
GST hike, transport hike, utilities hike, kindergarten fee hike etc etc.
A strong overheating economy that grew by 7% annually for the past four years; and,
An open door immigration (the highest inflow rate in the world) that brought in a million foreigners and pushed the population to about 4.7 million.
This entry shows Singapore’s the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year’s consumer prices:
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (2007 est.)
Year Inflation rate (consumer prices) Rank Percent Change Date of Information 2003
Ways to decrease the Inflation: Monetary Policy
Increased interest rates will help reduce the growth of Aggregate Demand in the economy. The slower growth will then lead to lower inflation. Higher interest rates reduce consumer spending because:
increased interest rates increase the cost of borrowing, reducing spending
Increased interest rates make it more attractive to save money
Increased interest rates reduce the disposable income of those with mortgages
2. Supply Side Policies
Supply side policies aim to increase long term competitiveness and productivity. For example, privatisation and deregulation were hope to make firms more productive. Therefore, in the long run supply side policies can help reduce inflationary pressures. However, supply side policies work very much in the long term. They cannot be used to reduce sudden increases in the inflation rate
3. Fiscal Policy
This is another demand side policy, similar in effect to Monetary Policy. Fiscal policy involves the government changing tax and spending levels, in order to influence the level of Aggregate Demand. To reduce inflationary pressures the government can increase tax and reduce government spending. This will reduce Aggregate Demand.
4. Exchange Rate Policy
Policy of government towards the level of the exchange rate of its currency. It may want to influence the exchange rate by using its gold and foreign currency reserves held by its central bank to buy and sell its currency. It can also use interest rates (monetary policy) to alter the value of the currency.
This report illustrates 2 interesting tables: This below table shows the rank of countries which has the most inflation. This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year’s consumer prices.
This entry shows the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year’s consumer prices.
Summary In today’s economy, changes in aggregate demand lead to changes in changes in prices as well as output. In fact, because of the inflexibility of wages, prices may be rising even though the economy still has high unemployment and unutilized capacity.
Inflation occurs when the general level of prices is rising (and deflation occurs when they are generally falling). Today, we calculate inflation by using “price indexes” weighted averages of the prices of thousands of individual products. The most important price index is the consumer price index, which measures the cost of a market basket of consumer goods and services relative to the cost of that bundle during a particular base year.
Inflation affects the economy in two ways: by redistributing income and wealth and by changing the level and pattern of production. Inflation and deflations are rarely of the balanced and anticipated type
References: Parkin M., 2003, Microeconomics, 6th edition, Pearson Education, USA
Sloman J., 2004, Essentials of Economics, 3rd edition, Pearson Education, England
Samuelson.A and William D, Macroeconomics, 13th edition, McGraw-Hill book company, USA
The Contribution Of Health To Economic Growth Economics Essay
The linkage between health condition and economic activity has been debated several times in the past, and this issue became even more important in the last few years. This relationship is rather complex. It has been already recognized that increased national wealth is linked with improvement of health at individual and societal level. Furthermore, it is clear that improved health condition has an effect on economic activity and extent of economic growth. Several studies in high-, middle-, and low-income countries examined this linkage. These show that a significant shift in paradigm is observable. According to the new paradigm health was not considered as a pure by-product of economic development, but as a key factor and basic condition for economic growth. This way investing in health became a core part in many nations’ development strategies and policies. At European level the aim of a competitive and dynamic knowledge based community was set, enabling sustainable economic growth, innovation and a stronger societal cohesion.
The issue of contribution of human capital to economic growth was the basis for several discussions and analyses. Until now education was considered as the main component of human capital. In the context of the neo-classical theory, economic growth is dependent on the following factors: stock of capital, stock of labor and productivity. Productivity was considered in the first time as a factor affected by outside forces. Later on this point of view changed by looking at the investment into human capital as a possible source for enhancing productivity and innovation. A research of Becker (1964) was based on the human capital formation. According to him an increase in human capital raises the individual’s productivity. It is reached through investment into education, training and health.
The role of health as another important component of human capital next to education was introduced by Grossman (1972). Grossman constructed a model where the demand for health was applied in human capital theory. Grossman differentiated health as a consumption good and as a capital good. In the case of the consumption good people practically enjoy their well-being and good health condition. When looking at health as a capital good it reduces the number of days spent ill. This way it enhances the number of productive working days and days spent for leisure activities. In this context health is not only consumed (enjoyed by individuals), but produced at the same time as well. Individuals can invest into health to maintain and improve it over time. The model of Grossman received critics as well, but remained a key model of examining the demand for health.
Figure 1: Factors influencing health and outcomes Source: http://europa.eu.int/comm/health/ph_determinants/healthdeterminants_en.htm
Figure 1 represents factors determining the health status at individual and at society level, and different channels through which health contributes to economic activity. On the left side factors are presented affecting health of individuals: genetics (inherited) lifestyle, education, health care and other socioeconomic and environmental factors. Many exogenous factors affecting the health status can be influenced by public policies. On the right side different ways are presented through which health exerts a direct effect on economic outcomes.
When examining the linkage between health and economic growth the feedback of income on health should be taken into consideration too. Marmot (2002) states there are two ways of through which income influences health condition. On one hand higher income can have a direct affect on material conditions having a positive impact on biological survival. On the other hand higher income positively influences social participation. Thus, individuals have better conditions to manage life circumstances and enhance the feeling of security.
Based on Figure 1 there are four main channels or mechanisms where the effect of health on the economy is explained.
Labor productivity People with a good health status can produce more within a defined time interval. Higher productivity is originating from better physical and mental health. Furthermore, individuals with improved physical and mental status can use technology more efficient and they are expected to be more flexible too.
Labor supply The direct effect of health on the labor supply is not obvious in some cases. Good health condition reduces the number of sick days spent, thus increasing the number of productive working days. In this sense it influences decisions on labor supply as well, because of its impact on wages and expected lifetime. In the case when wages are connected to productivity a healthier worker can produce more, thus enhancing wages and this way the labor supply. On the other hand a better health status enables higher lifetime earnings increasing the risk of earlier withdrawal from working. The conclusion can be drawn that these effects are based on individual preferences. Based on this health can affect the economy in a similar way as health affect individual preferences.
Education Based on the theory of human capital more educated people can reach higher standards in terms of productivity and earnings. With a good health individuals can achieve higher educational qualification contributing significantly to future productivity.
Capital Formation The key point here is, whether the effects of health at the micro level are successfully applicable at macro or country level, in terms of GDP and growth rate. The mentioned theoretical models already assumed that there should be a positive relationship. Now examining several empirical studies the necessary evidence can be collected to make more accurate judgment regarding this relationship.
In first line, historical studies contributed significantly to the research of this issue. Robert Fogel was considered as the pioneer of the historical study approach. These studies examined the contribution of health to economic growth over a longer time period (1-2 centuries). Fogel (1994) found that the development in health and nourishment resulted a 30% increase in income and 1.15% per capita in the case of the UK, within two centuries.
Researchers paid less attention to the contribution of health to economic growth in the case of high-income countries. Just a few studies were made determining the impact of health on growth specifically. Some of them found even a negative relation between health and economic improvement, but this was mainly due to the use of imperfect health indicators and the institutional policy framework for these countries. Despite the few negative results health still remained as a robust determinant for economic growth. The most commonly used proxies for health are life expectancy and adult mortality. Knowles and Owen (1997) made a research on 22 high-income countries using life expectancy as a proxy for health and found an insignificant relationship between health and economic growth. The results were adjusted by Tompa (2002), where he stated that the insignificant outcome of the study was due to limited variability of life expectancy within the chosen sample of countries. More significant results were achieved by Beraldo et al. (2005). He found that investments in health result a 16-27% increase in growth rates. The work by Suhrcke and Urban (2005) followed a slightly different way by using other indicators. They used non-communicable diseases as a basis to examine the impact of health on growth in high-income countries in a better way. More specifically, cardiovascular disease (CVD) was used as a proxy for health. 26 high income countries were taken as a sample in the time period of 40 years. Results showed that CVD is a robust indicator in the case of high-income countries. A reduction of 10 % in CVD resulted an increase in the growth rate of per capita GDP by 1 percentage point.
The results of empirical studies show that only appropriate factors enable the accurate examination of the relationship between health and economic growth. The best indicators are life expectancy and mortality rate, but in addition CVD is good as well, because it shows more variability among high-income countries than life expectancy does. Furthermore, mental sickness and other morbidity indicators for rich countries are suggested by Tompa (2002).