This transformational change was the outcome of economic factors within the far environment of the business cause by the global credit crunch, slow rate of economic growth and internally by the need to reduce cost. The garage at Harrow Weald (HD) failed to retain 2 contracts from Transport for London as the business was out bid by the competition, First bus. This resulted was a reduced work load for the Material Manager at HD. The Material Manager workload reduced from 9% in 2009 to 6% between January 2010 and May 2010.
I made the decision along with the Head of Purchasing, with support from the Engineering Director to merge Edgware (EW) and HD store rooms because of the 5 miles distance between sites and the same bus types at their locations. The Material Manager at HD will be moving to Holloway (HT) to support HT as their current workload has increased to 25% and the Material Manager at EW will be running HD and EW store rooms. Personally this was needed to reduce cost at HD logistical function; if cost was not reduced, this might have led to redundancies. I felt I had to do something to protect my team while solving a manning issue at HT.
However, I learnt as the change continued that it was not the Material Manager’s or the Trade unions (TU) unitary involvement which had the negative views caused by the uncertainty created by this change program. But the Engineering manager’s of EW and HD who were worried about their logistical cover for their repair programs. There were a lot of resistance from the Engineering managers which my change program did not take in account. I did not understand the reasons at the time.
From that experience; I have learnt from reading about the range of stability Arnold et al., ibid and using the stakeholder analysis model. (The principles and practices of change Pg 16) That understanding behaviour and attitudes is vital in the change process. Using that methodology; more careful planning by using multiple change tools, frameworks and by providing information through sensitive implementation; while involving everyone affected by the changes; will help increase the success of the change.
Any change program needs to be understood fully by providing information, which will strengthen the program and implemented in a way that people can cope effectively with it. I failed to inform and involved the Engineering managers’ within the change sufficiently before. I needed to show people that the change had integrity and benefits. I see treating people with humanity, honesty and respect will reduce the resisting forces, that’s involves good leadership.
Change I now see; can be unsettling to everyone within the program; managers and staff, nothing must be taken for granted within change. If change is forced on people problems and resistance normally arise. I have come to realize; that I can achieve my personal change if I follow the same format. Change must be realistic, achievable and measurable (SMART).
Figure 1 How my understanding of change has evolved over the 5 weeks
This is what I took for granted; as the Engineering managers were managers, I expected them to be committed to the change. I did not focus on their needs
1.2 McKinsey 7’S Model The McKinsey 7-S model is an approach to planned internal change devised by Peters (1970). This method collectively analyzes the interdependence between 7 variables on how the change within business must operate. I really identify with this model because it focuses on internal relationships between systems and people.
Figure 2 McKinsey 7’S Model
(The principles and practice of change Pg 11)
If I had used this model during my pervious change program, I might have notice the interdependence between the Engineering managers and their repair program. Thus with this information, I could have created a clearer shared vision and involve them within the strategies. I will be using this in the future on my stores project to research the interdependence of systems and people to reduce resistances and improve communication.
1.3 Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis This model from Lewin (1940) focuses on the individuals who resist change and do not want to change their status quo (The principles and practices of change Pg 278). According to figure 3; there are 2 types of forces within a change program. This model looks at internal and external forces; the change strategy looks to increase the change driving forces and at the same time reduce the resistance forces.
This model would have being useful in my previous experience of change; as it focuses on people’s activities who are affected by the change in a negative or positive way. This is definitely a useful model for the future as it helps to formulate strategies used in reducing these resisting forces.
Figure 3 Force Field Analysis
Source: www.change-management-coach.com/images/force-field-analysis.jpg accessed 19-12-10
1.4 Kotter Model To me this is the most important model I have come across; it focuses on internal and external factors and forces to bring about organizational change. However to me it seems a little complex and time consuming. However this theoretical emergent approach to change known as the Kotter Model is great way of analyzing, planning and implementing change which involves 8 steps
Figure 4 Kotter 8 step Model
Source: www. downloadsoftwarestore.com/software_images/82/34/00053482/Software__Kotter_Change_Model-screenshot.gif Accessed 19-12-10
Personally, I really like this model compared to McKinsey 7-S model and Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis, as this model focuses on the change drivers internally and externally and the reason for change. It looks at empowerment of staff and picking the right change leaders to make the change work.
The model is complex as it entails focusing on the entire organization, the impact of the change and timing is critical between steps. What is beautiful about it; it also looks at the aftermath of the change and quick wins to encourage participation and visual simulation. However change is complex and I now see using one model or framework within a change program, something or someone will be missed.
Over the last 5 weeks; I have learnt that organization does not exist in isolation, but its part of a complex 3 phases environment. These environments exhort pressure on businesses internally and externally. The organization has to “change” to meet these pressures in order to survive, adapt or seize opportunities. Thus it’s essential to use multiple frameworks, good leadership and evaluations to increase the sustainability of change.
Part 2 2.1 Identify the aspects of change which you expect to follow up in later work in developing your EBI From my research; I came across “Leadership and change in small firms and entrepreneurship” http://learn.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=439879 accessed 02-01-11. The concept of Entrepreneurial Leadership illustrated in figure 5; which is leading through direct involvement by creating shared values for organizational stakeholders. Through flexibility, innovations and evolving concepts of organizational frameworks that can be constantly changed. Thus change is welcome and second natured within the business.
Figure 5 Paradigm of keys to organizational excellence and leadership strategies
Source: Darling and Beebe, 2007, p. 87
At this stage; I believe this course will enables me to review my current leadership style illustrated in figure 6. I will never become a perfect leader or manager, I acknowledge this now. But I am someone who likes order and I have chosen change tools which bring order to the change complexity. Now, I am going to step out of my comfort zone with the cognitive, affective and behavioural responses to change framework and identify ways to improve my leadership skills and effectiveness by contributing to an environment that empowers my managers by encouraging innovative thoughts.
By allowing my managers to lead me to a vision within my stores project will improve our systems inside the logistical function. According to Gersick (1991) Change brings about positive and negative emotions caused by stimuli within the change, which affects our behaviour (The principles and practices of change Pg 185).
Figure 6 My development of leadership and change at workUnderstanding emotional intelligence, as defined by Goldman (1998), is often associated with key social skills which includes self-awareness, trust and empathy which are also important in the workplace. Using the Goldman’s five major factors of emotional intelligence model illustrated in figure 5 which involves intrapersonal and interpersonal components. I would like to explore more in the upcoming weeks at work.
Gersick (1991)- stimuli
Kotter (2009)- Leadership or Management
Vera and Rodriguez-Lopez (2004)- Humility
Baker (2009- Fellowship
Goldman- (1998)- Emotional Intelligence
Self discovery- Improve communication and relationships at work
My Delivery- Making it happen
Innovation and Design-
Using My Emotional Intelligence
Vision- involves fellowship and humility leadership, allowing myself to be led
My Discovery and Planning- cognitive, affective and behavioural responses to change framework
http://www.infopeople.org/training/webcasts/webcast_data/203/FiveComponentsEmotionalIntelligence.pdf accessed 02-01-10
To achieve this concept, I have to be trusted and respected within the change program, which have to demonstrate integrity by doing the right things. This concept is very fascinating and I think this is the pinnacle of me evolving; this tie into my humility and emotional aspects of leadership I am trying to explore as part of my EBI.
The concept of giving respect and providing meaning by creating a sense of worth to the change recipients will show my humility. Thus increasing the level of commitment to the change while keeping change recipients within their range of stability and (The principles and practices of change Pg 16) reducing the resisting forces.
I do not see myself as a brilliant change agent; but I do understand how change can make people feel uneasy and the level of uncertainty that can be created from my past experience of change. In achieving successful organizational change, I must able to inspire and turn negatives into positives by finding innovative ways of doing things while working with the change recipients. Even if the change has bad news, being honest and open will help build trust through positioning; which will enable my reputation for future change programs to be viewed with honesty, confidence and respect.
Over the 5 weeks I come to understand that organizing and communicating the possibilities of what can be achieve from the change is management and while giving meaning to change is leadership. Trust through positioning implies having predictability, accountability and reliability this provides the foundation for the change integrity. Now the question is how I would show this within my EBI and does this make any sense.
2.2 Give a brief summary of the scouting work (including key inquiries) you have undertaken on the options and opportunities for your EBI EBI name
-Current organisational change program
– Exploring differing leadership and management theories and concepts. Then putting them into practice
– 6 months to complete
– Work related
universities to study my MBA
– My personal goal
– Will have to involve friends and family
Searching for a new job in China to further
-My personal and situational goal
Relevance, feasibility and ranking of EBIs which were identified during scouting EBI name
Relevance to my organisation1
75% – sure Probably very relevant
Probably very achievable
Researching universities to study my MBA
20%- sure May be relevant, but can’t quite tell
I’m pessimistic about my ability to do this
Searching for a new job in China to further
5%- sure Not very relevant to my organisation at first glance
I’m uncertain about whether it can be done
After the TMA 2; I spoke with my mentor about possible EBI’s. We were both in agreement that the stores reorganisation project is a perfect inquiry for my EBI; as there are elements of change and leadership focusing on the emotional characteristic of humility within the project and the project deals with changes which I personally would like to develop, as I am too task- oriented.
This will encourage me to reflect on my daily experiences, identify what I would like to learn about from the course materials and the Tutor group forums. In addition try to engage with the course materials and themes in the light of my experiences. This is essential for me to develop as a good leader and manager and I will be able to use this knowledge and notes, I have acquired via this process to advance to my EBI.
Although the entire aspects of my EBI is still unclear with the problems of linking leadership and change together is still a little ambiguous. I still have some doubts of which EBI to choose and what area of leadership and change to focus on. In addition, if I am actually making a journey into a better leader or manager, but I am learning new theories and framework to deal with my day to day work problems.
Additionally, the stores reorganisation is a very important project for me and my logistical team. I am trying to standardise the warehouses layout throughout 10 sites. The local material managers are already not happy with some of my ideas, but I need to “win” them over with the new warehouse layout which will test my own leadership skills, by “letting go of my order and control” and letting them lead me to a shared vision of the change. Thus, I might use my stores reorganisation project as one giant inquiry for my EBI.
I have also spoken with my line manager; to check the feasibility of the stores project; he is happy for me to use the project as part of my studies. However, he added that the stores project was already complex without adding another dimension of things to do. I never thought about the stores project with this perspective, therefore, the following questions will need to be addressed: is it too complex to conduct an EBI with such an important work project? Can I test and report on any actual growth within my understanding of things I have learnt? His perspective has added a new dimension on my possible EBI’s and created a level of uncertainty.
Word count Part 1 1.1 My change experience and change issues- 568 words
1.2 McKinsey 7’S Model- 117 words
1.3 Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis-113 words
1.4 Kotter Model- 248 words
Total: 1089 Words Part 2 2.1 Identify the aspects of change- 529 words
2.2 Give a brief summary of the scouting work- 544 words
Total: 1073 words Part 1 Part 2 = 2119 words 3.1 Appendix Stocktaking – Week 16 What do you feel about the course so far? How have you found it? (You may find it helpful to look at some possible responses on page 8 of Study Guide 2.)
What are the three most important things you have picked up so far?
What have been the three most important things so far?
Have you shared your work on B204 with colleagues at work? What do they think about what you are doing?
After the scouting and the study you have done, how do you now feel about the EBI you will have to do?
Do you feel you are in control of your learning on the course – or are you just being driven along by the work and the schedules? What are the reasons for your answer?
What things are you hoping to build on as your move into Phase 2?
Looking forward, what things are you now feeling most anxious about?
What are your real hopes and concerns about the next stages of the course?
What issues have really struck you most?
Any other thoughts
Study Skills That Demonstrate Independent Learning
This assignment will attempt to identify specific skills and abilities that are required for independent learning. For one to be successful through their academic journey, it is important to be determined and in control of ones studies, including, taking responsibility of the targets one sets and identifying strategies which will allow the journey of study to become fulfilling and enjoyable.
Firstly, this assignment will attempt to define what is meant by independent learning and then go on to identify the key skills required for independent learning. This assignment shall compare and contrast two types of learners, a passive learner and an independent learner, and conclude by looking at the advantages and disadvantages of both types of learners.
What is an independent learner? An independent learner is one who takes responsibility of their own learning and will take an active role in the process of their own learning and development. By attending lectures and seminars and asking questions, an independent learner is able to further develop their knowledge and understanding of the subject.
An independent learner will be able to take part in the whole process of learning, asking questions and debating issues. An independent learner is one who does not solely rely on their tutors, but will go and learn using their own resources and learning styles. An independent learner is one who is able to gather and link information to have a better understanding of what they have seen or read. An independent learner is a deeper learner which allow them to use the information they are given in a more active and productive way.
An independent learner will continue to self evaluate through their studies and have the ability to identify their strengths and weaknesses and respond accordingly. An independent learner monitors their progress through keeping journals which will help them to determine their own individual learning style.
An independent learner will always reflect upon their work, by reflecting and asking questions on a particular topic an independent learner will remain focused which will allow them to learn at a more profound level. An independent learner keeps their mind stimulated by taking time to study their subjects through reading, writing, researching and through participating in class discussions, which increases their confidence and credibility as a student.
An independent learner will always set themselves realistic goals and will use their study time efficiently such as prioritizing their work load and making the most of resources available to them, such as, IT and libraries.
One definition of independent learning is The ability to take charge of oneâ€™s learning.(Holec 1981)
Key Skills required for an Independent Learner An independent learner will adapt specific skills and learning behaviours that will promote and increase their performance in their studies. Some of their main strategies that an independent learner will apply are demonstrated below.
Preparing for lectures
An independent learner will always be prepared for lectures by attending lectures on time. They will use different styles of note taking such as, such as spider webs, or pattern notes, or they might develop their own note taking style, which will suit their individual needs. An independent learner will write down questions they need answering in lectures.
Asking Questions for clarification
An independent learner will frequently ask probing questions to enhance their learning as well as to clarify what has been observed. This is also a good way to challenge ideas and theories and introduce new ideas to be considered into the discussion. Through this they will gain more insight into the topic a give rise to new and interesting debates.
An independent learner will always critically analyse the validity of information by researching, evaluating, comparing and contrasting theories, and weighing up strengths and weaknesses in both viewpoints. Edward Glaser, 1941 (cited in Cottrell S, 2008, pp275) defined critical thinking as:
â€˜Critical thinking calls for a persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tendsâ€™.
An independent learner whilst critically analysing must give important to, persistence and should correctly evaluate evidence and ensure the viewpoints are rationale and can lead to a conclusion without any implications.
Effective note taking
An independent learner will always first determine which method of note taking is most beneficial to them. An independent learner will always choose a method which is both enjoyable and suitable for their learning style. For an independent learner it is important to take notes in lectures as they can refer back to them when doing their research and it will also help them to gather new ideas and plan their work. Taking notes will help with remembering information that will be relevant to the topic they are studying, for example, books that they may need to refer.
There are various methods of note taking, such as, writing, audio recording or using mind maps. Mind maps are a very effective way of processing information in a more easy and visual way. Mind maps encourage a learner to use their own words and ideas creatively and also organise information that will be useful and effective. The idea of mind mapping was introduced by Tony Buzan in the 1960s.
An example of a mind map:
Available from http://www.images.google.co.uk/image [accessed 30/11/2009]
An independent learner will always reflect upon their learning and make positive changes through self evaluation and monitoring their performance. An independent learner will learn the skill of reflecting on their learning by carrying out self audits establishing their individual strengths and weaknesses, and applying strategies that will strengthen areas of work where they feel there is room for improvement. An independent learner will also, use feedback from both tutors and peers in a production and construction way. By gathering feedback an independent learner can help identify, limitations, they may have in reaching their full potential.
An independent learner might use different strategies to help them reflect on their work, for example, by keeping a learning journal, which would be useful to help record their personal thoughts and feelings about their learning journey. This is a very productive way of reflecting, evaluation and critically analysing their individual performances and helps develop writing skills.
The benefits of reflection are demonstrated by David Kolb (1984) in his theory of the reflective learning cycle.
Available from http://images.google.co.uk/images. [accessed15/11/2009]
Kolbâ€™s reflective learning cycle, is a good technique of reflecting and if adapted by a learner it can give them an insight into ways or methods they can apply to their learning.
Organisation and Good Time Management
An independent learner will have the ability to use methods and skills to become a good organiser and use their time in an effective way. They will have targeted goals, which will be realistic and achievable, allowing them to remain focused and motivated in their studies. An independent learner will apply self management skills to help them organise and prepare their workload and set themselves realistic time scales in which they will meet their deadlines. Effective diary keeping as illustrated in Cottrell S.2008 The Study Skills Handbook is an excellent method of managing ones time effectively. This will allow the learner to keep control of their time and help them organise their studies.
An independent learner is one who keeps oneself motivated and uses strategies to help, overcome anxieties or pressures that come along with studying in higher education. By researching and using other methods to understand and learn the subject, an independent learner minimises the risk of becoming overwhelmed with their workload. Research skills are very important and using different methods will help in becoming more confident in reading and research. Identifying and selecting relevant information as illustrated in Cottrell S. 2008 The Study Skills Handbook is a very good approach to researching and reading. This gives the learner particular strategies to apply to help them learn and understand their subject, such as, using the reading list, select the latest information, select by reliability and select by amount.
Organising and setting a realistic time schedules, will allow an independent learner to become more in control of their studies, as well as preventing themselves to become bored and disengaged with their learning.
An independent learner will apply new and enjoyable ways in which will help them learn easily. Creative ways of learning helps individuals acquire their own learning style. It will allow the learner to identify the best way in which they can learn affectively, applying new and old skills for learning. An independent learner will apply and discover new and innovative ways of researching and gathering information to help them with their learning. As illustrated in Cottrell S. 2008 The Study Skills Handbook creative planning, using visual images as well as writing notes can help with capturing your thoughts and ideas in different ways.
Good Social Skills and the Ability to Collectively Work with Others
An independent learner must have excellent social skills and the ability to affectively work and communicate with others. Having good social skills will allow the independent learner to debate and exchange ideas and challenge theories and viewpoints in an assertive way. An independent learner will work with others, offering and exchanging different ideas of learning. Collectively working with others will enhance your understanding of a subject as well as reassuring the learner at times when they are feeling overwhelmed. Sharing ideas of how to manage with studying and other responsibilities will allow the learner to gain new innovative ways of juggling their work. Independent learners allow being constructively criticised, listening and observing what is being said and ask questions if necessary.
Applying Other Strategies
By understanding what kind of learner you are and then identifying the strengths and weaknesses in this, an independent learner can easily identify areas of weakness and apply other strategies that will help overcome barriers.
In addition to the above skills an independent learner may also apply the CREAM strategy to their studies. This is illustrated in Cottrell S, 2008 The Study Skills Handbook. The CREAM strategy means Creative, Reflective, Active and Motivated. These strategies help students in becoming more aware of their individual learning styles as well as applying and discovering new ideas, being creative and imaginative whilst learning, which keeps their minds stimulated and interested in their studies.
Self Evaluation and Monitoring
An independent learner will consistently self evaluate and monitor their performance, using different strategies to help them monitor their progress. Independent learners may use personal journals or carry out self evaluations, as well using feedback from tutors and peers to indentify areas in which they need to develop further. This helps the learner to quickly manage areas of weakness, and apply strategies to overcome this, as well as indentifying their strengths. This approach allows the learner to be in complete control of their learning and development.
Advantages of being an Independent Learner in contrast to a Passive learner
There are many advantages of being an independent learner. An independent learner is actively engaged in the entire process of learning and developing. An independent learner takes a keen interest in their studies and will take an active role in ensuring that they reach their aims and objectives. Being an independent learner as opposed to a passive learner is more likely to succeed in their studies. Passive learners take little or no responsibility in there learning and development. They are often known as learners who memorise information rather than understanding what they are learning. Passive learners will always use surface learning and will not process in a productive manner, which will distract them from their studies and they may become easily bored and disinterested in what they are learning. Passive learners are often ill prepared for lectures are unable to actively contribute to group discussions and debates. Due to their passiveness and laid back attitude towards learning they are more likely to miss deadlines and underachieve.
Independent learners will increase their confidence and self reliance and make the most of information they have gathered.
An independent learner will not only meet their full academic potential, but will also be dedicated to their learning and developing themselves as individuals. Independent learners have understood and taken the key skills that are required to become successful in their journey of learning. This demonstrates that by being an active and independent learner one will not only gain respect of tutors and peers, but will also be making their own success.