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The Kashmir Crisis: An Ethno-Religious Perspective Essay

Introduction In recent history, the Kashmir region in South West Asia has been a subject of confrontations and wars between the nations of India and Pakistan. The two states claim the territory as theirs; a disagreement that has disintegrated in a war about three times. At the onset of India’s independence from Britain in 1947, the country had a large Hindu population, while the newly created dominion of Pakistan had a majority of Muslim population.

As a semi-autonomous region, Kashmir citizens had the choice to join either of the two nations – India or Pakistan. The dilemma, however, arose from the fact that, although the leader of Kashmir was a Hindu, the general populace was mostly Muslim. Pakistan favored governing the territory because the population was largely Muslim such as that found within Pakistan (a Muslim state), while India desired to govern the territory Kashmir because the rulers were Hindu.

The Kashmir Region The Kashmir region is geographically made up of beautiful valleys and green forests. Even in the midst of the conflict that has seen the two nations lay claim to its ownership, it has sufficed as a prime tourist destination. According to Taylor, despite the widely held belief that the Kashmir conflict is primarily a geo-political one, the undercurrents that spur the conflict are purely ethno-cultural (1991, p.305).

As stated earlier, Pakistan is largely a Muslim nation while India is mainly composed of Hindu populace. The ethno-religious views prevalent in both countries dictate that, to cede ground to the other would be tantamount to giving up on the particular religion.

For instance, Pakistan was granted the status of a dominion, separate from India, because its population was largely Muslim, distinct from the Hindu populace of India. Subsequently, for many Pakistanis, claiming Kashmir for their nation’s territory mirrors the very factor that granted them independence from India – religion. Therefore, to give up the claim for Kashmir would be tantamount to giving up Pakistan’s very own claim for independence.

As aforementioned, the two nations have fought about three wars over Kashmir – in 1947, 1965, and 1971, and in all these instances, Pakistan was decisively beaten. An insurgency covertly supported by Pakistan, in 1989, destabilized the region; nevertheless, there is still no definitive solution to the fate of the Kashmir region between the two states to this very day.

Conformity and the Kashmir Crisis Conformity is the practice of changing one’s attitudes, beliefs, and practices in order to align with the prevailing attitudes, beliefs, and practices of one’s society. In India, the prevalent religion is Hindu, and the majority of the representatives in the Congress and the executive profess the Hindu faith.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All the prime ministers of India have been of Hindu faith. Conversely, Pakistan, as a Muslim nation, has had only Muslim Prime Ministers throughout its history. Therefore, unlike other western democracies which strive to separate the state from religion, in these two Asian democracies, state and religion, freely mix. Many political and economic decisions in both countries more often have religious origins.

As a result, the need for politicians to conform to the prevailing ethno-religious attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs in these two countries has played a role in escalating the Kashmir conflict. According to Tavares, the militants in Kashmir wage a battle against India in an effort to build a theocratic state in Kashmir (2008, p.280).

Despite the belief that the people of Kashmir should have a right to self determine, both India and Pakistan are unwilling to cede any ground, and the stubborn nature of all leaders involved indicates a proclivity towards societal conformity in the leaders, leading to a stalemate.

In India, a Prime Minister, for instance, willing to allow Kashmir to join Pakistan because the majority of the citizens in the region are Muslim would immediately lose influence, power, and political power. A loss in a subsequent election would not be surprising.

Therefore, as much as an Indian leader may want to solve the Kashmir conflict by ceding ground because Kashmir should rightly come under the Pakistani sovereignty, the need to conform to the prevailing national attitude would constrain him or her. Similarly, any Pakistani leader willing to let go of the Kashmir region perhaps because India, being the more powerful nation, should govern the Kashmir would easily fallout of favor with the electorate.

Therefore, the Kashmir conflict has continued, not that a solution to the conflict is unattainable, but because the political leaders of the two countries have to continuously conform to the prevailing politico-societal beliefs (Kumar 2002, p.11). As stated earlier, the undercurrents that fan the flame of the conflict are largely ethno-religious.

Social Perception and the Kashmir Conflict Social perception is the gradual process through which people acquire beliefs and attitudes from the unique cultural experiences that prevail around them. The socialization experiences that encompass an individual create the basis on which the individual views the world.

We will write a custom Essay on The Kashmir Crisis: An Ethno-Religious Perspective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In India, many of the citizens confess and stand by to the Hindu faith. With the exception of the northern province of Punjab, where the majority practices the Sikh faith, much of Indians professes the Hindu faith. Therefore, the social perception of the average Indian man is heavily influenced by the cultural dictates of the Hindu faith.

As such, the social perception of Indians relies heavily on the dictates of the Hindu faith. Because many religions teach the uniqueness and superiority of the particular religion over all others, the social perception of Indians encourages a non-compromising stand on conflicts such as the Kashmir conflict.

The non-compromising stand stems from the fact that in dealing with Pakistanis and the majority of the people living in Kashmir, the Indians deal with persons of another faith – Islam. Since the social perception of an Indian includes the belief in the supreme nature of the Hindu religion compared to other faiths, to compromise would mean accepting the superiority of another religion, which would go against the average Indian’s social perception.

On the other hand, the social perception of the majority of Pakistanis and people living in Kashmir is heavily influenced by the Islamic faith. Similarly, the belief in Islam and the huge role it plays in the social perception of Pakistanis precludes the possibility of a conclusive peaceful solution to the Kashmir crisis; because, the Islamic faith that influences a Pakistani’s social perception also announces its superiority over other religions.

Therefore, as much as this fact may not be acknowledged, the Kashmir conflict is primarily a religious conflict influenced by the social perceptions of the citizens of these two countries (India and Pakistan), these social perceptions being based on religion. The interest that the Muslim terrorist group Al-Qaeda has on the conflict gives credence to this religious angle to the conflict.

The late Al Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden, in 2002, warned the USA against supporting India in the Kashmir conflict. The interest that Al-Qaeda has on Kashmir stems from the terrorist organization’s belief in the creation of Islam based states – theocracies.

Social Cognition and the Kashmir Conflict Social cognition is the process through which an individual processes information about the society around him or her and then uses this information in interacting with others and in individual decision-making.

In relation to the Kashmir conflict, social cognition determines the approach that the various leaders of the two nations use to try to resolve the conflict. In India, the successive Prime Ministers view the conflict from a Hindu religious angle, while the Pakistani leaders view it from a Muslim religious angle. All parties, therefore, view their own specific religions as the best, and endeavor to influence the other party to subscribe to their view – leading to a stalemate and thus a continuation of the crisis.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Kashmir Crisis: An Ethno-Religious Perspective by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Change of Social Perceptions that may lead to Conflict Resolution in Kashmir As stated earlier in this paper, the major factor that has led to a lack of resolution to the Kashmir conflict has been the social perception of the citizens and leaders of the nations of India and Pakistan.

Given that the social perceptions of the citizens and leaders of the two countries are steeped in religious dogma, the first social perception that will need to be addressed in order to resolve the Kashmir crisis is the social perception based on religion. Because both nations are democracies, the fate of the citizens of Kashmir should be determined by a referendum whose results should be accepted by all parties (Ganguly

Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Beethoven’s Seventh symphony has no equal. The symphony is articulately arranged and established with unique flow of both chords and musical patterns. Listening to the seventh symphony one may note that the music is purely priceless; it is not an impersonation of someone’s ideas.

Thus, it can be argued that with its rich texture and timbre the symphony is exceptionally great. This illustrates that the seventh symphony is beyond any common explanation. The manner it stimulates thrills and captures the imagination of the listeners with its musical beauty and glory, it is awesome. The introduction, for instance, is developed and arranged in a manner that it strikes an addictive attention.

This can be allied to the manner the instruments have been arranged in order to synch with the tempo. More so, the symphony’s imposing orchestra chords, and the compliments of wind instruments such as oboe makes the symphony have a taste that is extremely majestic. Hence, the smooth ascendancy of its sonorities makes the symphony rhythm and movements have an effect that cannot be compared to any other symphony (Grove 80).

It ought to be noted that Beethoven gave the symphony its magnificent touch by establishing strong rhythms which are tied to the symphony’s themes. With the impact of individual dynamism the symphony is etched along the pillars of integrating diverse instruments with selected and tested alterations.

These measures seem to have aided the composer in developing the diverse elements which are apparent in the symphony. Consider the fact that the seventh symphony is almost without any elements of slow movement, yet its mood is extremely exuberant. Yet, it has less melody which is also complimented by less usage of strings.

From such a creative alteration of chord the symphony is equally propelled to its greater heights by the manner Beethoven injecting both major and minor chords interchangeably. Also, as the symphony gains in moment, it is evident that he introduced a new melody which is accompanied by dissimilar rhythm, bassoons as well as clarinets yet the temple and the pulse of the symphony remains intact.

More so, another notable feature of the seventh symphony is the way the diverse musical notes are exploited from a simple texture to the more complex key patterns we find the notes being craftily altered.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the use of violin the symphony captures the imagination of orchestra lovers, while at the same capacity he sets motley of short notes against external rhythm of the symphony. And this established the allegretto movement in the composition (Steinberg 54). Subsequently, the arrangement of strings and the usage of G-sharp which is elaborately sustained by brilliant twining of horns, trumpets and other assorted instruments are superb.

What I have discovered is that the symphony has unique delay effect that is difficult to pick. This can be testified by the way singular octaves rise and drop creating a sublime melody. And this can be said to be the third feature that is unique to the seventh symphony. The instrumentation of this symphony indicates that it is divided into four major segments. Each segment is defined as a movement.

However, according to diverse music pundits the second movement which is popularly known as Allegretto is the most popular. Though, the symphony itself was developed with the core introduction being etched on the traditional orchestral traditions, it is no surprise that it has such a lengthy introduction, yet so impressive and aesthetically independent both in content and character and this separate the seventh symphony from the preceding symphonies.

It ought to be noted that it has definite and impressive structural design that can be said to be anchored within the range of C-major. And this makes the seventh symphony rhythmically a danceable piece. Note that, the rhythm is well tied to the entire instrumentation where the tempo is neither fast nor slow and this makes the entire piece to be a movement in the dancing context.

Thus,in exploring the entire configuration of seventh symphony we can argue that the arrangement sand the composition is total consigned to exposition which is equally transferred with dynamic transpositions. And this gives the symphony the movement depicted as allegro.

More so,the other factor is that the establishment of diverse tones ranging from the F-ajor scale with minor tones moving towards 6th scale with the extent of A provides a sound explanation of symphonies tendency to move towards its unique simplicity which is in the domain of E, a dominant feature all through the symphony.

In essence, this establishes the symphony’s unique context both in presentation and performance. With unconventional method the tones,chords,harmonies as well as the tempo are all integrated to give the piece the unique timbre making the symphony danceable and equally enjoyable to listen, it has a smooth texture that is a product of harnessing the elements of treble G-major which happens to e the ultimate musical hierarchy.

We will write a custom Essay on Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The vivacity which is evident in tone and rhythm ascertains the symphony’s audacity and its splendid vitality. It ought to be noted that the manner the symphony transcends and descends is an ultimate score in symphonic movement.

With sustained chords, smooth flow of basses, violin and unassumed dominance-note- E establishes the resounding melodic tune swayed by elaborate accompanienment of D-major which is also supported by the home-keys. The seventh symphony can be said to be the genius composition by Beethoven in his earlier symphonies (Hopkins 155).

Works Cited Grove, Sir George. Beethoven and his nine symphonies .New York: Dover, 1999.

Hopkins, Antony. The Nine Symphonies of Beethoven. London: Heinemann, 2001.

Steinberg, Michael. The Symphony: a listener’s guide. Oxford, 1995.

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