Criminal Justice System and Society
Introduction Criminal justice system derives its policies from the assumptions of varied criminological theories. There are many criminological theories and their differences lie in the assumptions that give explanations or predictions of crime. Since crime is a social issue that affects everyone in the society, formation of social policies based on the same theoretical assumptions applied in the criminal justice system would enhance public understanding and the control of crime.
Cullen and Agnew assert that,”social policy touches all our lives improving the welfare of all citizens and in particular meeting the needs of those who cannot provide for themselves by addressing social issues such as immigration control, prostitution, drug abuse, domestic violence and poverty” (1999, p. 23).
Concerted efforts of the criminal justice system and social policies offer structural approach of combating crime in the society. This essay examines criminological theories and the development of social policies that are necessary for effective crime control.
Criminal Justice System and Society The development of the social policies has encouraged active participation of the public in combating crime and creation of a safe society. The realization by the criminal justice system that members of the public can participate cooperatively in prevention of crime has led to the formulation of social policies to guide them in their participation.
Blakemore and Griggs argue that, “…connection between crime and social conditions can be altered by forms of social interventions that provide the connection between criminal justice and social policy in terms of the concept of the social control” (2007, p. 60). Incorporation of the members of the public in the criminal justice system through formulation of policies will have significant augmentation in fighting against crime.
Strain theory supports that crime occurs in the society due to the inequalities rather than poverty. For example, the United States of America is a wealthy country thus free from poverty yet she has the highest rates of crime. Knepper argues that, “the strain traditions insists that crime is not brought by poverty so much as inequality because an economic system that prevents participation by some individuals is a relative deprivations that pressurizes them into criminal activity” (2007, p. 25).
Due to economical strains in the society, the less privileged members of the society struggle very hard to meet their needs but since they have no available means of achieving them, they resort to crime as an alternative means of survival. Therefore, criminal justice system and the society should consider the economic inequality as the possible cause of crimes in the society and formulate social policies that will give every member in the society an opportunity to access livelihood.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current state of unemployment all over the world strains the lives of helpless youths who are potential human resources. The unemployed youths are struggling to make fortune by using all legitimate means; nevertheless, when these means are no longer available, they opt for criminal activities.
According to the opportunistic theory of crime, “…a young person who has decided to pursue an illegitimate route to success could only choose from those illegal activities available within the community … that adults in the neighborhood had already organized” (Knepper, 2007, p. 26).
Since the youths take opportunity of the available criminal activities in a certain community setting, the criminal justice system and the society should identify those criminal activities or gangs set up by adults and eliminate them in the society. If the society becomes free from any criminal gangs and criminal activities, the youths will not seize the opportunity and utilize them in conducting crimes.
Criminological Theories There are several criminological theories including routine activities theory, deterrence theory, rational choice theory, conflict theory, and techniques of neutralization.
The routine activities theory postulates that lack of guardians, presence of a motivated offender and availability of target, are the three elements that prompt occurrence of crime. According to the deterrence theory, “…crime can be controlled through the use of punishment that combines the proper degrees of certainty, severity, and celerity” (Akers
Conflicting Views on Abortion Essay (Critical Writing)
Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction
The Conservative perspective on Abortion
The Liberal Perspective on Abortion
Feminist perspective on Abortion
Religious Perspective on Abortion
Introduction Although abortion may be legally permissible in many countries, it is nevertheless a debatable issue regarding its moral permissibility. Different ethical theories have been put forward to provide the moral guidance with regard to abortion most notably, the liberal and conservative perspectives.
The difference that divides the two perspectives concerns the moral status of the fetus and the degree to which the fetus has right to life. However, both of the two perspectives do not regard the role played by the pregnant woman during gestation and the relationships involved during pregnancy between the woman and the fetus. The feminist perspective on the other hand, emphasizes that the woman has a pivotal role in abortion as the fetus occupies her body during the gestation period.
All these perspectives base their arguments on values rather than facts and the fact that the beginning of human life is not clearly defined. However, the scientific perspective answers the question as to when life begins and provides meaningful insights, as at what point human life deserves protection just like any other human individual and for what reasons for protecting its rights.
The Conservative perspective on Abortion The conservative perspective on abortion also called the pro-life perspective proposes that the human fetus is human with a unique set of genetic material (DNA) and therefore has full rights just like any other human being (Sumner 347). The conservatives believe the uniqueness of the DNA is what confers an embryo moral status.
The conservative perspective further states that abortion is homicide and as such not morally permissible. The conservatives believe that the fetus is of the same moral standing as the mother and thus both have equal rights. However, science holds that during the early stages of embryo development the zygote, with its unique set of DNA, can subdivide, and develop into two identical embryos.
This then begs the question as whether identical twins with much similar DNA have moral status. In addition, conservative proponents neglect the rights of the pregnant woman over her body but claim that the woman has no right to terminate the life of another human, based on her interests.
The Liberal Perspective on Abortion The liberal perspective on abortion also called pro-choice view places the decision whether or not to terminate the pregnancy on the woman based on personal health and future. The liberals argue that while the fetus may be human, it lacks the qualities to grant it rights like other human beings (Noonan 98). Liberal perspective thus does not consider the fetus worthy of any rights and protection making abortion morally permissible.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The liberals place more emphasis on the rights of the woman instead of the fetus. They claim that it is the right of the woman to protect her health, happiness, freedom and therefore, to terminate a pregnancy is justifiable. They oppose the claim from a conservative perspective that fetus has rights by arguing that the fetus resemblance to a person or its potential of becoming a person in future does not warrant it any significant right to life.
The liberal perspective, however, does not provide a proper moral guidance to the woman faced with a decision of whether or not to procure an abortion. It does not consider the moral conflict faced by the woman in making this decision, instead; it allows the woman to exercise autonomy over her body giving her the freedom of choice (Sherwin 96).
The liberals’ view that the fetus has no rights as the sole basis for the choice to abort or not, does not provide moral justification for abortion, because it neglects the relationships involved in the pregnancy by merely giving the liberty to terminate pregnancy.
Feminist perspective on Abortion The feminist view on abortion acknowledges the deep relationship developed between the woman and the fetus during pregnancy. It further argues that the woman has moral responsibility over the fetus founded on the relationship developed during gestation (Sherwin 199).
This accounts for the concerns that women have when faced with the decision whether to procure an abortion or not. The feminist perspective considers other factors such as the women’s feelings about the fetus, the relationship of the woman and her partner and her obligations in the family as a basis for making a decision to or not to terminate a pregnancy.
Both the feminists and liberals hold the opinion that a woman has the right of choice during a pregnancy. However, they differ in the sense that the feminists focus on the woman while the liberals focus on the fetus. The liberals also do not consider the mother-fetus relationships during pregnancy.
Sherwin contradicts the liberal perspective by arguing that from a feminist point of view the fetus is morally significant but not absolutely (101). On the other hand, the liberal view disregards social factors that are also important during a pregnancy like personal health or the plans of the woman. Both the liberal and the conservative perspectives do not consider the relationship of the mother and the fetus nor the social factors involved.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Conflicting Views on Abortion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Religious Perspective on Abortion The religious views on abortion oscillate between extreme views where abortion is an act of murder to moderate views where abortion is a necessary act depending on the circumstances. The religious perspective covers wide issues taking into account not only the rights of the fetus but also the status and rights of the mother.
All the major religions provide moral guidance regarding abortion based on religious texts and human reasoning. Most religions consider abortion a sin and therefore, not morally permissible. However, some religions place more significance on the status and rights of the woman more than on the fetus and therefore, suggest that abortion is permissible under some circumstances.
Scientific Perspective Science attempts to answer the question as to when human life begins, which is important in determining the moral permissibility of abortion. The abortion debate is on moral values rather than on facts, (Keith and Tony 33).The scientific perspective provides clear evidence as to when human life begins in an attempt to end the abortion debate.
According to a universally accepted scientific criteria, the sperm-egg fusion leads to the formation of a zygote approximately 24 hours after fertilization. The Zygote soon after its formation begins a sequence of events that facilitate further embryo development. This is uncharacteristic of the either the sperm cell or the egg separately therefore making the zygote characteristic of a human organism.
However, the point at which fertilization (sperm-egg fusion) ends and zygote becomes human otherwise known, as syngamy, is debatable. After the binding of the sperm and the egg during fertilization, the membranes of the two cells fuse forming a hybrid cell, the zygote that contains two different genetic materials.
In the zygote the DNA contributed by the sperm and the egg undergo modification to enable it to participate in further embryonic development. This is unique to the zygote making it different from the sperm or the egg. The events point to the evidence that the fusion process creates a new cell, a human cell (Keith and Tony 34).
The question that remains unanswered is whether this human cell is an individual human organism and therefore deserves recognition. An organism possesses many complex organs that are interdependent to allow an organism to carry out the activities of life. A human cell in contrast, contains the genetic material but has no complex organization.
Syngamy refers to the process that marks the onset of a new cell; the zygote, that to some extent is different from the sperm and egg. However, it does not provide sufficient scientific evidence to show that the new cell so formed is a new human being and such accorded special rights and protection. This leaves the question as to when do human life begin and when is it appropriate to procure an abortion; a matter for the ethicists.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Conflicting Views on Abortion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The issue of moral permissibility of abortion is controversial and consequently, arouses much debate. Different perspectives base their arguments on flawed views that cannot entirely justify abortion. The scientific perspective provides explanation as to when the fetus becomes human and therefore deserves rights as any human being.
From the evidence adduced through scientific research, the ethicists and other concerned parties can make informed decisions regarding abortion without infringement on the rights of the mother or of the unborn child.
Works Cited Keith, Moore and Tony, Persaud. The Developing Human. Philadelphia: Saunders-Elsevier, 2003: 31-35.
Noonan, John. An Almost Absolute Value in History. Toronto: Wadsworth Publishing.2005: 98-103
Sherwin, Susan. Abortion Through A Feminist Ethics. Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.2005: 95-108