“A literature review is a systematic, explicit and reproducible method for identifying evaluating and interpreting the existing body of recorded work produced by researches, scholars and practitioners”, (Fink, 1998, p.3).
The review (Mouton, 2001) helps to place the research in the context of what has already been done, thus, allowing comparisons to be made. It is a critical summary and assessment of the range of existing materials dealing with knowledge and understanding in a given field. Its main purposes are as follows: to locate the research project, to provide a rationale for the research, forming its context or background, to provide insights into previous work, and to identify a gap, a problem in the existing literature and thus providing a framework for further research.
A review of literature also contributes to the development of the researcher’s intellectual capacity and practical skills as it engenders a research attitude, thus encouraging the researcher to think rigorously. Time and effort carefully spent at this particular stage helps to save a great deal of effort and vague search.
Another purpose of reviewing the literature is to analyse the different methodologies and data collection methods used by previous researchers in similar issues. This would help the researcher to identify the various strengths and lacunas of the used methods. A thorough review of literature may enable the researcher to answer the several pertinent questions.
2.1: INTRODUCTION A study of teachers’ motivation consists of two main themes. The first one identifies the different factors affecting teachers’ motivation, while the second aspect analyses how the school heads can impact on teachers’ motivation through their leadership. This chapter explains the importance of teacher motivation. The motivational factors for teachers, applying literature findings are reviewed.
2.2: Importance of teacher motivation Schools exist, primarily to educate children. It is for this purpose that teachers are employed in schools (Fiddler
Professional Development For Strategical Managers
According to Guskey (2000) as a consultant of AB management consultant if I want to do my best and if I want to expand my organization consistently I have both skills personal and professional because as per my point of view both skills are complimentary and which can help my organization and I will achieve my organizational goal. With the help of these skills I can contribute to the development of my employees. In this assignment I want to evaluate both professional and personal skills required to meet both organizational and own goals and objectives and also I want to take action on implementation of my goal and objective. I want to determine short, medium and long term goals and also analyse strengths and weaknesses.
Furthermore I have to analyze which skill is helpful for our organization: Professional or Personal skill. Lucey (2005) mentions that Personal and Professional Skills form part of Human Resource Management, which is the most important and vital aspect in an organization. The globalization of the business world has caused organizations to compete against one another for their survival. In this regards, the management in terms of strategy, planning and policies play a tremendous and crucial role. Moreover I have to analyze which skill is helpful for our organization: Professional or Personal.
According to Mullins (2002), to be a good consultant a person must develop strong personal skills so as to maintain a proper balance between work and pleasure. Professional skills are those skills that help a person manage his/her professional or work life in a more apt way. Professional skills are those skills on how to set and achieve objectives of the business, negotiate conflicts, maintain ethics at workplace and program planning.
TASK-1 BE ABLE TO ASSESS PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE STRATEGIC GOALS 1.1:- USE APPROPRIATE METHODS TO EVALUATE PERSONAL SKILLS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE STRATEGIC GOALS There are some methods to evaluate personal skills required to achieve strategic goals in personal and professional life for example:
Hard work/ Dedication: According to Guest (2000) hard work and dedication are two traits of managers. The people who find success become managers and are the ones who are looked to for help. If I want to become a successful consultant of AB Management then I have to put myself out to help other people. Finding success is easier if a distributor is able to find a manager who is willing to take the time and effort to help him do well in the business until he can become a leader in the company. According to Lucey (2005) regardless of whether or not a manager is found to help, however, the distributor himself must be willing to work hard and have the dedication to keep trying until the dream is fulfilled. Every employer wants an employee who is hard worker and they expect form employee to keep it at it until they solve the problem and get the job done.
Stress Management: According to stress Guest D (2000) this is very crucial management skill because mentally stress is really not good for any human being or any manager in organization. According to stress management also play big role when we are on managerial level. for example in AB management there are many employees and they have different kind of problems in their life so as a manager I have to sort it out everything and don’t have to depress that I got big problem what can I do? I have to sort it out problem and give its solution in particular manner. Stress is a nervous system reaction of our body towards certain stimulus. Guest D (2000) mention that this nervous system reaction could be easily viewed as an unconscious preparation of the body for a certain activity, like for instance releasing adrenaline chemicals onto our muscles whenever we feel alarmed, for example triggering auto response duck and adrenaline rush quickness on the muscles as we hear and process a gunfire shot; or else shutting down some of our pain receptors while we’re in a fight.
The problem with stress response is that it also triggers psychologically. Anxiety of approaching deadlines, nervousness over the outcome of a completing project, surmounting unpaid bills, or the nervous anticipation of any event, any situation that’s going to happen in the near future may trigger stress response. Over time, these repeated stress experiences can severely deplete energy which could be used for other health functions like digesting meals, functioning body defence system, and such.
TIME MANAGEMENT: Evans (2008) claims that for effective management and leadership skill it is very important to manage time if any manger or employee fails to manage time they are never go ahead in their life.
This figure shows that how to use time effectively in this competitive world because time is very important. Time management there are two kinds of people first who have no time they are too busy with their life so they cannot change schedule for learn something which is useful for their organization and the other people in time management are those who have ability to take new challenges in market they get time from their busy schedule and attend workshop. What they got the knowledge from workshop or what they learnt from the trainer they directly implement those ideas and skill to the employees so it can be easy for employee to do their task.
Prioritising Work Tasks: According to Mullins (2000) there is no question that all employers desire employee who will arrive at work every day on time and ready to work and who will take responsibility for their action. One thing is the fact that dependable, responsible, contributor committed to excellence and success. Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A test is considered reliable if we get the same result repeatedly. For example, if a test is designed to measure a trait such as introversion, then each time the test is administered to a subject, the results should be approximately the same. Unfortunately, it is impossible to calculate reliability exactly, but there several different ways to estimate reliability.
1.2 APPLY TECHNIQUES TO ASSESS THE PROFESSIONAL SKILLS REQUIRED TO SUPPORT THE STRATEGIC DIRECTION OF ORGANISATION: Techniques to assess the professional skills which required to support the strategic direction of organisation is very necessary in this assignment. There are some techniques which are very important to assess the professional skills.
Mentoring: Mentoring is also contributing in the achieving goal or objective of an organisation it is a way of overcoming many problems. According to Boxhall (2003) a mentor is someone who can advise and guide us in our carrier. He or she has a number of roles as an appraiser, a supporter, a communicator and a superior and his subordinates and if it is unlikely that a manager can carry these functions. A good mentor has coaching skills is trustworthy respected and is free from major distractions either within or outside the workplace, without a mentor reflection is also not also very productive experience. It can be a bit like looking for piglet. As a Consultant of AB management I can spend time thinking without arriving at a conclusion, it helps of course if I have structure to my thinking, in mentoring the questions are what is happening has happened? What brought this about? What went well and what did not go well? How can the situation be improved? What might we learn form the situation that might influence future action?
Coaching: Guskey (2000) point out that all human beings are born with a dream, which are there goals in their life. Attaining a goal is not that easy and hence there is a need for a clear and correct path for the easy attaining the goals. This easy attaining of the path can be achieved with the help of a coach and coaching. And so it is said that coaching is the practice of giving sufficient direction, instruction and training to a person or a group people, so as to achieve some goals or even in developing specific skills. Though coaching is a system of providing training, the method of coaching differs from person to person, aim or goals to be attained, and the areas needed. Still there are some common methods in coaching. They are essential part of an effective coaching.
Leadership: Guskey (2000) suggested leadership is a key skill, and it’s one that can make a huge difference to anyone’s career. At work, problems are at the centre of what many people do every day. As a consultant of AB management either solving a problem for a client internal or external, supporting those who are solving problems, or discovering new leadership skill.
The problems we face can be large or small, simple or complex, and easy or difficult to solve. Regardless of the nature of the problems, a fundamental part of every manager’s role is finding ways to solve and lead them. So, being a confident leader is really important to our success. Much of that confidence comes from having a good process to use when approaching a problem lead. With one, we can solve problems quickly and effectively. Without one, our solutions may be ineffective, or we’ll get stuck and do nothing, with sometimes painful consequences
TASK-2 BE ABLE TO CONDUCT A SKILLS AUDIT TO IDENTIFY LEARNING SYTLE 2.1 CARRY OUT SKILLS TO EVALUATE THE STRATEGIC SKILLS NEEDED TO MEET CURRENT AND FUTURE LEADERSHIP USING PERSONAL SWOT ANALYSIS, PSYCHOMETRIC TEST AND SWAG ANALYSIS: There are few skills which evaluate the strategic skills needed to meet the current and future leadership.
Communication Skill: According to Douglas (2005) Good verbal and written communication skills are one of the basic management skills. If we will notice some of the good leaders, we would realize that they all had good oratory or written skills. A leader always knows what he wants to say and when he should say it. So as a consultant of AB management I should have a great sense of timing along with communication skills. I should also know how to convey certain messages subtly so that the work is done in an expected and speculated manner. A manager should understand that he is a liaison between the staff and the higher authority and should be able to put the issues effectively in front of both the parties. In that case, he may need to have good diplomacy and negotiation skills that are extremely important.
Decision Making: As a good consultant of AB management I also need to have good decision making judgment and ability. Douglas (2005) opined that only decision making power is not enough. A manager should know how to execute his powers for the betterment of the staff and the company. A manager has to go through many stressful situations that are full with moral and ethical dilemma and so he must possess good judgment and analytical ability. This would help him take the right decision. A manager should involve his staff taking major decisions. He must remember that imposing authority or decisions is not leadership in its true sense.
APPENDIX B-Skills Audit and SWAG analysis Development Goals-Strengths, Weaknesses, Aspirations and Goals (SWAG) Strength: practical and realistic
Like to learn new things, techniques
By setting goals, I always try to accomplish it by hard work
Like to take chance in experimentation
Always come up with new ideas.
Weaknesses: Not involved in basic speculation or philosophy
Take action without caution
Do the tasks without any people
Aspirations: Utilization of college services like live campus, technological equipment and library facilities etc.
Preparation of time logs during workshops
Practical knowledge about meeting, presentation in lecture
Group activities in class
Goals: Problem solving.
Independent in my work.
2.2 APPLY APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY PREFERRED LEARNING STYLE: In this assignment it is very important to prefer learning style which is really very important. According Peter Honey and Alan Mumford (2010) also identified another type of learning style preference. They maintained that by identifying preferred style, we could try and apply it to learning new things. Most of us have elements of more than one learning style, so we should think about our strongest and our weakest style to identify how we learn. If we are able to use our natural style, we are likely to find learning much easier and quicker. The four categories Honey and Mumford identified are, Activists, reflector, theorist and pragmatists.
According to Neil and Morgan (2003) activists like to be involved in new experiences s as a consultant of AB management I have tend to be open minded and enthusiastic about new ideas but get bored with actual implementation. However, enjoy getting their sleeves rolled up and doing things. It can be impulsive, tending to act first and consider the consequences afterwards. Activists enjoy working in terms but do tend to control the attention.
Activists learn most when
Involved in new experiences, problems and opportunities
Interacting with others in business games, team tasks, role playing
Thrown in at the deep end with a difficult task
Chairing meetings, leading discussions
Activists learn least when
Simply listening to lectures or long explanations
Reading, writing or thinking by themselves
Absorbing and understanding data
Precisely following detail instructions
The VARK model is a sensory model that is an extension of the earlier neurolingusistic model. The acronym VARK stands for Visual, Aural, Read or write and Kineststhetic. Fleming defines learning style as an individual’s characteristics and preferred ways of gathering, organizing and thinking about information. VARK is in the category of instructional preference because it deals with perceptual molds, or senses. It does not address are test and smell. The VARK inventory provides metrics in each of the four perceptual modes, with individuals having preferences for anywhere from one to all four.
There are also differences in learning approaches for the four VARK Learning Styles. Visual learners prefer maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, brochures, flow charts, highlighters, different colors, pictures, word pictures, and different spatial arrangements. Aural learners like to explain new ideas to others, discuss topics with other students and their teachers, use a tape recorder, attend lectures and discussion groups, and use stories and jokes. Read/Write learners prefer lists, essays, reports, textbooks, definitions, printed handouts, readings, manuals, Web pages, and taking notes. Kinesthetic learners like field trips, trial and error, doing things to understand them, laboratories, recipes and solutions to problems, hands-on approaches, using their senses, and collections of samples.
TASK-3 BE ABLE TO IMPLEMENT A PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN 3.1 CONSTRUCT A PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN USING SMART OBJECTIVES THAT MEETS LEAERSHIP DEVELOPMENT REQUIRED SKILLS AUDIT: Specific:- In this objective my task has to be specific according my skills which satisfaction levels in the learning resources provided by the department. Reduce the amount of time it takes to respond to academic departmental requests for information. Specific means that the objective is concrete, detailed, focused and well defined. The program states a specific outcome, or a precise objective to be accomplished. The outcome is stated in numbers, percentages, frequency, reach, scientific outcome, etc.
Measurable:- In each and every task planning should be measurable and achievable. If the objective is measurable, it means that the measurement source is identified and we are able to track the actions as we progress towards the objective. Measurement is the standard used for comparison. For example, what financial independence means to me may be totally different compared to what is means for you. As it’s so often said if you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it! It’s important to have measures that will encourage and motivate you on the way as you see the change occurring, this may require interim measures. Measurements go a long way to help us to know when we have achieved our objective.
Aims:- In this objective to improve personal development skills for leadership in every task aims should be clear and understandable. If you have an aim which is not achievable according the situation and circumstances for that you are not able to use a particular smart objective.
Realistic:- Objectives must be realistic Objectives that are achievable, may not be realistic. However, realistic does not mean easy. Realistic means that you have the resources to get it done. The achievement of an objective requires resources, such as, skills, money, equipment, etc. to the task required to achieve the objective.
Timed:- Time-bound means setting deadlines for the achievement of the objective. Deadlines need to be both achievable and realistic. If you don’t set a time you will reduce the motivation and urgency required to execute the tasks. Timeframes create the necessary urgency and prompts action.
Furthermore when I talk about the personal development plan, according to Boxall