Polymerization refers to the degree in which repeating components form one outstanding unit. High strength polymers are those that have high level of polymerization, whereas those with one type of repeating units are homopolymers. Those with several and different repeating units are co-polymers.
The mode of classification that is in use for classifying polymers is the method used in their formation. There are two types of polymers which include additional polymers and condensation polymers.
Additional polymers are formed from the combination of many monomers while condensation polymers where the combination of monomers leads to the loss of a water molecule. The vital elements that form the polymers are carbon and hydrogen, although sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen may also be included.
Natural polymer is believed to have originated from South Africa from the trees called Heave and Castile. Its origin dates back from 1735 when natural rubber was first described by French geographic expedition to South Africa.
One of the first pioneers in the application of polymers was Joseph Priestley who in 1770 made a remarkable discovery that led to the use of natural rubber as an eraser. Then in 1909, this synthetic rubber was introduced publicly.
1922 German chemist Hermann Staudinger came up with his macromolecular hypothesis, giving a suggestion that the polymers are actually large molecules formed by the permanent joining of uncountable tiny molecules. Through his experiments, he proved this hypothesis to be true and earned himself a Nobel Prize in 1953.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of ways in which polymers are used. Such ways include:
In agriculture and agribusiness, polymers can be used to promote plant growth. They can also be used to improve aeration in soil. (Emsley,5).
In medicine, polymers are used to replace heart valves. These polymers include Teflon and Dacron.
Polymers can act as a substitute for natural cotton.
In industrial market, they can be used to make pipes, matrix for composites, insulation or even windshields in fighter planes.
They are also used to replace natural materials such as ivory and woods.
They can be used in cars and planes with reduced amount of fuel to be used due to their light weight.
We will write a custom Essay on The Effect of Polymers on Environment Vs Glass specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In consumer science, polymers are used to replace traditional containers. This is because they are light in weight and are also economical.
In sports, they are used in making protective helmets, balls of different varieties and other playground equipment.
Biopolymers are biodegradable polymers. The raw materials for their production may be renewable or synthetic. These types of polymers are not produced widely due to their high cost. Such kinds of polymer include:
Polyhdroxyalkanoate: compostable in an industrial facility. These are produced from a range of bacterial action, which act carbon storage materials. They also act like energy storage materials. They form a stable latex suitable in paper surface finishes and coating and sizing.
Polylactic acid: 100% compostable at 60oc in an industrial facility. Biodegradable plastics are those that will decompose in landfill (environment). Biodegradable plastics can be produced from organisms in the environment. Micro-organisms can produce renewable raw materials or petroleum based plastics. Since these plastics are made from materials that are natural, for example, cellulose and starch, they decompose easily when in contact with oxygen or even water and sunlight. Micro-organisms use enzymatic break down of the points of glycoside linkage to bring about decomposition of these biopolymers. (Scott,93).
Polymers have varying environmental impacts. Such impacts include:
Some monomers are said to be toxic or even to some level said to be carcinogenic.
Burning of plastics produces emission that lead to production of green house gases for example, carbon dioxide. This gas is also a major source for global warming.
There is also production of methane gas, a product of anaerobic digestion, together with carbon dioxide emitted from decomposition of biodegradable polymer.
Non-biodegradable plastics are buried in landfills. These plastics occupy space that would otherwise have been occupied by other biodegradable plastics. This will result to the same lasting in landfills for a longer period of time, even up to hundreds of years.
Improper composition of plastics also has its impacts to the environment. In regions of the north pacific, there is a floating island of plastics that have been discarded hence bring about the danger to the aquatic life and the birdlife. Many coast areas, as well as the inland, may contain plastics.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effect of Polymers on Environment Vs Glass by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Glass Glass is a solid object with non-crystalline properties. It is amorphous in nature and occurs in various forms. It is principally made up of silica (SiO2) which makes up a substantial percentage about 75% of its components; other components include lime (calcium oxide), magnesium oxide and aluminium oxide each of which add to its long lasting nature.
Sodium carbonate may be an additive, however it is not preferred as it makes its ability to be converted to the liquid state easily attainable. Huge debates have risen as to the physical state of glass i.e. whether it is a solid or a liquid but in essence glass is a liquid in a super cooled state.
This means that it has rigidity and is static however it does not lose its molecular state. Glass comes in a variety of forms and used in varied applications as it ranges from clear glass to tinted glass and lastly tempered glass.
It is believed that glass has been in existence since time immemorial with natural glass dating back to 5000 BC, in ancient Rome, as an accidental finding by Syrian merchants and the man-made glass tracing its roots in Mesopotamia in 3500BC as the outcome of a coincidental mixture of calcified sand and soda being mixed in a kiln.
Since its advent glass has improved man’s way of living significantly. Uses range from home-use to industrial use. Compared to polymers glass is the appropriate material for producing storage equipment due to its hygienic nature. It is essentially absent of toxic components and is quite inert thus its effect on the environment is minimal.
Resistance to wear and tear is an additional feature and the little quantities of glass like lime and silica are constituents of mineral water. The inert nature is evident in its slow conversion to silicates when released to the environment and this property can be utilized in making environmentally dangerous material inert.
Recycling, which is, the ideal waste management strategy can easily be implemented when using glass due to its non-biodegradable nature. A particular glass bottle can be used infinitely as it can be melted and re-melted without losing its properties. (Walker,22).
This is ecologically friendly as it: –
Cuts down on disposal and transport expenses.
Minimizes environmental damage.
Minimizes production costs by reducing the amount of primary materials, especially calcium carbonates and silicates and by extension minimizing quarry exploitation of these resources.
Reduces amount of energy that is consumed in production as a ton of glass re-melted spares a similar amount of the same raw materials and even more energy.
Reduces the greenhouse effect that would arise from carbon dioxide production that would have arisen, as a result, carbonate decomposition in case of primary materials.
However, there are also negative attributes to glass being in the environment such as:-
Glass dust has detrimental health risks to humans and other forms of human life.
Physical trauma can be incurred from glass particles hanging in the environment.
It therefore goes without saying that the use of polymers in the production of storage equipment has much more negative attributes as compared to the use of glass especially in the detrimental effects that they have on the environment. Recycling is the most efficient ecologically friendly way of management of waste.
Work Cited Emsley, Alan. Polymers: the environment and sustainable development. New York: John Wiley and Sons,2003.
Scott, Gerald. Polymers and the environment. England: Royal Society of Chemistry, 1999.
Walker, Kate. Recycle, reduce, reuse, rethink . New York: Black Rabbit Books, 2005.
The Benefits of a Routine Physical Exercise Program Essay
Nursing Assignment Help In recent years, the proliferation of lifestyle diseases coupled with the underlying need to stay healthy has made many populations worldwide to become increasingly aware of the need for physical fitness.
Popular media and other advertising channels bombard us everyday with messages on how to guard and improve our health conditions. Although much of this information is commercially motivated by marketers keen to sell vitamin supplements and other ‘health’ products, some of it, in particular that campaigning for a routine exercise regimen, merits serious consideration.
Such a regimen, if done routinely and with passion, can provide numerous benefits to individuals. In essence, routine physical exercise is beneficial to individuals since it assists them discharge tension, improve physical appearance, and enhance stamina.
The first of these advantages, the discharge of tension, is in actual terms felt immediately after taking part in a workout. Current literature demonstrates that tension builds in our bodies’ overtime, in part, due to an over-accumulation of adrenaline mostly generated by stress, job strain, anxiety or fear.
Indeed, medical professionals are in agreement that participating in physical exercise or sporting events for at least thirty minutes or so actively vent off the tension accumulated in our bodies.
If an individual actively engage in playing volleyball or tennis for half an hour each day, he or she should be able to sleep comfortably at night and have a better disposition the next day primarily because sleep is vital for cell rejuvenation and growth. In addition, unwarranted irritations and frustrations with everyday tasks and responsibilities should be less upsetting if one engages in physical exercise.
For example, a manager affected by work-related distress may rush home, argue with his family and engage in other antisocial activities such as smoking and alcohol consumption to release stress. Taking about an hour or so to vent off the stress through physical exercise could inarguably assist the manager to avoid such antisocial behaviour. In this perspective, routine exercise can to a large extent control tension.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An improved physical form, which is the second benefit of routine exercise, takes some time to display, but it certainly comes if one is resilient enough to be able to strictly follow the exercise regimen. Physical exercise experts are of the opinion that individuals must at least train for a month or so before they can start reaping the benefits of improved appearance in the form of a trimmer and firmer shape.
An individual who is overweight by five pounds, for example, may enrol in an exercise program that will see him or her burn away the excess fat in a month or so and thereafter such an individual will not only acquire pride in tighter muscles and improved physique, but he or she will wear clothes more delightfully and contentedly. The individual may also benefit from an improved skin tone if he or she masters the art of combining the exercise regimen with a sensible diet.
In addition to the self-assurance occasioned by an enhanced physique, increased physical strength is known to stimulate stamina. Indeed, a stronger, healthier body is not only more capable of working harder in work-related environments, but it can withstand fatigue experienced as one goes about his or her daily tasks and responsibilities.
An employee who engages in physical exercise should be able to easily complete his or her weekly job assignments and still preserve sufficient energy for watering the garden and scrubbing the kitchen. Stamina is also known to play a significant role in warding off diseases that may slow down the individual and prevent him or her to accomplish set tasks.
Still, stamina opens the doors for employment in industries and sectors that primarily look at endurance as a basic requirement for employment suitability. The police force, the army, and the club bouncers are just a few examples of sectors that require fully invigorated personnel. In consequence, improved stamina is one of the most rewarding benefits of a routine exercise regimen.
While cheap solutions to the broader objectives of losing weight and attaining an eye-catching and full rejuvenated body continue to flood the popular media, acquiring these attributes is not an easy task for the feeble-hearted. The benefits, however, are totally worth the attempt of an established physical exercise regimen that enables an individual to not only feel relaxed and healthy, but also provides ample strength for successful completion of strenuous as well as normal activities.