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The Disparity between Indigenous and Non-indigenous Students in NAPLAN

The National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) was first introduced in 2008 as an assessment for the following domains: reading, writing, spelling, grammar and punctuation, and numeracy; for students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9.

Figure 1 Mean scale score
As displayed, a similar pattern could be seen across all five domains in each of the states in Australia. This trend has also been reproduced every year from the start of the NAPLAN (ACARA, 2018).
The demographic of indigenous young adults plays a primary contributory factor, where only about one third of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lived in Major Cities of Australia, compared with around three-quarters of the Non-Indigenous population (ABS, 2018). For those living in the rural and regional communities, exposure to Standard Australian English (SAE) is rather limited prior to formal education. Growing up in an environment of traditional languages and English-based creoles [of which there is at least 250 known distinct Indigenous languages (AIATSIS, 2005)] , they become circumstantial bilinguals, learning a second language out of necessity (Valdes, G.

Prevention Methods of Sexual Misconduct in Higher Education

Abstract
The Sexual Violence of Elimination Act (SaVE) was passed by the US Congress in 2013 amending the Clery ACT requiring all college campuses and universities that were federally funded to provide prevention and awareness programs that encompasses all of sexual assault, domestic violence, and same sex violence to its students and faculty staff. In order for college campuses and universities to meet federal mandates for protecting its students from sexual violence only those programs that show a rate of reduction in sexual assault should be made available.
Campus safety has been a concern for all student and sexual assault has become one of the most dangerous concern that they must face. Despite any and all prevention efforts of sexual assault it is still occurring on college campuses. Sexual assault still remains a major problem all over the world. Sexual assault brings with-it long-term effects, both psychologically and physically
Prevention Methods of Sexual Misconduct in Higher Education
Introduction The sexual assault on college campuses has become much more prevalent today than ever and yet more often than not goes unreported. Statics shows us that 20% of women who attend college have been a victim of some form of sexual assault including rape Krakaucer, et al.’s (2007). (Sexual Assault in fact is the only violent crime that women are victims more of than that of men (U.S. Department of Justice). The aftermath associated with sexual assault comes with a significant amount of long-term mental and physical health issues, increasing the risk not only for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also high blood pressure and sleep loss (Moses, n.d.). A decrease in these long-term effects can become instrumental to the health care industry as well as to the women who have be affected by it (Kilpatrick

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