A naturalist author, in Pizer’s mind, “grounds his fiction in the social realities of his historical moment and he therefore cannot help being especially responsive to social reality when that reality impinges cruelly on the fates of most men…[T]he naturalistic ethos, which views man as circumscribed by conditions of life over which he has no control, appears to be confirmed during periods of social malaise and individual hardship” (Pizer 153).
Kate Chopin’s The Awakening is one such work. Set in turn of the century New Orleans, The Awakening details the futile attempts of the protagonist, Edna Pontellier, to realize a modicum of personal freedom amid the socially constrictive Victorian era, wherein the roles allowed to females consisted exclusively of wifedom and motherhood.
Where the novel differs from other naturalist novels of its time, however, is in its treatment of the artist. This essay will show that The Awakening is best understood less so as an example of naturalist fiction and more so as a manifesto that highlights the intense social sacrifices that the pursuit of art demands.
Chopin’s nod to naturalism in The Awakening focuses wholly on the conundrum of freedom faced by women like Edna, who long for personal freedom, yet feel biologically bound to their children, and unable to leave them as a result.
In Pizer’s words, “though Edna may reject…the socially-constructed role of a mother’s total absorption in her children, she has not escaped the biologically essentialist act of giving birth to children and thus finding within herself the protective emotions of a mother” (Pizer 6). We see this especially toward the end of the novel, once Edna has struck out alone.
Though for all intents and purposes she has achieved her aim – she is free of her husband and painting regularly – she suffers agony at the loss of her children. “It was with a wrench and pang that Edna left her children. She carried away with her the sound of their voices and the touch of their cheeks. All along the journey homeward their presence lingered with her like the memory of a delicious song” (Chopin 248).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Critic Peter Ramos understands The Awakening as a “subtle but compelling critique of…naturalism” (Ramos 148).
Through Edna, says Ramos, Chopin “implies that in order for women like Edna to survive, the philosophical boundaries and consequences associated with these literary genres can and must be overcome. By…presenting women who seem to have a modicum of agency and autonomy, as well as a protagonist who mistakenly comes to believe that she has no say over her own fate, it undermines naturalism’s claims of determinism” (Ramos 148).
However, the more distinct means by which Chopin deviates from naturalism occurs through the character of Mademoiselle Reisz, a woman who has transcended biological determinism through the commitment to her art.
The independence and sacrifice that Reisz the artist embodies stands in stark relief to Edna, the mother posing as an artist. Chopin’s novel states in no uncertain terms that there are two reasons why Edna fails and ends her own life: she cannot be alone, and she cannot move beyond her identify as a mother, expect through death.
We see this most poignantly illustrated immediately before Edna’s suicide, when she imagines “the children appeared before her like antagonists who had overcome her; who had overpowered her and sought to drag her into the soul’s slavery for the rest of her days. But she knew a way to elude them” (Chopin 300).
Similarly, Edna’s inability to truly embrace her art and simultaneously, her aloneness, appears in the following passage: “Despondency had come upon her there in the wakeful night, and had never lifted. There was no one thing in the world she desired. There was no human being whom she wanted near her except Robert; and she even realized that the day would come when he, too, and the thought of him would melt out of existence, leaving her alone” (Chopin 300).
Edna’s final thoughts envision the derision that Mademoiselle Reisz would heap upon her suicide, were she a witness to it. “How Mademoiselle Reisz would have laughed, perhaps sneered, if she knew! “And you call yourself an artist! What pretensions, Madame! The artist must possess the courageous soul that dares and defies” (Chopin 302).
We will write a custom Essay on “The Courageous Soul that Dares and Defies”: Naturalism in The Awakening specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chopin’s message appears to be that though women such as Edna may delude themselves into thinking it is the fault of biology that they cannot strike out on their own, the true fault lies in their inability to free themselves from their identity as “mother-woman” (Chopin 19). In Chopin’s mind, it is Edna’s inability to fully embrace her art that keeps her at the mercy of patriarchal social restraints.
In a similar vein as other turn of the century naturalist novels, Kate Chopin’s The Awakening “illuminates the socio-economic and cultural realities women like Edna faced, as well as the physical desires and social needs society denied them” (Ramos 148). However, the novel diverges from the form in the relationship that develops between Edna and Mademoiselle Reisz, and through Reisz, Chopin delivers her ultimate message: the artist must accept the social consequences of her calling.
Works Cited Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. New York: Herbert S. Stone
A Doll’s House Modernism Theme Research Paper
Nursing Assignment Help A Doll’s House is a thought-provoking and insightful play because it boldly endorses modernist philosophies even at a time when romanticism was still rife in theatre. Henrik Ibsen set a precedent for other dramatists because he was realist, supported Marxism, and used melodrama to write this play.
Analysis of A Doll’s House Modernism Theories Modernism was a way of thinking that started in the last half of the nineteenth century and continued into the twentieth century. It was considered as a term that embraced the nonconventional. In other words, this is a break from the traditional way of interpreting and creating; it is not limited to one discipline.
At the time when modernism was at its peak, concerned advocates felt that there had been too much emphasis on order or chronology, so theirs was to break away from these traditions. On another level, modernism was seen as an alternative to the use of bureaucracies / the elite as a source of inspiration for works of art, literature, and the like.
Modernists questioned this focus and therefore chose to alter this progressively (McFarlane, 8). Their primary aim was to defy norms. Goings-on also motivated this phenomenon in the western world. At the time, the world had just gone through the First World War and was subsequently facing its repercussions through the depression.
Europeans, therefore, questioned the relevance of the romantic era. They now felt that the focus on virtues and evil/ good could not apply to their prevailing circumstances. Consequently, one can say that the political and social environment was an essential determinant of this movement. It injected a new wave of creativity in the arts and paved the way for many original pieces.
In A Doll’s House, one of the outstanding depictions of this way of thinking was seen at the end of the play; in other words, the overall plot of the story has been used to propagate the modernist agenda.
A Doll’s House Moral Lesson as a Result Of Modernism Impact
Through this ending, Ibsen is fundamentally questioning societal rules or the status quo. The main character was willing to take her own life so that she could save her husband’s reputation but soon finds out that he was nothing more than a selfish and narcissistic individual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He underplayed her great sacrifices and even told her that she was like a child in his eyes. Nora Helmer, therefore, gains insight into his real persona and decides that it is worthless to continue living with him. Nora was bold enough to question her community’s norms and even took it to the point of leaving her spouse (Ibsen, 58).
This unexpected twist at the end of the play makes it very modern because it looked at the institution of marriage, gender roles, and family duties in a whole new light. It should be noted that in the previous era of romanticism, such a play would have ended in reconciliation between Nora and Torvald, but Ibsen was a realist and a modernist. An in the play A Doll’s House, modernism themes are evident.
He wanted to have an unpredictable plot and relevant setting that would leave audiences uncertain but hopeful about the future of the main character. No heroes were brought in to save the day, and this broke from usual theatre endings. The aspect of modernism that comes out, in this case, is melodrama.
Another way in which Ibsen utilizes plot to propagate modernist thought is through the structure of the play. In his time, most versions of well-made plays started with an account of the characters in the play.
This would usually be seen in the first and maybe the second act. In the second part, the authors would often present a dilemma faced by the main character. After that, the play would end with a reaction to the difficulty, and hence teach audiences a moral lesson or two.
However, through A Doll’s House, Ibsen created a different structure. In his play, he has a description of a dilemma but lacks a resolution. He ends the play with a discussion on what will go on and therefore leaves audiences curious about what will happen to the main characters even as time proceeds.
The author also uses the theme to advance the modernist agenda from feminist prospective as well. At his time, women had no voice; this was seen by the fact that most of them had to get the signature of a male family member or acquaintance to carry out any financial transactions. However, Ibsen makes these women the centerpiece of his play.
We will write a custom Research Paper on A Doll’s House Modernism Theme specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He shows how they make up for men’s inadequacies (such as pride, impulsiveness, and selfishness) through their tenderness, self-sacrifice, and their loyalty. Nora is everything that Torvald is not, and this represented a new element in modern drama. Not only was Ibsen bold enough to portray women very responsibly, but he did this in a courteous manner that makes Nora appear real.
At first, she seems like a dependent and weak individual, but as one learns about her life and her decisions, one soon realizes that she is a strong and selfless woman. Given that this was such a new stance, it is no wonder theatre enthusiasts called Ibsen a revolutionary author (Fisher and Silber, 40).
Self-Duty Concept as a Result of Modernism in the Play
Another way in which the theme advances modernism in A Doll’s House is through the concept of self duty. During Ibsen’s time, individuals were expected to stay loyal to their leaders and their society in general. Many held others’ opinions about themselves more important than their perspectives.
However, Ibsen was a realist and wanted to show how this approach was unfair. Nora, the main character, had been putting the needs and opinions of others before herself. The overall result of this was that she led an unfulfilled life. Furthermore, men kept using that selflessness to their advantage, and this only led to her unhappiness.
By exonerating her needs over and above everyone else’s, Nora was able to discover a new path for herself through this decision. Ibsen was, therefore, able to portray realist and hence, modernist thought through this theme of self-enhancement.
Character is an important stylistic device used to illustrate modernist thought. At the time when A Doll’s House was written, many other plays would portray the central character as this dominant male figure that appeared to have all the solutions to the problems in the play.
However, Ibsen breaks from this tradition and portrays what should have been an older and socially responsible man, Dr. Rank, as someone who lacks a moral sense. He openly lets the wife of a close friend know that he has feelings for her. Furthermore, he is ailing from a disease that is often associated with promiscuity, although he got it from his father (Tornqvist, 193).
This author does not portray his characters in a typical manner. In fact, one would be mistaken to dismiss Nora off as nothing more than a dependent and shallow person, but as one continues reading through, one soon realizes that she is a very deep person.
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Doll’s House Modernism Theme by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Torvald was also another complex character in the play. At some point, he seems caring because he chooses to stay at home and teach Nora how to dance, but as the story progresses, it becomes clear that he was self-centered as well. There is a vast range of emotions portrayed through the characters, thus illustrating that they were indeed real.
Ibsen’s Attitude to Romanticism in A Dolls’ House
No human being lacks faults, and the problem with romantic writings was that a vast number of them tried to pretend that humans are faultless. Trying to do this was unrealistic and unfair. Ibsen did not want to glorify any one of them, an aspect that was typical of the realist school of thought.
Marxism, as a form of modernism, can also be seen in the play through the main character of the play. Prior to this production, aristocrats often carried the day.
They controlled wealth and were entitled to several privileges. This usually meant that the middle and lower classes would pay the price for these privileges. In other words, capitalism favored the rich and oppressed the poor. The latter’s stories were rarely heard, especially in literature. Thus, A Doll’s House as a modern play had critical impact on dramaturgy of that time.
However, Ibsen can throw in a new perspective here when he decides not to tell the story of yet another elite. He reveals the struggles of a middle-class woman, Nora, and also talks about the struggles of another female, Mrs. Linde. Linde came from a low-income family that lacked the basics of life. She chose to marry someone she did not love just so that she could overcome the problems of her class.
Ibsen succeeded in initiating a discussion concerning the evils of capitalism. This peculiar hero, Nora, goes through several problems that stem from her economic background. As such, one can assert that the play questions how society is run and what role money plays in it (Krutch, 21). It exposes the evils of capitalism and therefore propagates classic Marxist thought or modernism in its real colors.
Conclusion The research paper on A Doll’s House play analyzes the main modernism themes of the writing that created a precedent for other drama plays. Ibsen supported realism theories and used his realistic views in his works. Ibsen’s use of the theme is quite outstanding in exposing class struggles and the problems of romanticism. To this end, he is initiating a discussion on Marxism. He uses the plot to advance realist thought through the ambiguous and dramatic ending of the story.
The character also plays an essential role because she defies the traditional depictions of males and females in his story. His choice of a female as a central character testifies to this modernist aspect. Also, his representation of complex individuals makes his work realistic. In the end, Ibsen set the stage for a new and revolutionary way of writing plays and looking at life in society.
Works Cited Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s house. Translated by William Archer. London: Fisher Unwin, 1889
Krutch, Joseph. Modernism in drama. Ithaca: Cornell university, 1953