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The American Dream Essay

Abstract Since those times when America was discovered, many people overflowed to this continent in search of a better life. Those emigrants who hoped to find in America better political, economic, or private life, wanted to realize American Dream. The word “movement” has a figurative meaning connected with those emigrants from Africa, England, Ireland, Mexico, etc., who arrived in the USA, chasing American Dream.

What is American Dream? It is a phenomenon that symbolizes the ideal life of the USA population. American freedom includes success and prosperous life for everyone, regardless from the person’s origin or a social class. This idea is based on the United States Declaration of Independence which states that all people are equal, and have equal rights.

The practical realization of this dream is one’s own house, built on a private land. American Dream is tightly connected with the concept of “self-made person” that means a person who, with the help of individual hard work, achieves success in his/her life (Schnell 2).

Most of the emigrants, who arrived to the USA chasing their American dream, faced hard life, full of challenges and difficulties. Their American Dream was not realized, and they either died or resigned themselves to the dreadful way of life.

Thesis: The evasive American Dream rouses people to the unfulfilling reality.

Introduction The American Dream is United States’ national ideal. It offers freedom and a promise of prosperity in which life should get better and richer for everyone. It promises a fair chance for everyone with ability, without regard of social class or birth. Jennifer Hochschild succinctly defines the American dream as a set of “tenets about achieving success”.

According to President Bill Clinton, the American dream requires an individual to work hard to get a chance at advancement. Simply put, it is a persons’ attempt to achieve wealth and success through hard work and thrift. However, the American dream has remained difficult for many to achieve for a wide variety of reasons (Cullen 124).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Living the American dream is the ultimate dream for most of the American citizens and those aspiring to acquire American citizenship. However, the American dream has turned out to be a nightmare for them.

For many nowadays, the American dream has been rendered dead. Many who opted to get decent jobs better housing better health facility formal education etc. have languished to deteriorated living standards. Wages for many of the citizens have stagnated or fallen. Many authors have expressed failure of the American dream in their works. This theme is also very common in many contemporary works.

Education, Employment, Healthcare, Housing and the American dream Many of those who sought better education resorted to working instead of studying. Financing education for many of the American citizens has become a heavy burden for them. US has the best education facilities and the best education system together with high technology, hence accessing this is quite an uphill task to those wishing to access this.

Unemployment has been the nature of the day many American citizens facing layoffs due to economic recessions. In addition, they are left to seek casual jobs to meet their end needs. With the minimal income of up to $40000 per year, they are unable to keep up with the high taxation bills and mortgage. This is due to the difficulty in economic mobility in the US. Many employed citizens have stagnated and unable to climb the economic ladder. Nevertheless the rise in economic inequality has contributed too many citizens missing out on the economic reward that comes with success.

Health services are also a serious concern. Even though America has the best health facility in the world, health care is a chronic problem to many American citizens. For those who are uninsured it has been a nightmare accessing these health facilities. Very few citizens are provided with this basic necessity by their employment companies. This has resulted to the sprouting of two health care systems for the haves and the have-nots (Bloom 93).

Housing is another factor that makes the American dream hard to achieve. Hunger and homeless is increasing every day street families are on the rise daily. As a result, they sleep and depend on the garbage sites. The state has constructed home for the poor to cater for these street families.

This has done little to reduce their ever growing numbers Poor housing state has hit almost one quarter of the US citizens. It is extremely difficult for the US citizens to own homes; this has prompted them to rely on mortgages. Many of them are unable to keep up with the mortgage hence face being evicted from their homes. Others spend the rest of their lives paying up the mortgage. The housing policy in the US has failed to provide a level ground for all citizens and those aspiring to acquire citizenship there to acquire this basic need.

We will write a custom Essay on The American Dream specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More American dream and the works of Denis Johnson and Raymond Carver Jesus’s Son – Denis Johnson

Jesus’ Son is an anthology of eleven interlinked short stories, which are all narrated by the same character; a broken alcohol and heroin addict. The narrator (and protagonist) interacting with disturbed, drug addicts. Ultimately sympathetic characters of these linked stories. We follow the narrator through eleven short stories that revolve around wild incidents under the influence of drugs.

Car Crash While Hitchhiking

This is the opening story in the book. The narrator is involved in a traffic accident while hitchhiking. This bleak story takes a positive turn when the narrator rescues a baby trapped in a wrecked vehicle. He ends up in hospital.

Work

The narrator describes a fight with his girlfriend at the start of this story. He then meets an interesting character named Wayne in a bar. He goes on a job with Wayne to tear down the walls of his old house to take out the copper wires and sell them. While so engaged, they see a naked red headed woman hang gliding. She is Wayne’s wife. Beverly Home

This is the last story in the collection. This story follows the narrator’s life after he has undergone drug rehabilitation. The narrator works as a newsletter writer in a nursing home. With all the patients suffering in some way, the narrator seems to have found a place to fits in. He is obsessed with a Mennonite woman he overhears singing.

As a result of his occupation at the home and his relationship with the Mennonite lady, the narrator finds acceptance. The narrator seemed destined for an incongruous ending. The story has an interesting and poignant ending. Through all of these stories, we see a hidden spirituality in the characters and so the ending of the book, while surprising, is inevitable.

The stories take place in different settings and give the reader a detailed description of the narrator’s outcast friends. We see him in myriad predicaments and at all stations of his life. The characters in these stories are all addicts in some way. These drugs and alcohol are the only certain factors of the narrator’s life. The settings of the stories are as varied as the narrator’s friends. The settings cover from Iowa, to Seattle to Phoenix.

The narrator does not reveal anything about his past to the reader. The narrator only divulges aspects of his self through his words and his many incarnations. He surrounds himself with a coterie of lowlifes who dwell in a bleak and violent American reality. The surreal quality, the intense fragility, of the narration is striking in Jesus’s Son. This voice does not seem to alter even when narrating the violent episodes that litter the stories.

Cathedral -Raymond Carver

This narration short story opens with the narrator anticipating his wife’s blind visitor. He has many reservations about the visit. His narration reveals his prejudiced nature. He does not make any effort to engage the blind man, Robert, in conversation, and choses to remain aloof.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Dream by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Not unlike the characters in Carver’s stories, the main character in Cathedral is subconsciously alienated and lonely. The narrator is unsatisfied with his occupation, and has petty resentments towards his wife. He does not get attached to people. The narrator is essentially blind, unaware of his actions and their effect on others. He lives in unique oblivion, isolated from others by his prejudice and beliefs.

The narrator disdains his visitor for no other reason but his sightlessness. He carelessly throws rude stereotypes into the conversation. This bias, to the extent that he refers to the visitor simply as ‘the blind man’, reveals his misplaced feelings of superiority.

The narrator betrays his opinion that Robert’s life must be far inferior since he has no sight. The narrator finally comes to realize that he, and not Robert, is actually blind. Despite his handicap, Robert has made the most of life. He has travelled and educated himself by listening to educational television programs and reading books.

Robert continues to better himself, unlike the narrator who has stagnated in his smug self-satisfaction. The narrator appears unmotivated, is a habitual drug user and does not seek to improve himself. The narrator sees Robert as a temporary imposition on his life, a trifling inconvenience. Robert, however, enables him to become self-aware. The narrator attempts to describe a cathedral he has just seen on TV to Robert.

Robert asks him to draw it with him instead. It is here, with narrator closing his eyes and Robert holding his hand, that the narrator experiences an epiphany. By drawing the cathedral with Robert, the narrator has become open to a completely new world. Before the drawing, the narrator had a strong bias towards Robert. Yet this time the narrator feels a difference between the two.

The narrator feels liberated saying, “I didn’t feel like I was inside anything” (Carver 13). The narrators experience with Robert allows him to view his life from an entirely new vantage point.

When the drawing is complete, the narrator keeps his eyes closed and continues to use the experience as an awakening. The narrator now realizes that life is “really something” (Carver 13) and he would benefit from changing his lifestyle. Ironically, it is through his experience with a visual impaired man, that Robert is introduced to an entirely new perspective on life.

Raymond Carver’s “Preservation” and the American dream.

Preservation by Raymond Carver is a story about working class white Americans who are bemused and fed up with the American dream that they see on the television. These working class Americans have always hoped to achieve this dream, although so far in their toil they have never even set their eyes on it.

The characters in this story have never protested against these disappointments and disillusionment in the American dream. Instead, they channel their views and anxieties of the dream to drugs and alcohol. They have focused their attention to the day-to-day details of their lives as opposed to struggling to achieve the American dream.

In Caver’s story, Preservation, lacking a job in America implies lacking a name. The unnamed husband in the story, who is also unemployed, has recently been retrenched form his job that involves putting up roof tops on new houses.

He was having difficulty finding a new job “His face began to sweat as he tried to describe to Sandy the milling crowd of men and women down there in the unemployment office” (Carver 36). The husband in this story becomes numb, and Sandy, his wife, just stands there helpless. She observes her husband as a compilation of body parts that are becoming less powerful by the minute:

“Her husband’s bare feet stuck out from one end of the sofa. At the other end, on a pillow which lay across the arm of the sofa, she could see the crown of his head. She saw his head down on the pillow that lay across the arm of the sofa. He adjusted the pillow under his head and put his hands behind his neck. Then he lay still. Soon she saw his arms move down to his sides…. His eyes were shut. His chest seemed to rise and then fall” (Carver 44).

Each time Sally looks at her husband, repetition of the words hands, sofa, head, feet, and TV occur. These words together with the husband’s body parts are depicted like having equal weight. His arms or eyes’ depiction is not any different with the sofa or the newspaper.

This lack of distinction between her husband, who she sees as body parts, and the nonliving objects around him is the leading conflict in this story. “Her husband- who is almost reclining, living now in the living room- is becoming a vegetable, an object, separated into parts, in the field of their home” (Carver 46).

Sandy’s memories, of men who contribute nothing in the lives around them, are used metaphorically to relate to her husband who is slowly getting into that category. She recalls of her friend’s story about an uncle who went to bed at 40 and was still alive 63 years later.

The uncle used to cry each day winning about his fear of getting old. She also recalls he father, who after divorcing her mother, bought a car in an auction and later died in it after inhaling carbon monoxide from the car (“He stayed in the car until someone found him a few days later.”) These memories follow one another and put emphasis on the failure of the American dream, making men useless in front of their families.

The husband in this story is preserved by lying on the sofa, although he has no job. His wife realized just how useless he has become, how apart they are drifting from each other, and how his job, Freon and energy has been lost. In as much as families have gained a massive amount of disillusionment in the American dream, they still hope that something will happen and make that dream a reality. Sally hopes that someone might turn up and offer her husband a job, or that she might buy a new refrigerator before everything in the house spoils.

Conclusion The American dream is a public vision that involves America’s identity. The American dream has turned into a myth that is inconsequential as far as the socioeconomic identity of America is presently concerned. The American dream refers to the act of pursuing happiness by every person as shown in the Declaration of Independence. The American dream is more of an ideology that is rooted in the mind of people. With thus the American dream is just a mere mirage to the many people aiming for it around the world (Palecek 58).

Works Cited Bloom Harold. The American dream. Kansas: Infobase Publishing, 2009. Print.

Carver, Raymond. Fires: Essays, Poems, Stories. New York: Random, 1972.

Cullen, Jim. The American dream: A short history of the idea that shaped a nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Palecek, Mike. The American Dream. New York: CWG Press, 2006. Print

Schnell, Hildegard. The American Dream. GRIN Verlag, 2010. 1-3.

Catching a Train That Leads Nowhere: The Psychology of the Inevitable Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Since people have always wanted to know what their future is, they have been craving to look under the curtain that divides the present and the on-coming. The interest always kept high as a sky, it has been a wonder why it is always so intense. A philosopher of the past, the great David Hume, tried to explain the reason for people to be so curious, bringing an upsetting conclusion together with his wise explanations.

According to Hume, there is nothing so desirable and so unachievable as the future. the cause of events is something that people are constantly trying to evaluate and predict, but however hard they are trying, their efforts are doomed to failure. Could there be any explanation for such a sad state of affairs?

Hume exercises the idea that the knowledge that we possess results from the previous experience and the situation that a man used to be in once. Hume considers such situations as the only way to cognize the world and its inner mechanism, as well as conduct the analysis of the present state of affairs. (Hume 47)

This makes his point explicit. Since these are only the life situations that people take their experience from, ands there is no other way to gain knowledge, because there is actually no other source that could help, people cannot know the results of their actions, because they have not modified the situation yet. It is only the aftertime when they finally understand the value of their deeds, but before they can only guess.

Hume asks his audience,

Of what nature is the future, then? To say it is experimental, is beginning the question. For all inferences from experience suppose, as their foundation, that the future will resemble the past, and that similar powers will be conjoined with similar sensible qualities. If there is any suspicion that course of nature any change, and that the past may be no rule for the future, all experience becomes useless, and that can give rise to no inference or conclusion. (Hume 26)

This point makes the essence of the theory of determinism, which dictates the law of the events bound with each other in the circle of life. This also presumes that, to cognize the result of the action that a man undertakes, he or she is bound to know every circumstance that is connected with their action; every single detail must not escape their attention. This is practically impossible, not only according to the determinism theory, but also according the common sense.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The philosophy of Hume also presupposes that, because of the fact that a man cannot know the result of his actions, he also cannot control the future, not for a single moment (Hume 79).

The incredible sense for a human’s psychology leads Hume to the fact that a man cannot operate with the knowledge of the future since it is something that lies beyond a man’s reach. It is not that he doubts that a man can work out a skill to foresee the events basing them on the previous experience that he or she has acquired after getting into the similar situation.

The idea that he is trying to convey is that a man cannot construct al, the possible theoretic models of the future course of events. the elements that a man is unaware about might influence the current state of affairs so much that the consequences they will drag will turn out opposing to what has been expected.

However, Hume still takes the role of experience into account – it is just that he makes it more insignificant than the other conceptions do:

Thus, Hume’s supposition concerning people’s being unable to predict the future is partially explained. However, it is important to note that most of Hume’s theories are based on the idea that a man’s previous experience is not to be taken into consideration. This fact drives to another important conclusion about Hume’s understanding of the role of experience and the basic concept of the world.

Tracing his thought, one can say that Hume exercised the theory of the events happening as something single that cannot be repeated anymore.

It also becomes clear that Hume supported the theory of skepticism that was earlier created and developed by John Locke. The doom plays the most important part in this play, and a man is left with a couple of replicas, if paraphrasing the theory in poetic words. The fatalism that Hume expressed in this topic is most explicit as the core idea of his theory of events is unwound.

We will write a custom Essay on Catching a Train That Leads Nowhere: The Psychology of the Inevitable specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, not all scientists took Hume’s ideas with enthusiasm. Some found his theories full of contradictions.

It can be suggested that the great philosopher overestimated the role of fate in people’s lives, but still his idea is something that cannot be denied. A man is incapable to trace all the clues that lead to the solution of the situation, and that makes him or her unable to predict what will happen in the nearest two minutes, not to mention the nearest two years.

However sad this might sound. People will never be able to look into the crystal ball of their future. There are far too many things that determine it. But there is still hope that, instead of tracing our future, we will try to be responsible for the actions we take and the results they bring.

Works Cited Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Newcastle: Forgotten Books Publishing. 2008. Print.

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The American Dream Essay

Abstract Since those times when America was discovered, many people overflowed to this continent in search of a better life. Those emigrants who hoped to find in America better political, economic, or private life, wanted to realize American Dream. The word “movement” has a figurative meaning connected with those emigrants from Africa, England, Ireland, Mexico, etc., who arrived in the USA, chasing American Dream.

What is American Dream? It is a phenomenon that symbolizes the ideal life of the USA population. American freedom includes success and prosperous life for everyone, regardless from the person’s origin or a social class. This idea is based on the United States Declaration of Independence which states that all people are equal, and have equal rights.

The practical realization of this dream is one’s own house, built on a private land. American Dream is tightly connected with the concept of “self-made person” that means a person who, with the help of individual hard work, achieves success in his/her life (Schnell 2).

Most of the emigrants, who arrived to the USA chasing their American dream, faced hard life, full of challenges and difficulties. Their American Dream was not realized, and they either died or resigned themselves to the dreadful way of life.

Thesis: The evasive American Dream rouses people to the unfulfilling reality.

Introduction The American Dream is United States’ national ideal. It offers freedom and a promise of prosperity in which life should get better and richer for everyone. It promises a fair chance for everyone with ability, without regard of social class or birth. Jennifer Hochschild succinctly defines the American dream as a set of “tenets about achieving success”.

According to President Bill Clinton, the American dream requires an individual to work hard to get a chance at advancement. Simply put, it is a persons’ attempt to achieve wealth and success through hard work and thrift. However, the American dream has remained difficult for many to achieve for a wide variety of reasons (Cullen 124).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Living the American dream is the ultimate dream for most of the American citizens and those aspiring to acquire American citizenship. However, the American dream has turned out to be a nightmare for them.

For many nowadays, the American dream has been rendered dead. Many who opted to get decent jobs better housing better health facility formal education etc. have languished to deteriorated living standards. Wages for many of the citizens have stagnated or fallen. Many authors have expressed failure of the American dream in their works. This theme is also very common in many contemporary works.

Education, Employment, Healthcare, Housing and the American dream Many of those who sought better education resorted to working instead of studying. Financing education for many of the American citizens has become a heavy burden for them. US has the best education facilities and the best education system together with high technology, hence accessing this is quite an uphill task to those wishing to access this.

Unemployment has been the nature of the day many American citizens facing layoffs due to economic recessions. In addition, they are left to seek casual jobs to meet their end needs. With the minimal income of up to $40000 per year, they are unable to keep up with the high taxation bills and mortgage. This is due to the difficulty in economic mobility in the US. Many employed citizens have stagnated and unable to climb the economic ladder. Nevertheless the rise in economic inequality has contributed too many citizens missing out on the economic reward that comes with success.

Health services are also a serious concern. Even though America has the best health facility in the world, health care is a chronic problem to many American citizens. For those who are uninsured it has been a nightmare accessing these health facilities. Very few citizens are provided with this basic necessity by their employment companies. This has resulted to the sprouting of two health care systems for the haves and the have-nots (Bloom 93).

Housing is another factor that makes the American dream hard to achieve. Hunger and homeless is increasing every day street families are on the rise daily. As a result, they sleep and depend on the garbage sites. The state has constructed home for the poor to cater for these street families.

This has done little to reduce their ever growing numbers Poor housing state has hit almost one quarter of the US citizens. It is extremely difficult for the US citizens to own homes; this has prompted them to rely on mortgages. Many of them are unable to keep up with the mortgage hence face being evicted from their homes. Others spend the rest of their lives paying up the mortgage. The housing policy in the US has failed to provide a level ground for all citizens and those aspiring to acquire citizenship there to acquire this basic need.

We will write a custom Essay on The American Dream specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More American dream and the works of Denis Johnson and Raymond Carver Jesus’s Son – Denis Johnson

Jesus’ Son is an anthology of eleven interlinked short stories, which are all narrated by the same character; a broken alcohol and heroin addict. The narrator (and protagonist) interacting with disturbed, drug addicts. Ultimately sympathetic characters of these linked stories. We follow the narrator through eleven short stories that revolve around wild incidents under the influence of drugs.

Car Crash While Hitchhiking

This is the opening story in the book. The narrator is involved in a traffic accident while hitchhiking. This bleak story takes a positive turn when the narrator rescues a baby trapped in a wrecked vehicle. He ends up in hospital.

Work

The narrator describes a fight with his girlfriend at the start of this story. He then meets an interesting character named Wayne in a bar. He goes on a job with Wayne to tear down the walls of his old house to take out the copper wires and sell them. While so engaged, they see a naked red headed woman hang gliding. She is Wayne’s wife. Beverly Home

This is the last story in the collection. This story follows the narrator’s life after he has undergone drug rehabilitation. The narrator works as a newsletter writer in a nursing home. With all the patients suffering in some way, the narrator seems to have found a place to fits in. He is obsessed with a Mennonite woman he overhears singing.

As a result of his occupation at the home and his relationship with the Mennonite lady, the narrator finds acceptance. The narrator seemed destined for an incongruous ending. The story has an interesting and poignant ending. Through all of these stories, we see a hidden spirituality in the characters and so the ending of the book, while surprising, is inevitable.

The stories take place in different settings and give the reader a detailed description of the narrator’s outcast friends. We see him in myriad predicaments and at all stations of his life. The characters in these stories are all addicts in some way. These drugs and alcohol are the only certain factors of the narrator’s life. The settings of the stories are as varied as the narrator’s friends. The settings cover from Iowa, to Seattle to Phoenix.

The narrator does not reveal anything about his past to the reader. The narrator only divulges aspects of his self through his words and his many incarnations. He surrounds himself with a coterie of lowlifes who dwell in a bleak and violent American reality. The surreal quality, the intense fragility, of the narration is striking in Jesus’s Son. This voice does not seem to alter even when narrating the violent episodes that litter the stories.

Cathedral -Raymond Carver

This narration short story opens with the narrator anticipating his wife’s blind visitor. He has many reservations about the visit. His narration reveals his prejudiced nature. He does not make any effort to engage the blind man, Robert, in conversation, and choses to remain aloof.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Dream by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Not unlike the characters in Carver’s stories, the main character in Cathedral is subconsciously alienated and lonely. The narrator is unsatisfied with his occupation, and has petty resentments towards his wife. He does not get attached to people. The narrator is essentially blind, unaware of his actions and their effect on others. He lives in unique oblivion, isolated from others by his prejudice and beliefs.

The narrator disdains his visitor for no other reason but his sightlessness. He carelessly throws rude stereotypes into the conversation. This bias, to the extent that he refers to the visitor simply as ‘the blind man’, reveals his misplaced feelings of superiority.

The narrator betrays his opinion that Robert’s life must be far inferior since he has no sight. The narrator finally comes to realize that he, and not Robert, is actually blind. Despite his handicap, Robert has made the most of life. He has travelled and educated himself by listening to educational television programs and reading books.

Robert continues to better himself, unlike the narrator who has stagnated in his smug self-satisfaction. The narrator appears unmotivated, is a habitual drug user and does not seek to improve himself. The narrator sees Robert as a temporary imposition on his life, a trifling inconvenience. Robert, however, enables him to become self-aware. The narrator attempts to describe a cathedral he has just seen on TV to Robert.

Robert asks him to draw it with him instead. It is here, with narrator closing his eyes and Robert holding his hand, that the narrator experiences an epiphany. By drawing the cathedral with Robert, the narrator has become open to a completely new world. Before the drawing, the narrator had a strong bias towards Robert. Yet this time the narrator feels a difference between the two.

The narrator feels liberated saying, “I didn’t feel like I was inside anything” (Carver 13). The narrators experience with Robert allows him to view his life from an entirely new vantage point.

When the drawing is complete, the narrator keeps his eyes closed and continues to use the experience as an awakening. The narrator now realizes that life is “really something” (Carver 13) and he would benefit from changing his lifestyle. Ironically, it is through his experience with a visual impaired man, that Robert is introduced to an entirely new perspective on life.

Raymond Carver’s “Preservation” and the American dream.

Preservation by Raymond Carver is a story about working class white Americans who are bemused and fed up with the American dream that they see on the television. These working class Americans have always hoped to achieve this dream, although so far in their toil they have never even set their eyes on it.

The characters in this story have never protested against these disappointments and disillusionment in the American dream. Instead, they channel their views and anxieties of the dream to drugs and alcohol. They have focused their attention to the day-to-day details of their lives as opposed to struggling to achieve the American dream.

In Caver’s story, Preservation, lacking a job in America implies lacking a name. The unnamed husband in the story, who is also unemployed, has recently been retrenched form his job that involves putting up roof tops on new houses.

He was having difficulty finding a new job “His face began to sweat as he tried to describe to Sandy the milling crowd of men and women down there in the unemployment office” (Carver 36). The husband in this story becomes numb, and Sandy, his wife, just stands there helpless. She observes her husband as a compilation of body parts that are becoming less powerful by the minute:

“Her husband’s bare feet stuck out from one end of the sofa. At the other end, on a pillow which lay across the arm of the sofa, she could see the crown of his head. She saw his head down on the pillow that lay across the arm of the sofa. He adjusted the pillow under his head and put his hands behind his neck. Then he lay still. Soon she saw his arms move down to his sides…. His eyes were shut. His chest seemed to rise and then fall” (Carver 44).

Each time Sally looks at her husband, repetition of the words hands, sofa, head, feet, and TV occur. These words together with the husband’s body parts are depicted like having equal weight. His arms or eyes’ depiction is not any different with the sofa or the newspaper.

This lack of distinction between her husband, who she sees as body parts, and the nonliving objects around him is the leading conflict in this story. “Her husband- who is almost reclining, living now in the living room- is becoming a vegetable, an object, separated into parts, in the field of their home” (Carver 46).

Sandy’s memories, of men who contribute nothing in the lives around them, are used metaphorically to relate to her husband who is slowly getting into that category. She recalls of her friend’s story about an uncle who went to bed at 40 and was still alive 63 years later.

The uncle used to cry each day winning about his fear of getting old. She also recalls he father, who after divorcing her mother, bought a car in an auction and later died in it after inhaling carbon monoxide from the car (“He stayed in the car until someone found him a few days later.”) These memories follow one another and put emphasis on the failure of the American dream, making men useless in front of their families.

The husband in this story is preserved by lying on the sofa, although he has no job. His wife realized just how useless he has become, how apart they are drifting from each other, and how his job, Freon and energy has been lost. In as much as families have gained a massive amount of disillusionment in the American dream, they still hope that something will happen and make that dream a reality. Sally hopes that someone might turn up and offer her husband a job, or that she might buy a new refrigerator before everything in the house spoils.

Conclusion The American dream is a public vision that involves America’s identity. The American dream has turned into a myth that is inconsequential as far as the socioeconomic identity of America is presently concerned. The American dream refers to the act of pursuing happiness by every person as shown in the Declaration of Independence. The American dream is more of an ideology that is rooted in the mind of people. With thus the American dream is just a mere mirage to the many people aiming for it around the world (Palecek 58).

Works Cited Bloom Harold. The American dream. Kansas: Infobase Publishing, 2009. Print.

Carver, Raymond. Fires: Essays, Poems, Stories. New York: Random, 1972.

Cullen, Jim. The American dream: A short history of the idea that shaped a nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Palecek, Mike. The American Dream. New York: CWG Press, 2006. Print

Schnell, Hildegard. The American Dream. GRIN Verlag, 2010. 1-3.

Contribution of Slaves in Colonial America Research Paper

Nursing Assignment Help Introduction Slavery in America dates back to more than two hundred years before the birth of the republic of United States. Slavery as a trade and a practice did not begin and take place overnight; it was a progressive happening or phenomenon, which expanded over many years.

Despite slaves having been at the heart of America as a country’s birth and development, it is surprising that the contribution made by slaves in the colonial America has been left out of many history books. Selective writing has denied those who took part in the struggle of laying the foundation for current America their rightful place in history. This research paper explores the contribution of slaves in colonial America.

Slaves in Colonial America It is widely believed that only black people of African origin were enslaved. However, there were also quite a number of white slaves in colonial America. Vickers (535), notes that “though limited, there were Britons, Germans, Scots and Irish slaves in colonial America. Most of these white slaves had been shipped and subjected to slavery in colonies, as punishment by the local administrators in the countries of origin. Colonial masters owned slaves; however, in some parts, some Native Americans and free blacks also owned slaves”.

Vickers (345) notes that “slavery was most intensive in the southern part of America. The south had more slaves because the region had fertile soil for growing high-valued cash crops for export, such as rice, tobacco cotton and sugar”.

Initially, black slaves were referred to as indentured servants, which gave them a comparable lawful position equal to most deprived Englishmen who traded a number of years of labor for means of access to America. However, even when having the status of indentured servant, Roberts (281), notes that “the term Slave was used as a practical word in job regulation and politics”

Contribution of Slavery in Colonial America Contribution in Agriculture

The contribution of slaves, those of African origin, is always reduced, in many documentaries and writings, as merely unskilled farming field hands and household servants. However, critical reading through history reveals that slaves were more than just field hands and household servants. Slaves contributed to Colonial America with their agricultural knowledge and inventions.

As Engerman (335)explains, “within the Southern Colony of South Carolina, Africans brought with them their exceptional skill of rice cultivation as they had long time expertise in growing rice back in Africa. They therefore shared these skills with their masters and as a result, rice production that had never been experienced before was witnessed” .Engerman (328) notes that initially, “slaves in the colonial America were subjected to all manner of work, which included working in cotton, sugar and tobacco plantations”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Engerman (331), however, points out that this is not all that slaves contributed in the colonial America. Overtime, most of the African American slaves were immensely involved in almost every day-to-day economic activity of the times. This free involvement led to numerous inventions by slaves such as the invention of spinning machines, which largely contributed toward the development of modern cultivation machines that were used in many colonial American plantations.

The economic contribution of slaves in the colonial America can be discussed in connection with the various economic activities that the slaves were subjected to. Working in the plantation was the earliest and common economic activity that is documented in history books.

The utmost contribution by slavery in the southern parts of America was in flourishing the plantations thus leading to booming export trade. Desiring more surpluses from agricultural exports, there was high demand for labor. Consequently, as argued by Sale(78),”the colonialist had to bring in more slaves in order to enhance their cash crop production, which was the sure way to eminence”.

Salem (90) further notes that “the export business was going so well the colonists were able to afford two imports which would greatly contribute to their productivity and quality of life. 20 Blacks from Africa and 90 women from England. The Africans were paid for in food; each woman cost 120 pounds of tobacco. The Blacks were bought as indentured servants from a passing Dutch ship low on food, and the women were supplied by a private English company”.

The achievement of tobacco plantations led to legalization of African slavery in Virginia as well as in Maryland; consequently, facilitating the southern Agriculture based economic prominence. In these southern agricultural estates, Nobleman (6), notes that “majority of slaves were field hands, picking cotton, as well harvesting rice, tobacco, wheat and many other crops that were grown in the plantations”.

Nobleman (7) elaborates that “in small plantations slaves were given different roles, with children and the elderly being subjected to household chores, while the energetic youths and the rest of the slaves served as meadow hands”. In some occurrence, Nobleman (6) observes that “the slaves were forced to draw the plow or where there was no plow they would have to dig the soil without one”.

In addition, Nobleman (7) points out that in other parts of America such as Texas, “slaves not only worked in the field, but also worked as carpenters, huntsman, as chefs and as brick masons”. In as much as enslavement was such tragic, the author argues that, it was the hard work and efforts of the slaves that made plantations successful ventures, and provided the economic backbone of Texas as it is known today.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Contribution of Slaves in Colonial America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Contribution of Urban Slaves

There was however a slight difference among the slaves that worked in the plantations and those that lived in the urban setups of the colonial America. In most cases, Morgan (88) observes that “the urban slaves had few more privileges compared to their counterparts who worked in the rural plantations.

Some of these privileges were reflected in the fact that the urban residing slaves had more opportunities of earning money, which eventually enabled them to buy their freedom”. Many of the African-American slaves that resided in the urban setup, according to were either domestic or maritime workers.

Most of the female slaves in the urban centers’ were involved in a number of occupations; most of them were cooks, while some of them served as laundresses. Their male counterparts on the other side were involved in giving coachmen services, gardening or worked as shopkeepers.

Even though the urban residing slaves had a better lifestyle given they enjoyed more freedom of movement and were usually decently dressed, Morgan (93) notes that “most of them lived in roof space within the cooking place, or in the laundry area”. The author also points out that “the urban slave contributed a great deal in helping their rural based counterparts through contributing their resources to antislavery organizations, as well as hiding escaping slaves from the plantations”.

A key economic contribution by the urban slaves, in colonial America, was registered in the maritime industry. In this industry, most of the slaves served as dockworkers. They were involved in the back-breaking work of loading and unloading vessels that engaged in business transactions within the US harbors, and many other places the world over. Slaves worked hard in docks in all of the big cities bordering water bodies i.e. seas and oceans.

In absence of these slaves, it would have been extremely hard or even unfeasible to pack and take down, as well as move goods within the borders of the United States in particular, and to the rest of the world in general (Grigg 84). As Griggs (89) further points out, “the slaves’ contribution in the maritime industry was not limited to that of porters. There were many of them who were trained and did skilled work just like the white workers”.

Cultural Contribution of Slaves

There was immense cultural contribution by the slaves in colonial America. Griggs (102) point out that “these comprised, most outstandingly, imaginative and musical creations, academic outputs, and specific spiritual practices”. It is worth noting that even though the slaves were shipped to America against their will, this did not mean that they left their culture back in Africa. As expected, they brought it (their culture) to their new abode.

Though no one can deny that the experience the black slaves passed through was pathetic and inhuman, the persecution did not stop their deep-rooted culture from taking effect, and eventually largely influencing the American culture. In particular, Middleton (300) remarks that “the African culture greatly assisted in the development of America’s own music, arts and clad”.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contribution of Slaves in Colonial America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Middleton further reiterates that it is comprehensible that given Africans were lashed into compliance and obligated into lifetime forced manual labor; they would be, most of the times, offended and irritated. As a result, they came up with forms of expression that reflected their life and its hardships.

When it comes to songs, indigenous African composition consisted primarily of wind and cord melodies interposed by hand acclamation, xylophones, and playing of the drums beats. All these found expression in American music; making it distinct and life giving for many.

With regard to language, the slaves had their own dialects before they left Africa. As would have been anticipated, upon being dumped into an English speaking society, their language slowly started fading out. Nevertheless, through appropriating English as per their dialects a new form of American English was realized.

This form of English is still in existence today in the form of the black Americans’ colloquial speech (Thomas 35). Thomas (56) explains that “the Black English, as the altered English is commonly referred to, is still widely spoken in America by a big percentage of African-Americans”.

Though the African America slaves’ spiritual practices have undergone quite a considerable amount of transformation over time, the centre belief, vigor and values of African American traditions is still firm as highlighted in religious and gospel music. In the course of their day-by-day forced responsibilities, Slaves sung in relation to how God exercised control and had supremacy above everything.

Middleton (302) comments that “the African American slaves, believed that God had power over everything and consequently he could save them from oppression”. Equally important in African religions, are their departed ancestors.

Middleton (310) observes that, “majority of the slaves with Africa origin, highly believed that their ancestors could protect the living”.For this explanation, the African American slaves always threw a small quantity of food or drinks before they ate, to appease their dead family members, in return for protection against anything bad that may befall any member of the their family.

Moreover, Middleton (311) indicates that “in cases where the master did not give religious directives, as was often the case, the African slaves would assume the responsibility”.

Over the years, most of the slaves preferred the Baptist church as opposed to other denominations, because the Baptist were not strict with some rules thus they readily incorporated some of the African cultures that were hard for Africans to leave behind (Middleton 314).

The preference of Baptist resulted from the fact that the Baptist church did not accommodate any slave owner in their congregation and therefore, the slaves were relieved some unnecessary discomfort of worshiping in the same place with their masters.

Political Contribution by Slaves

The contribution of slaves and mostly those of African heritage in the American Revolution marks the greatest sacrifice, which though often disregarded, led to the birth of today’s United States of America, which is a great nation, internationally known for its democracy, wealth, and diversity.

The American Revolution was both a blessing to some and at the same time a curse to different parties that took part in it. To the Native Americans, Grigg (86), observes” that the revolution presented an opportunity to fight for liberty from the British colonialist”. On the other hand, most of African Americans saw the revolutionary war as an opportunity to fight for liberty.

Grigg (93) comments that “the responsibility of the black slaves in the American Revolution can be comprehended by capturing the fact that loyalty was not to a location or a person, but to an approach or philosophy”. Despite the consequences of where the devotion of the African American rested, they gave an input that was not officially recognized, but which was instrumental towards realization of United States of America.

During the period of American civil disobedience, the African American soldiers served both in the continental armed forces as well as in the British army. The condition of the free blacks in pre-independent America was one of vagueness, one flanked by servitude and some freedom. Lanning (205) observes that “the African American slave were faced with unusual permitted, economic and societal limitations”.

Like Grigg, Lanning (204) argues that the “most important motivating factor behind the African American slave’s participation in either the patriot or the British Army was freedom”. Apart from their believe in freedom, Lanning (209) argues that “slaves also joined the forces out of the spirit of exploration or in order to benefit from the monetary gain that was pledged to those who joined the forces”.

Similarly, Lanning (212) points out “both the Americans and the Eglish used the promise of liberty to lure Africans to fight in their ranks”. In the war itself, Green

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