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Styles of Leadership Compare and Contrast Essay

Human beings have experienced uncountable instances of leadership for as long as they have existed. Various leaders have gone down on record both from the ancient world (BC) to the past twenty centuries (AD). Leadership is a highly valued commodity which is always sought-after both during times of prosperity but most importantly during times of crises (Northouse, 2009).

Leaders are needed in virtually all human engagements like politics, religion, work, and other social encounters since it affects people’s social, personal, as well as professional well being. Leadership can be defined as the process of providing direction, implementing a program of action, and motivating people to achieve desired goals (Chang, 2005).

This implies that corporations, organizations, businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and religious groupings are constantly searching for proper leadership that will ensure the achievement of various objectives. According to Northouse, there have been varied attempts to provide a universal understanding of the concept of leadership and the various styles (2009).

The essay seeks to discuss the four major styles of leadership; autocratic, bureaucratic, Laissez-faire, and democratic. Their respective description will help highlight their different disadvantages and advantages. It will then conclude that different situations call for different styles of leadership and their application depends on the leader’s judgment.

Autocratic style of leadership is considered one of the most classical of all. It is also known as authoritarian leadership since the leader gives orders to the led. The leader in this case is responsible for decisions that need to be made and no one else is expected object.

It is characterized by dictatorship tendencies since the leader wields all the powers (Northouse, 2009). This style has been found to be appropriate in situations when; the leader has all the knowledge necessary to accomplish a task, there is limited time left, trainings are conducted, the leader feels threatened by the followers, other styles have failed and also when the ones being led are highly motivated in the task at hand.

In an organization, for instance, autocratic managers will not allow the employees to air their opinions or ask any questions but to take orders. Some leaders of some states still use this style of leadership, for instance in Zimbabwe and North Korea (Chang, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such leaders succeed by creating motivational environments where there are rewards for the obedient as well as punishments for those who fail to obey (Cruz, 2010). Organizations which embrace this style, according to recent research, have recorded a higher employee turnover coupled with frequent absenteeism.

The second style of leadership is the democratic, which is also commonly known as participative style of leadership. The followers are fully engaged in the decision-making process and are aware of the latest developments that affect them in one way or another (Cruz, 2010).

Such a leader takes input from the members before making the final decision so as to take everyone’s opinion into consideration. The trust that the leader gives to the followers raises their morale in the task and as a result, they exhibit a spirit of teamwork and cooperation. This style has been found to yield high quality and quantity outcome if used over a long period of time.

It is also most useful when used by leaders in advanced or developed societies when recommending significant changes, or when solving deep rooted problems. US president, Barrack Obama tends to use this style when it comes to the need for policy change like the recent Healthcare Bill, as well as resolving foreign tensions and conflicts (Northouse, 2009). In organizations, such leaders encourage workers to set the goals, motivate them by promotions as well as periodic recognition.

However, this style, just like the others is not successful in all situations particularly when there is not enough time left to make key decisions and when the leader thinks this style is raising more threats than it seeks to solve (Northouse, 2009). Unlike autocratic style of leadership, a democratic leader may have positive rapport or relationship with the followers.

Laissez-Faire style of leadership is the third one and it is also commonly called “free reign” or “hands-off” style. In this style, the leader gives as much freedom as possible to the followers to make their individual decisions (Cruz, 2010). The followers are empowered to set the goals, resolve arising issues, and decide as par their own discretion.

This style can be very successful when the led are experts, highly educated and experienced in whatever task is being done, are highly motivated to work on their own, and when the leader thinks the followers are trustworthy as far as performance is concerned(Northouse, 2009).

We will write a custom Essay on Styles of Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are situations, however, when such a style may not be very effective. For instance when the followers are motivated by the management availability, need guidance in the course of action, and when the leader is incompetent and hence trying to cover up for the weakness by delegating all responsibilities.

The last in this case is the bureaucratic style of leadership. The leader leads by the already laid down procedures or policies. This is almost similar to authoritarian style only that the leader in this case quotes what is provided “by the book” (Chang, 2005). When a given procedure is not within the leader’s jurisdiction, he or she refers to a higher authority in line. Such a style creates more of an enforcer than a leader.

All police officers worldwide can be considered to be practicing this style of leadership since they embrace a Down-Up style of management. It is appropriate when what is to be performed is a routine and when the task is delicate with strict procedures (Cruz, 2010). However, this style is inappropriate in times of change, when creativity is required and also when the style has been rejected by the followers.

The essay has discussed the four major styles of leadership and their unique appropriateness as well as inappropriateness. From the discussion, we can conclude that no single style is appropriate in all situations of leadership. Instead, the leader should evaluate every situation and adopt the best style at a time or combine all of them in proper proportions.

References Chang, H. J. (2005). Factors that affect followers’ perceptions of leader’s performance (3rd ed.). Lynn University

Cruz, R. (2010). Styles of Leadership. eSSORTMENT, Your Resource for Knowledge. Web.

Northouse, P. G. (2009). Leadership: Theory and practice (5th ed.). SAGE

Impact of the Recession on US Economy Term Paper

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction

Effect of recession on the demand and supply of goods

Effect of recession on income and wealth distribution

Effect of recession on the mortgage and bank interest rate

Effect of recession on the U.S businesses

Effect of recession on the youth

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Recession is the tendency of the economic activities of a given economy to suddenly decline. Currently, there are various macroeconomic activities that are affected by the cycle, for example the employment of citizens, GDP, investing power of investors, spending capabilities and on the running practices of business. In the recent times the U.S economy has been hit by recession. This has resulted in a slowdown of the economic activities around the country that has resulted on a negative impact on the local economies.

Effect of recession on the demand and supply of goods During recession the spending power of the people had become less. The decline in the spending power is usually due to increased cost of living caused by inadequate income or unemployment due to lack of jobs or being laid off from work hence, the Purchasing power of the people decreases. During this economic period, the price of essential goods drastically escalated. However, the demand of necessity goods was not affected by the elasticity curve since demand for such commodities remained constant.

However, due to recession the price of luxury or conspicuous commodities increased drastically though there was no significant increase in demand. However, in instances where the commodity was not a necessity in the market, the increase in price brought by recession factors did affect the elasticity curve since the consumers shy away from spending during the period as the economic conditions did not provide for such spending habits. (Wilson, 2007).

Effect of recession on income and wealth distribution In addition, recession results in a decreased Gross Domestic Product. This in turn affects the income and wealth distribution of the people. This occurs since people will normally shy away from investing in economic opportunities since they are not in a position to have large capital outlays or even get financial help from financial institutions which are usually severely affected by the recession.

In addition due to a decreased income per-capita, the people often spend less and the majority of investments or business ventures wind up business until the economic situation improves.

There is also a relationship between income generated during this period, its distribution and the macroeconomics of a given region by the various investments made by people. Therefore it shows that the income and wealth that people have is directly related to the macroeconomics factors and economical growth. Due to recession the economic growth us often stagnant hence the distribution of wealth is also decreased.

The regions or states have a higher rate of recession wealth or income factors, which are determined by historical factors that tended to, dictate how wealth will be distributed in the region. This has tended to be so because each region tends to follow certain growth patterns that have been determined by the economic opportunities available in the region. Hence each and every country has different economic growths patterns as well as income and wealth distribution patterns.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, empirical data will show the relationship between income and wealth of a country to the income per- capita. Hence, in regions that have more investment opportunities, the income per-capita tends to be higher and its wealth is equally distributed in the region. However, in developing or poorer countries the opposite is the case.

Since the economic opportunities are less, the income per- capita is low and only a few individuals have access to the few economic opportunities and thus the income and wealth distribution is not equally distributed .Therefore, if the price of a commodity increases while the income of the per-capita income of the people remains the same, the demand of the commodity will decrease and so will the supply hence a change in the elasticity curve( Zeira, 2005).

Effect of recession on the mortgage and bank interest rate Rent is the price paid by a person who uses property belonging to another person. Due to the recession effect, the mortgage costs were very expensive for people to afford therefore majority of the citizens who had inadequate income to facilitate the repayment of the mortgage installments defaulted.

As a result the demand of real estate declined drastically across the region as prospective homeowners could no longer afford vast capital outlays to purchase homes or even be given a mortgage by financial institutions. As a result of the decline in demand for housing, the rent of houses also declined though there was no immediate demand for housing units from the people (Carrington, 2005).

Interest is the cost paid for using money. It is usually stated as a percentage of the money borrowed. Money which by its nature is not an economical resource can be used in the acquiring of goods and services.

Therefore, one can be able to borrow money and in turn pay an additional amount to the principle owned. The amount of interest paid is usually calculated by putting into consideration the various factors affecting the economical conditions of a place. In the U.S the bank lending rates increased significantly as an effect brought about by the recession.

Due to the high rate of defaulting by debtors in repaying their debts, the banks had to increase their lending rates in order to recover the money lost in defaulting loans. Furthermore, the prevailing financial institutions, and banks had to increase their lending rates in order to factor in the high lending risks in the market. Also by increasing the lending rates interest, only the desired cliental could apply for loans as those who were not in a financial opposition could not do so (Oswald, A.

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