Gender differences in sports
Racial based sports discrepancies
Introduction Majority of the sicknesses that people suffer from result from their failure to exercise their bodies. Although they are aware of this fact as well as the role that sports play concerning the immune system of their bodies, they have neglected sports based on claims of issues of gender and racism that dominate the world of sports.
Sports psychology has become increasingly interested in evaluating the differences in the sports enrollment and participation. Birrell notes, “…despite the recent increases in female sports participation, girls and boys still do not participate equally in the same sports (32).
Even in their most preferred sports, boys and girls differ in enrollment in sports depending on the nature of the sports. As Lever claims, “…boys are more likely than girls to engage in sports-related activities that involve teams, complex rule systems, and high levels of interdependency” (475). Racial differences significantly account for sports involvement differences.
To this respect, Jon points out that “While Asians comprise 57% of the world’s population, they “are virtually invisible in the most democratic world of sports, running, soccer, and basketball” (Para. 7). According to Jon, Africans who only represent 12 % of the population of the world dominate soccer, basketball and running.
From the above scholastic arguments, it stands out that differences in sports participation and enrollment exists along racial and gender lines. However, as opposed to what many believe, these discrepancies can be reduced to tolerable levels thereby attracting more people into joining sports and consequently boosting their immune system.
Gender differences in sports The results from State Association Summary of 1989 on a study of 712 high schools of the large mid western state, found out that 42, 299 boys had the probability of playing foot ball, 26, 662 likely to pay basket ball while 19, 368 boys were likely to take part in base ball game. On the other hand, according to the State Association Summary, “…girls were most likely to play basket ball (17,011), volley ball (16306), and outdoor track field (13,478)” (45).
On one part this results are paramount in that they actually reflect the obvious scenarios on the ground. For instance, why do different people choose different sports activities from the numerous alternatives available on their table? Gender is one of the reasons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different genders possesses different motivational factors which solicit their decisions making process which are expected to be reflected in the decisions made about life indulgencies not only in other activities but also in choice of sporting activities.
The influence of self-concept is crucial in as much as explaining the gender instigated sports decisions making process is concerned. As Harold laments, “…self concepts of ability are critical predictors of performance and task choice” (10).
Self-concept is however, a determinant criterion of sport choice contributed largely by inculcation of myths and stereotypical arguments about existing abilities of humans based on gender.
In as much as it may appear to be true that soccer is principally dominated by men, women soccer teams have also been participating in female soccer competitions worldwide. Many would not agree that women world-cup games, in particular soccer, could attain the recognition and popularity as the male soccer world’s cup competitions.
All that matters are our willingness and enthusiasm to see the other side of the story. Gender inequality in sports choice is a problem of making especially by considering an example of boxing sports. For many years, women were secluded from this game.
The question is, with the incorporation of women boxing sports activities at international level, are there no boxing competitions as entertaining as those conducted by men are? The masculine traits correlation with boxing is actually a stereotypically formulated idea!
An argument may ensue that gender sports choice differences is fueled by the perceived differences in the capabilities of gender based criteria and since nothing can be done to ensure biological equity and the physical differences between females and males, the gender differences will persist.
We will write a custom Essay on Sport’s Gender Differences specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the facts that people are to the tasks that are moderately hard as opposed to very difficult or very easy tasks, as Harold argues, “ whether perceived tasks difficulty relates negatively or curvilinear to tasks choice should depend on individuals motivation orientation, goals and the value the individual attaches to creativity” (10).
Goals and values attributes are found not to be any way universal among a particular, gender but rather depend on personalities and talent endowments. In particular, essential to note is the fact that stereotypes of gender roles are salient issues, which are value free. “Women are stereotyped as less competent especially in intellectual and athletic domains even when they perform equally well” (Harold 12).
These stereotypical perceptions serve to discriminate rather than provide evidence of women incapacity to compete with men in sporting activities. According to Harold, “stereotypes influence children’s developing self concepts, then incorporation of these biased cultural gender role stereotypes could well result in girls having lower self concepts of their intellectual and athletic abilities than boys” (12).
Women consequently can amicably raise and dominate the sports activities historically perceived as province of men if these stereotyped minds are altered. The society teaches such beliefs at an early age through the way various genders interact and the way of doing gender roles differentiation (Deeter 89).
In the modern world, things have immensely changed. As a result, we have seen the generation of women who can equally bit men in athletics further giving evidence that gender based discrepancies on the sporting abilities of women and men is a mythical and self-making problem, which can easily change based on the general change of the way people perceive issues.
Racial based sports discrepancies On a different angle, Jon suggests a model of explaining the differences in sports based on racial grounds. Through his work, he appreciates that gender is not a big determining factor in sports choice.
By citing race, he does not subdivide an individual capacity to participate in sports based on gender since within a given race two genders exist. Even though, the East African does well in long-range athletes, it is not imperative to classify the trend in various talents endowment in terms of whether one is black or white.
“The belief that black athletic ability is inversely proportional to black intellectual ability has been used to justify slavery, colonialism, and segregation” (Jon Para. 10). Furthermore, Jon tends to foster the much-opposed position that white men are associated with excellence in tasks that pay the biggest lamps of money.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sport’s Gender Differences by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, he claims that athletes from Kenya come from a radius of 60 miles around Eldoret town and that the Kalenjin community focuses on athletics as a way of looking for an alternative way of refocusing their energy after objecting to comply with the colonial rule demands.
If this approach was something to concur with, ‘why then does the modern ardent global focus on athletics?’ Even though Jon’s approach does not entail gender-based segregation of the population, it is not acceptable.
Conclusion A more acceptable way of rating the observable differences in people’s enrollment participation in various sports could be focused on environmental, social and geographical characteristics bearing in mind that different places or countries are characterized by different availability of sporting equipment and facilities.
Jon’s approach, though not entangling gender based analysis of differences in the sports enrollment and participation, uses a racial approach, which seems greatly fought against by people.
By taking into consideration the modern attempts to incorporate all genders equally at all sports both at national level and with willingness to change gender and racial stereotypical perceptions, the existing beliefs on dominancy of differences in the sports enrollment and participation can be eroded.
Works Cited Birrell, Susan. The Psychological Dimensions of Female Athletic Participation: In M Boutilier
China’s Bad Growth Bet by Nouriel Roubini Argumentative Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction China’s bad growth bet is an article that was written by Nouriel Roubini on a topic that has continued to attract a lot of attention. The topic on China’s growth can be termed controversial because different people have come up with their own opinion on the country’s economic prospects, growth and direction.
The author argues that the country will come into economic problems by 2013 which is a fallacy based on the realities on the ground (Roubini, 2011, p. 3). As much as there is a lot of duplication of infrastructure projects, it does not imply that the country is overbuilding as the author has asserted.
The authors’ conclusions are not supported by facts to explain why the country will have economic problems. There is an argument that cargo traffic is decreasing yet this is to the contrary where traffic grew by 27% (Wong, 2010, p. 24).
Discussion Like many analysts, Roubini is very skeptical about the country’s economy based on debt and overcapacity. I do not agree with this because he has failed to look at basic and important facts like income and demographics.
The country’s investment in infrastructure should be praised because it has created employment and spurred up spending in the economy which is positive. The author is arguing that the country has reinvested 50% of its GDP thereby creating overcapacity and non performing loans which will lead to a bad landing (Roubini, 2011, p. 6).
This is not true because such projects have enhanced and improved business efficiency in an economy that is still developing like China. As a matter of fact, Roubini argues that these investments will create inflation as time goes by.
China will certainly go through economic cycles and the author should not expect things to move smoothly. There is no proven fact that the country’s inflation is as a result of overinvestment in infrastructure but rather from a declining labor force and its education system (Wong, 2010, p. 54).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are no valid arguments because the author has based his data on a trip that he made in the country when it was launching its five year plan. As much as some of the country’s policies are flawed as far as income distribution is concerned, this has not been well proven because the country has a lot of its population in the middle income group.
There might be some overinvestments in areas like trains but this is expected of an economy that is planning for its population for the next 50 years. The degree of approximation in relation to saving 30% of disposable income is ultimately flawed because this keeps on varying in the country that has a large population.
Conclusion China is not in any economic danger from investments in infrastructure as the author suggests but rather the danger will come from a US bust. 350 million people or households can now afford automobiles and this explains why the country has been sensitive enough to invest in infrastructure projects (Wong, 2010, p. 15).
Such initiatives are acceptable because they are responding to the needs of the population but the author sees this as a problem. China’s explosive growth has certainly left many people guessing on the direction that it will take but I think the author was not credible enough with his predictions.
Basic trends on investment in the country speak otherwise because the country is doing well as far as exports are concerned which should cushion the economy for long term sustainability.
Reference List Roubini, N. (2011). China’s Bad Growth Bet. Retrieved from https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/china-s-bad-growth-bet?barrier=accesspaylog
Wong, E. (2010). China’s Export Economy Begins Turning Inward. New York: The New York Times.
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