1.1 Project Management Overview: The aim of project management methodology is to give common standards to make sure that projects are conducted in a regimented, well-managed, and constant manner. The eventual objective of this methodology is to promote the deliverance of eminence products that effect in projects, which are completed on time, within financial plan and achieve the known business objectives.
1.2 The importance of Project Management methodology: A methodology is a set of principles that can be modified and applied to a definite situation. In a project environment, these principles might be a record of things to do. It could also be a definite approach, templates, figures, and even checklists used over the project life cycle. Defining and executing a superior methodology is necessary for advanced organisations who would like a project management approach for performing project activities in a logical, consistent, answerable and repeatable way.
1.3 Sociocultural factors play an increasingly significant role in the development project management. This aspect produces a provisional social system within a well-built organizational environment that unites the talents of a different set of professionals working to entire the project. Project managers should build a supportive social network among a different set of collaborators with diverse standards, obligations, and views. Since People are the essential part of project, the essential factors narrating people in project management are teamwork, communication, leadership, negotiation, problem solving, behavioural characteristics and conflict management.
Project’s success greatly depends upon the commitment of all the team members to achieve the common goal. To select the right members and ensure good team work within the project team is a challenge for the project manager. Effective communication is essential; the main objective of communication in project management is to perceive that there is a general understanding of the project.
Leadership involves identifying and articulating the need to considerably change the direction and function of the project, aligning people to the latest direction, and motivating them to work collectively to conquer hurdles produced by the change and to understand innovative objectives. Negotiation is the process of planning, discussing, suggest, trade-offs, bargaining and agreeing. The factors like resources, assignments, scope, cost and schedule of objectives are negotiated by the project staff in a project.
The project manger should be capable of identifying and analysing problems related to technical and managerial aspects in a project. By constructing problem-solving in a project and problem collaboration in project team then these problems are dealt swiftly. Problem definition and decision making are involved in problem solving.
Behavioural characteristics are the factors that divide and depict a person’s favoured way of acting, interacting, and responding in a variety of circumstances. The behavioural characteristics which are essential for project management are thoughts, common sense, progressiveness, adaptability, creativity, prudent risk taker, equality and commitment.
In several organizations, conflicts occur between employees as a normal result of employee relations. The project manager needs to identify the objects and behavioural components of conflict. In any organisation conflicts can be managed by collaborating, compromising, smoothing, avoidance and competing.
2. Teamwork and communication:
2.1 Teamwork in project management: A project team consists of various people working together towards a common objective. Project manager is responsible for the victorious result of the project. Each member of the team has own task, which symbolizes a part of the entire project.
2.2 Importance of teamwork: The notion of teamwork is very important to the success of any team. Teamwork and generosity create the stamina of a great team, without them a team cannot practically compete. The team working as one unified unit is going to be the key in project’s success. In any organisation teamwork has immense significance for more than one cause. Organisations who have embrace the concept, have reported augmented recital in work production, problem solving and has encouraged new-fangled growth. In any field teamwork is an answer for managing work and communication. The solution to teamwork is placing the needs of the project over one’s own little desires and cares.
2.3 Team selection factors: The three most common techniques used for hiring an individual in a team are structured interview, situational judgement test and personality test. The other factors which play a crucial role for selecting individuals in teams are as follows:-
a. Social skills: In team settings social skills are predominantly important, since working in team enhances the interdependence among employees, characteristically producing better divergence, workload sharing, and coordination. Social skills included things such as social perceptiveness, persuasion, inculcating, and helping others. These enhance the importance of social tasks, which reflects actions focused on maintaining and controlling team’s existence.
b. Personality characteristics: The personality attributes are mirrored in individuals elevated in Conscientiousness where their contributions are essential to overall team success who are reliable and hardworking. Initially the positive relationship was given between conscientiousness and recital across all works. Secondly the conscientious individuals are worried with their behaviours and achieving the team’s objectives. Finally cooperative behaviour is required for success in team settings.
c. Teamwork knowledge: This sight advises that there is a set of basic individual-level abilities that help performance in team settings. These abilities become significant in teamwork settings because of improved social and interpersonal needs. The teamwork knowledge in linked to contextual performance.
2.4 Guidelines for successful teamwork: The first decisive factor of a teamwork achievement is that all the team efforts are focussed towards the same apparent goals, the team goals. The other main aspect is the diversity of abilities and personalities. Furthermore, to develop the team’s strength the individual potencies and abilities are united together. Here are some tips for effective work team.
There should be an innermost focus that the team progressing towards and it must also incorporate a tough task direction that converts into each person knowing how to shift towards that target. potency
Trust should be build among team members by spending one-on-one time in an ambience of frankness and integrity.
For effective teamwork one should be a model. Since, leading the act of persuading others to act and this would be difficult if an individual has distinct set of principles for themselves and another for everybody else.
Each individual needs to recognize what he or she is going to put in and also what they add fits into the large picture. Individual competition should be dejected for the goodwill of the team’s agenda and principles.
Team members should have technical skills plus problem solving skills which are evenly important to the team’s success. In order to achieve the objectives proper training must be provided.
For the purpose of knowing the team tasks, unity should be build among the team and individual strengths must be pooled.
The results of the task should be reviewed and strengthened with suggestions for additional improvement. Besides, the completed task must be recorded properly.
2.5 Strategies of teamwork: The important strategies to be followed for the effective teamwork are:-
All partners should develop collective vision with excellent foundation to accommodate individual and organisational outlines that team up to attain a common goal.
Member roles and errands should be defined that demonstrates collaboration would be cautiously planned and can contribute achievement to the problem solving initiative.
All the partners should be involved in project activities, meetings and discussions and mechanisms must be developed to inform partners about conference minutes and discussions. Open communication and share decision making through consensus should be maintained.
Team leaders should look for commitment from partners to partake vigorously as a team in the teamwork. Core partners must lead the team with reliability and integrity to gain and continue the commitment.
Team members should be recognized and rewarded for their contribution to the team’s endeavour all partners should be repeatedly encouraged to share their involvements with the whole team.
2.6 Challenges of teamwork: Everyone in the team should be able to generate a culture of faith and affirmative energy. Moreover, the different teams should desire to keep operations running efficiently. There are challenges in maintaining the team as one and these include keeping assurance, trust, communication lines, superior leadership and accountable membership at towering levels. The three main challenges of people in teams are discussed below:-
a. The People who create the Team: For any team to attain its goal, its members should, mainly set aside their individual variations and interests. There is also a feeling of possession and responsibility over the task that they are to carry out. The team should have a skilled leader who has complete empowerment from the top executives.
b. The People behind Any successful Team: Any team who desire to be successful should persuade members to be energetic in the planning phase and be open to thoughts and constructive feedback.
c. Keeping Team recital finest: Training, communication skills and team spirit bustles are other implements important in creating a successful team. The achievement of team goals is highly dependent on the level of appreciation of members concerning their duties to the team.
2.7 Communication in Project management: Communication is imperative on a project as it affects understanding and feelings. In communication there are two units’ receiver and sender. Receiver is very important. The project manager should use effective methods to establish good communication in the project team as well as with the parties related to the project.
2.8 Importance of communication: Communication is one of the fundamental principles of management in any company and its significance can barely be exaggerated. It is a method of broadcasting information, ideas, opinions, and strategies between diverse parts of an organisation. In an organisation for superior performance people are required to act together and respond, that is to communicate, this not only admirable for victorious business but it also improves excellent human relations. In any project about ninety percent of time is spent communicating through email, individually, fax or by conventions. Effective communication in a company amongst department and individual contemporaries is necessary for an industrious functioning environment. Communication allows the manager to safe information for judgment making, to analyse the problems in the project. It also helps in instructing to the assistants the meaning and importance of the enterprise plans and goals, and also giving directions, conveying duties etc. The major facet of the communication management structure in an organization is to increase communication approaches which would be helpful in making all the employees to stimulate so the intensification of the organization will be a stable one which would be benefited by both administration and the employees.
2.9 Methods of communication: Communication is swapping of information from one end of the task to the other end in a competent way. The techniques implemented to communicate vital information mainly rely upon the size of the definite project. Classic methods may include oral, written and fixed flow. There might also be other realistic factors to be considered, such as records protection, openness, language etc. The accomplishment of a task depends upon the effectiveness of its communication system. The most common methods to be considered are explained below.
a. Face to face informal communication: Face-to-face interpersonal communication is common communication method most people apply at work. Informal communication constructs dealings with team members and volunteers, and face-to-face communication is the main way people communicate easily.
b. Meetings: The meeting follows a plan and employees listen to each other. Each thought is given a consideration. People are not frightened to share innovative thoughts even if they seem tremendous. Brainstorming is promoted when appropriate. Meeting achievement involves having the correct group composition as well as using an efficient process.
c. Email: Electronic mail is a fast and simple way to forward a communication. It is the most effectual method for communication. It is cheap and convenient; each individual can reach many people at the same time and at diverse places.
d. Intranet web pages: It is the well-organized method for provision of comprehensive information in the form of web page and it can be viewed anywhere by all the team members.
e. Newsletters: A newsletter includes information targeted at a crowd of readers who share general interests. The newsletter system is used to converse information to co employees, to other businesses, to members of an association and to clients.
f. Notices: Notices are techniques used to keep the employees as a together with what is happening in the organisation. There are distant means of communication i.e. the similar communication is sent to all the employees. Notices might narrate to vacant posts, union affairs and are expected to be exhibited on a notice board.
2.10 Guidelines for effective communication at organization: Project managers believe communication as a major part that must be improved frequently. Managers handling decisive tasks experience need of competent communication system. Better communication capabilities are necessary for successful results of the project.
Approaches and Effects of Collective Bargaining
Management Assignment Help Assignment Help Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining is a method where negotiation and compromise are resulted in agreements, joint determination and regulation. In other words, the nature of collective bargaining is a process where the interaction talks place between employers and labour collective where liberal collectivist are favoured. Within Human Resource system a process through which an employee and their representative persuade and take part in decision making and collective bargaining is one the most frequently used mechanism.
The purpose of determining terms and conditions of employment and or regulating relations between them for workers organisation and employers or employer’s organisation are all negotiated and this is defined by the International Labour Office Convictions. The relationship between the parties to terms and conditions of employment and regulations are limited to subject matter by International Labour Office Convention. Collective bargaining is the dominant employee participation process which is arguable.
There are two types of rules where collective bargaining which tends to reach an agreement. First is substantive rule, here the terms and conditions are determined for employment, for example the pay scale or the annual holidays or the basic working hours in a week. This rule also includes which work to give according to grade of staff and called as Demarcation rule. Second is Procedural rule, here the method and procedures are determined, for example an example an issue discussion at particular in national level or company level. Normal negotiation cannot resolve any disagreements or disputes and to refer disputes at plant level to regional or national level arrangements possibly is there and this rule determines the arbitration arrangements for example probably a rule that disputes should refer to ACAS ( the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration services).
Over the past years, the evolution of collective bargaining was in different stages. Collective bargaining was established for skilled labour at the local level. The joint negotiations were encouraged at the industry level due to the influence of corporate system and this lead to the establishment of collective bargaining. “John Goodman (1984) has defined collective bargaining as a Process through which representatives of employers and of employee organizations act as the joint creators of the substantive and procedural rules regulating employment. In addition they frequently accept the main responsibility for interpreting, applying and enforcing the rules”
There are various types of functions in collective bargaining. First, market or economic function. In this function the price of the labour are decided by the employer and the employee will work as per the terms and conditions. Second decision-making function. In this function the collective bargaining allow the employees the opportunity to participate in taking decision about the policies of the organization. Third, governmental function. In this function the collective bargaining establishes the rule that governs the employment relationship. It is also called as the political process. It is like a constitution where both the parties have the power to ‘veto’ to control the actions of each other.
The agreement is made between the employer and the employee with the two types of the rules. Those are substantive rules and procedural rules. Substantive rules are the rule that regulates the terms and conditions of employment. Procedural rules are rules under which the negotiation over the terms and conditions are made. These rules help in improving and maintaining the employment relationship between the employer and the employee. There are also some strategies like avoiding problems, using kind words, compromising used for maintaining the employment relationship.
Ref: John Leopold, 2002, Human Resources in Organizations’, Financial Times/ Prentice Hall, England.
There are two approaches of collective bargaining which plays an important role in maintaining the employment relationship. First approach, distributive bargaining. In this type one party enjoys the benefit, profits, and gains with the expenses of the other party. Here the opposite parties can use the power to achieve their tasks. So, it becomes a problem when one side refuses to accept the compromise or the benefits given to them. The second approach, integrative bargaining. It seeks in mutual gains in areas of the common interest with the problem solving approach. For the success of integrative bargaining both the parties should share the information between each other and they should trust each other. So, compromise and problem solving plays an important role in maintaining employment relationship.
Collective bargaining is useful in many ways in the organization. It helps in the downward communication where the communication takes place from the managers to employees. It takes place in formal written reports such as employee reports, house journals etc. It helps in the upward problem solving where the greater opportunities are given to the employee to contribute to the discussions relating to their work. It also helps in task participation and team working where the employees are expected to extend their tasks at their work. It also helps in financial involvement where the success of the enterprise is linked to the individual rewards.
There are also some strategies used in the collective bargaining and they are by ignoring the conflict, many problems can be avoided. By using kind and soft words, the problem or the conflict can be smoothed. By compromising also many problems can be solved. So, these are some of the ways through which the employment relationship can be controlled through collective bargaining.
The controlling of the employment relation can be done by introducing the new rules in the enterprise such as like giving standard rate of pay for the employees who will benefit them. Employment relationship can also be controlled by modifying the goals such as to avoid the conflict between the employer and the employee.
The person on behalf of the management and a person on behalf of the trade union conduct the meeting at different level to negotiate the problem. Those levels are national or industry wide level and company level or local level. The negotiations which are conducted at national level are known as centralized bargaining and the negotiations which are conducted at the company level are known as decentralized bargaining. Centralized bargaining is found in most of the large public sector companies and multi site private companies, with the help of this approach the company lay down nationally applicable rule of conduct for the employee relations and also payment conditions. Decentralized bargaining helps in improving the local requirements, demands and terms and conditions.
Collective bargaining plays an important role in solving the conflicts or the problem that is arising. Collective bargaining has got the power to bring the change in the enterprise independently even though both the parties have power to influence each other. Collective bargaining brings about the trust in the relationship with each other. It also helps in following the rules and regulations. Conflicts arising can also be solved by following these rules. Collective bargaining plays a very important role in managing the employer-employee relationship. It helps in forming the trade unions and also in involving the negotiation process incase of any disputes.
There has been a recent developments in collective bargaining and they are single union deals and single table bargaining. Single union deal is like an agreement where the management allows only one trade union to represent the employees. Single union agreements may also have other agreements and those agreements are pendulum arbitration, no strike agreements and flexibility agreements. Pendulum arbitration is also called as final offer arbitration. It is a method where the third party involves when there is an disagreement between two parties and this bargaining is done in good faith to settle the conflicts between each other. Single table bargaining also gives similar benefits to the employer as single union deals while marinating a multi-union site. Here the negotiation process takes place between the unions. Flexible agreements are agreements that are done to modify the traditional working practices and also the flexibility in the function that are to be carried out in the working place.
There are lot of benefits from collective bargaining, and there are many reasons for the decline of collective bargaining in recent days. It is because the power and the control of the trade union are in the hands of governments and also because of Act of employment legislation to control the power of trade unions. It is also because the focus is now a day shown on each individual at the work. It is also because of the growth of new managerial statistics. It is mainly because of the failure of the trade unions to develop effective strategies in developing the employer employee relationship. It is also because some privatised companies do not adopt collective bargaining and thus it is completely abandoned in major companies. It is because of these reasons the collective bargaining has fallen down to a greater extent in past years. But, Human resource management plays an important role in encouraging flexible working arrangements and in development of the human resource and in paying to the employee for their performance.