Techniques of Neutralization
Social Bond Theory
Social Reaction Theory (Labeling Theory)
Introduction A social theory is a correlation of principles in helping to understand social life. These theories are meant to be used as models to explain human behavior in relation to other forces. The frameworks in which the social theories are applied are founded on quantifiable social facts which can be tested scientifically.
It is the role of criminological theorists to collect data, build a hypothesis and eventually put them to test empirically. For a social theory to be valid, the hypothesis stipulated should be in line with research data. Innovative methods are sometimes used by criminal theorists to evaluate the validity of a social theory.
For instance criminologists could compare the effect of adding enforcement party in a particular field such as the National Hockey League. As the referees are increased in the field the number of penalties decreases. This could be compared to the crime sector where increasing the number of police decreases the crime rate in a given area (Siegel, 2009).
Disorganization theory The theory deals with the surroundings in urban life in relation to rates of crime. The urban environment may be somewhat disorganized since the social entities such as schools, businesses and family setups are not discrete hence fail to function as required. Lack of jobs, inadequate schooling, poor housing, low earnings, and high number of illegitimate children characterize the state of social disorganization.
Those living under such conditions go through conflicts and desperation which leads to engagement in antisocial activities (Siegel, 2009). Gang violence results from such a set up where the rising cost of urban life dictates engagement in such activities as commercial prostitution.
Strain theory According to Siegel, “strain theory holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals which people have and the means they can use to obtain them legally” (2009). For instance, many people aspire to acquire wealth, fame and power although their capabilities depends on class and those of lower class struggle to acquire their desires conventionally. As a result, they are filled with frustration, desperations and prejudice or what is described as strain.
They either become socially responsible by learning to live under their state or else could opt to engage in other socially unacceptable ways to acquire their desires e.g. through burglary, drug cartels or other violent activities just like in the disorganization theory (2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cultural Deviance This theory incorporates the strain theory as well as the social disorganization it points out that as a result of strain and societal segregation there is a particular culture that establishes for the low income earners in the disorganized setups. Therefore, specific aspects of this culture contradict with the ordinary social norms.
Criminal behavior accelerates in this neighborhood which is a way to conform to their practices and not a way to rebel from the societal norms. These practices are reflected into the upcoming generations through cultural transmissions (Siegel, 2009). In disorganized social setups, juveniles acquire criminal practices when they associate with gang members or even their older family members.
As a result, criminal traditions are retained in these social setups and even continue reinforcing them by mastering the art. The criminal traditions compete with the accepted social norms and outdo them thus the morally degraded practice is handed over from one generation to the next.
There is coherence in the practices in the disorganized neighborhoods and young children readily learn them as they interact socially thus high rates of gang violence. On the other hand, organized areas are characterized by convectional practices and are somehow insulated from external influence (Lillly et al, 2011).
Differential Association The theory was proposed by Edwin Sutherland to point out the diffusion of delinquency. He stated that criminal activities are learnt in a social context. Individuals learn moral or immoral acts as they intimately interact with other individuals who belong to a particular group.
As learning occurs, there is transmission of immoral behaviors from the immoral persons and given the opportunity, an individual has a choice to act as such ( Winfree
Two Ethical Cases and Their Implications Analytical Essay
Nursing Assignment Help It is very hard to comply with professional ethics when making decisions because at some instances, legal and ethical inconsistencies arise resulting into a dilemma. According to Davis, “being ethical does not always mean following the law, and just because something is possible does not mean it is ethical, hence the dilemma” (353).
Since persistent dilemmas do arise in various professions, professional bodies have formulated code of ethics, which stipulates the conduct and prescribes ethical values that the members should uphold when faced with dilemmas in order for them to make the right decisions.
In this regard, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) formulated their code of ethics to regulate the conduct of their respective engineers. This essay explores two ethical cases and discusses their ethical implications with respect to the American Society Civil Engineers code of ethics.
The Case of Art Ainsworth In this case, Art Ainsworth has ethical obligation to take further action by informing the building authority about the status of Walter’s residence. One of the fundamental principles of the code of ethics demands engineers to use their knowledge and skills in improving the welfare of human beings; therefore, it is quite ethical for Art Ainsworth to report the matter to the building authority.
Basing on canon one, section one “engineers shall recognize that lives, safety, health and welfare of the general public are dependent upon engineering judgments, decisions and practices incorporated into structures, products, processes and devices” (ASCE 22).
In this case, engineer Art Ainsworth has recognized the structural deficiency in his client’s residence and further advised on the emergency measures required to avert the impending injury or loss of life.
Even though his client, Walter Weakly through his lawyer orders him to take no further action, canon one, section three prescribes that it is ethical for him to furnish information regarding violation of canon one.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since Art Ainsworth is an employee of his client and has received legal notification from his client to take no further action concerning his residence: it results into legal and ethical complication.
Canon four of the code of ethics requires engineers to act faithfully and avoid conflict of interests emanating from their professional role. The fact that Art Ainsworth had offered to provide engineering service to repair his client’s residence but the client declined and furnish him with legal objection, shows that conflict of interest exists.
Code of ethics canon four, section one states that, “engineers shall avoid all known or potential conflicts of interest with their employers or clients and shall promptly inform their employers or clients of any business association, interests, or circumstances which could influence their judgment or the quality of their services” (ASCE 23).
Therefore, despite the fact that Art Ainsworth has ethical responsibility to take further action since his client has not repaired his residence according to his recommendation, taking further action will have an ethical setback due to the conflict of interest.
Whether public or private building, engineers have ethical responsibility of ensuring that they utilize their skills and knowledge optimally for human and environmental benefit.
According to canon one, “engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public and shall strive to comply with the principles of sustainable development in the performance of their professional duties” (ASCE 22).
Hence, Art Ainsworth has ethical responsibility of ensuring that the residence of his client meets the required standard for safety and welfare, and this has no effect on the course of action Art Ainsworth should take.
We will write a custom Essay on Two Ethical Cases and Their Implications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Given Art’s situation, I would have given the same recommendation to Walter Weakly; that his residence requires immediate repair due to the impending snowstorm, which may cause injury or loss of life. By doing this I will be acting within the code of ethics and ethical test that are imperative in decision-making.
Since code of ethics demands professional action in ensuring safety and welfare of humanity, compelling my client to repair his building in due time is ethical.
In my case, I would have not offered to provide repairing services because it is unethical because it creates conflict of interest, and furthermore, it does not pass ethical tests such as defensibility test, virtue test, reversibility test, and professional test. (Davis 365).
Professional ethics prohibit engineers from soliciting or accepting gratuities from their clients and therefore, offering to provide engineering services to the client is unethical.
The Case of Richard Jones Richard’s actions are in violation of the ASCE code of ethics, canon one, section two, since he fraudulently signs and seals the documents, which he did not prepare. Canon six of the code of ethics requires engineers to uphold dignity, honor, and integrity of their profession.
According to canon six, section one, “engineers shall not knowingly act in a manner which will be derogatory to the honor, integrity, or dignity of the engineering profession or knowingly engage in business or professional practices of a fraudulent, dishonest, or unethical nature” (ASCE 24).
Richard’s actions do not pass ethical tests of reversibility, defensibility, professional and organizational test, thus quite unethical.
Richard could have taken other actions in order to conform to the ASCE code of ethics and pass various ethical tests. To avoid fraudulence, Richard could have advised his client to terminate his contract legally with the other engineering firm before reviving their business relationship.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Two Ethical Cases and Their Implications by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Alternatively, he should have demanded a fresh start of the document his client wanted approved rather than approving the work of others.
Canon 5, section two prescribes that, “engineers should negotiate contracts for professional services fairly and on the basis of demonstrated competence and qualifications for the type of professional service required” (ASCE 24). To pass reversibility and professional test, Richard should have considered his building professional reputation and give fair competition.
If I were in Richard’s position, I would consider legal and ethical implications that would arise. Firstly, approving the work of others is not only against professional ethics, but also it is a criminal offence of fraud, and I would be liable to prosecution in a court of law.
Secondly, signing and sealing the work of others as though my own work will earn me a bad professional reputation that will lead to my suspension or even expulsion from the American Society of Civil Engineers and subsequent doom of my professional career.
Canon 6, section one, states that, “engineers shall not knowingly act in a manner which will be derogatory to the honor, integrity, or dignity of the engineering profession or knowingly engage in business or professional practices of a fraudulent, dishonest or unethical nature” (ASCE 24). Basing my decision on this stipulation, I would have considered following legal and ethical procedures that would enhance my reputation and give fair competition to others.
Works Cited American Society of Civil Engineers. “ASCE Code of Ethics.” The Fundamental Principles of the ABET Code of Ethics of Engineers. (2006): 21-25.
Davis, Michael. “Developing and Using Cases to Teach Practical Ethics.” Teaching Philosophy 20. (1997): 353-385.