Habituation and conditioning are some of the simplest forms of learning. In situations where a given stimulus is incorporated in learning, it is known as stimulus learning. Meaningful stimulus learning occurs when behavior is transformed through the use of stimuli.
This essay discusses the simple stimulus learning. It explains the concept of habituation, analyzes the various factors which affect perceptual learning, and examines the effects of stimulus exposure. The essay also highlights the application of simple stimulus learning to real life situations.
According to prominent psychologists, stimulus learning is defined as the permanent transformation in behavior due to first hand experience by an individual (Postman, 2007). The change in behavior is the physical manifestation of the knowledge and skills acquired through learning. This presents a more objective way of finding out if meaningful learning has occurred. Behavior as a result of learning should be relatively permanent as opposed to behavior dynamics arising from emotional variations.
There are several forms of learning which have been identified by psychological theorists. Habituation is one of the simplest forms of knowledge acquisition. It results from continued exposure to a specified stimulus. Habituation follows a general pattern which involves the familiarization of a stimulus by an individual.
This process is achieved through rapid motivation or noise which in turn controls the individual’s thought process (Postman, 2007). Frequent exposure to a given stimulus will force an individual to become used to it to such an extent that it draws no attention.
For instance, if someone shifts to a home on a noisy road, the experience of automobiles passing by will be a major issue. However, being in the environment for some time will eventually lead to the noise being part of the day. The individual, therefore, becomes habituated to the surrounding such that attention to the busy road fades away. This form of learning helps individuals exist in an environment which is filled by vision and noises (Aslin, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Perception presents one of the most dominant means through which humans learn. Perceptual learning occurs as a result of constant practice as well as first hand experience. It causes a change in the collection of important information from the environment which in turn affects an individual’s actions (Adolph, 2007). It has also been noted that people learn through their actions as they interact with the environment. An individual’s desire to explore the environment facilitates perceptual learning to a great extent.
As one looks, listens, touches, walks as well as employ other forms of direct observation, he or she acquires knowledge, values, and skills through perceptual learning. Since perception involves fist hand encounter, it is useful in the acquisition of information that help in dealing with immediate objectives (Adolph, 2007). A number of factors have been known to affect perceptual learning.
Experience has been picked out as one of the major factosr that affect perceptual learning and development (Adolph, 2007). The length of time to which one is exposed to a given stimulus determines the extent or degree to which learning may occur. Experience has been linked with age and the timing of when an individual is exposed to it affects the effectiveness of the learning process. Another factor that plays a central role in perceptual learning is the ‘constancy’ of perception.
Variations in lighting intensity of the object and the relative positioning of the perceiver greatly affects the energy that facilitates the perception of a given object. Perceptual learning and development enables individuals understand that objects and situations remain unchanged despite the variations in some sensory inputs (Adolph, 2007).
A number of psychological researchers have explored the factors that affect the different forms of learning. Prior exposure to particular stimulus has been found to affect the rate of learning in individuals (Postman, 2007). This is because an individual can be able to associate the different stimuli. Exposure, according to research findings, has been known to enhance predictability of given actions or stimuli and hence shapes behavior.
Individuals interact with the environment through the various forms of learning and hence can influence as much as they are influenced by their surroundings. Simple stimulus learning has several real life applications. Living in a noisy neighborhood will eventually lead to co-existence when the response to the stimulus fades away through habituation.
The essay has elaborated the concept of simple stimulus learning and habituation as one of the simplest form of learning. The various factors affecting perceptual learning have been analyzed. The ways in which exposure to stimulus influences the learning process have also been discussed. Moreover, the paper has highlighted the applications of simple stimulus learning to real life situations. Stimulus learning, therefore, is one of the most critical means of acquiring knowledge and skills which facilitate meaningful living.
We will write a custom Essay on Simple Stimulus Learning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Adolph, M. R. (2007). Perceptual learning and development in infants. McGraw Hill Plc. Aslin, R. P. (2008). Learning and stimulus response: an analysis. Berkeley Press
Postman, G. L. (2007). “Understanding stimulus learning.” Psychological Review Journal, 64 (3):426-437
Analysis of the Performance of Domestic
Nursing Assignment Help Introduction Background of the study
The restaurant industry, both domestic and multinationals, were faced with extremely tough challenges through the end of 2009 due to the economic hardship that lead to weak labor and tight credit markets. The result was a decline in discretionary spending by consumers. With the US economy slowly reviving, the industry posted improved results during the first half of 2010.
As a result, the restaurants are expanding and management teams are increasingly considering the most effective strategy to integrate in order to exploit opportunities presented in the market. The resultant effect is that these firms will be able to remain competitive (Cummings et al, 2010, pp.5). Multinational firms refer to those firms in the industry which operate both locally and internationally. Domestic firms only operate within the US.
Research indicates that restaurants are opening up branches worldwide and are hence facing numerous challenges. Firm seeking to venture into the international market must assess various factors. Some of these factors include inflation rates, interest rates, politics, cultural differences, government regulations among other factors. The study entails a report comparing the differences between multinational firms’ and domestic firms in the restaurant industry.
The aim of the report is to analyze the performance of domestic and multinational restaurants in the US.
Scope of this report focuses on comparison of performance of domestic and multinational restaurant in US.
Discussions Percentage change in sales, operating Income and growth of assets will be discussed in this section.
Change in sales
Restaurant firms grew larger in size and generated higher sales during the first period (1981-1990) and the second period (1991-2000). Sales from food service grew by at least 49 percent from $228 billion in 1990 to $339 billion in 1999. The huge growth was in sales by commercial food service establishments that prepare, serve and sell food to the consumers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their sales more than doubled from $178 billion in 1990 to $275 billion in 1999 (Price, 2000, pp.23).As for the multinational restaurants such as Burger King, Pizza hut, KFC and McDonalds, saturated US food market forced them to go abroad.
Operating income of the domestic restaurants is lower than the operating income of the multinationals. This is results from the fact that multinational firms have an effective diversification opportunity thus reducing the degree of risk they face. Reasons for diversification include benefiting the firm’s owners through increasing the efficiency of operation in the firm.
Diversification decisions may reflect the preferences of the restaurant managers. The motivation for diversification is to minimize risk of relying on only one or few income source, avoid cyclical or seasonal fluctuation by producing foods with different demand and achieving a higher growth rate in the hotel business. Bankruptcy costs are lower when firms incorporate the concept of internationalization.
Multinationals may attain competitive advantage by venturing into the foreign markets since they have sophisticated skills and new technologies (Porter, 1991, pp.538) .This enables them to outperform local corporations in foreign markets. The advantage is reflected by rapid expansion and value of future growth opportunities of the multinationals.
It is important to also note that domestic firms have relatively lower growth in operating income and higher pre-tax earnings loss compared to multinational firms (Markle