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Sickle Cell Anemia Case Study

A 20-year-old Africa- America woman visits her physical complaining of episodes of extreme pain and discomfort in her legs and lower back. She has been experiencing these recurrent episodes, accompanied by extreme fatigue, since she was a child. On physical examination, she appears jaundiced and has a hematocrit of 23% and a hemoglobin level of 7g/dL. She reports she has family members who experienced the same symptom.
Sickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease) is a disorder of the blood caused by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin (an oxygen-carrying protein within the red blood cells). The abnormal hemoglobin causes distorted (sickled) red blood cells. The sickled red blood cells are fragile and prone to rupture. When the number of red blood cells decreases from rupture (hemolysis), anemia is the result. This condition is referred to as sickle cell anemia. The irregular sickled cells can also block blood vessels causing tissue and organ damage and pain.
Sickle cell anemia is one of the most common inherited blood anemias. The disease primarily affects Africans and African Americans. It is estimated that in the United States, some 50,000 African Americans are afflicted with the most severe form of sickle cell anemia. Overall, current estimates are that one in 1,875 U.S. African American is affected with sickle cell anemia. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a point mutation in the β-globin chain of haemoglobin, causing the hydrophilic amino acid glutamic acid to be replaced with the hydrophobic amino acid valine at the sixth position. The β-globin gene is found on the short arm of chromosome 11. The association of two wild-type α-globin subunits with two mutant β-globin subunits forms haemoglobin S (HbS). Under low-oxygen conditions (being at high altitude, for example), the absence of a polar amino acid at position six of the β-globin chain promotes the non-covalent polymerisation (aggregation) of haemoglobin, which distorts red blood cells into a sickle shape and decreases their elasticity.
The loss of red blood cell elasticity is central to the pathophysiology of sickle-cell disease. Normal red blood cells are quite elastic, which allows the cells to deform to pass through capillaries. In sickle-cell disease, low-oxygen tension promotes red blood cell sickling and repeated episodes of sickling damage the cell membrane and decrease the cell’s elasticity. These cells fail to return to normal shape when normal oxygen tension is restored. As a consequence, these rigid blood cells are unable to deform as they pass through narrow capillaries, leading to vessel occlusion and ischaemia.
The actual anaemia of the illness is caused by haemolysis, the destruction of the red cells inside the spleen, because of their misshape. Although the bone marrow attempts to compensate by creating new red cells, it does not match the rate of destruction.[17] Healthy red blood cells typically live 90-120 days, but sickle cells only survive 10-20 days.[18]
Normally, humans have Haemoglobin A, which consists of two alpha and two beta chains, Haemoglobin A2, which consists of two alpha and two delta chains and Haemoglobin F, consisting of two alpha and two gamma chains in their bodies. Of these, Haemoglobin A makes up around 96-97% of the normal haemoglobin in humans.
In normal Haemoglobin A, glutamic acid is on the 6th position of the beta chain, while in sickle-cell disease, this glutamic acid is replaced by valine leading to the formation of sickle cells. This happens due to a one point mutation. This leads to polymerization of the two beta chains and therefore their appearance as puzzle pieces (or lock and key); which means they fit into each other forming a longitudinal polymer that would lead to the cell becoming deformed and very rigid leading to vessel occlusion. This process of polymerization can be activated by infections, hypoxia, acidosis, physical exercise, vasoocclusion due to cold as well as hypertonic dehydration.
Diagnosis Sickle cell anemia is diagnosed through blood test, testing for hemoglobin S (the defective form of hemoglobin descriptive of the disease), the presence of other abnormal hemoglobin variants, evaluating status and number of erythrocytes, and/or determination of one of more altered hemoglobin gene copies. In the United States, this blood test is part of routine screening for newborns done in the hospital. However, older children and adults can be tested also. In adults, the blood sample is extracted from a vein in the arm. In young children and babies, blood is taken from a finger or heel. The testing itself is typically performed on a smear of blood utilizing a special low-oxygen preparation, known as sickle prep. Other prep tests can be utilized, including but not limited to solubility tests. [4,6]
Another screening testing is the Hb S solubility test. In this procedure, a chemical is added to the blood sample which reduces the amount of its oxygen carrying capacity. In individuals carrying even one sickle gene, some hemoglobin S will be present. The reduced amount of oxygen will cause S-related polymers to form and affected erythrocytes will sickle. This test, in essence, detects for the presence of Hb S alone. However, this exam should not be performed on infants until age six months, as babies with sickle cell will not produce significant amounts of Hb S until several months after birth. [6]
To confirm the diagnosis, DNA analysis can be utilized. This exam is used to detect alterations and mutations in the genes producing hemoglobin components. DNA analysis reveals one copy or two copies of the hemoglobin S gene, or copies of different hemoglobin variants. DNA analysis can be performed on the developing fetus in fourteen to sixteen weeks gestations via amniocentesis or through chorionic villus sampling.[6]
Treatment Treatment of sickle cell anemia is done by blocking the red blood cells from stacking together.
the health professional maintenance helps the patients to begin with early diagnosis of the disorder, preferably during the newborn period. Penicillin prophylaxis, vaccination against pneumococcus bacteria, and folic acid supplementation is standard. [2]
Treatment of sickle cell complications includes ,vitamin supplementation, intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, supplemental oxygen, surgery (splenectomy) and psychosocial support. Management is best accomplished via multidisciplinary program of care. [2,3,5]
Blood transfusions benefit by reducing recurring pain crises, risk of stroke, and other complications. Blood transfusions increase the amount of normocytic erythrocytes in circulation, helping relieve the anemic state. However, since erythrocytes contain iron and the body does not possess a natural process for its elimination, patients can accumulate iron in the blood. Thus, possible iron toxicity must be closely screened and methods to remove excess must be executed. Excess iron is removed artificially through administration of the drug Deferasirox (Exjade ®) orally in patients two years of age and older. If this is not checked, the excessive iron can accumulate in the heart, liver, and various other organs causing organ damage. [3]
Other treatments for this disease include finding a substance that prevents erythrocytes from sickling without producing deleterious effects to other body areas. The medication hydroxyurea has been found to reduce the frequency and severity of pain, acute chest syndrome, and decrease the need for blood transfusions in adult patients. Droxia ® (prescription name brand formulation of hydroxyurea) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998 and is currently available for adult patients. Studies are currently being conducted to determine the proper dosage in pediatric patients. However, there is concern in this medication that chronic usage may facilitate tumor growth or leukemia in certain individuals. [5]
Other pharmacological therapies include antibiotics and pain relievers. Regarding antibiotics and aforementioned earlier, children benefit from penicillin at age two months and usually continue medication until age five. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment helps in preventing pneumonia. For adults, prophylactic antibiotic treatment can aide in fighting certain infections that they would normally fight provided they had normal erythrocytes. [2,3,5]
Non-pharmacotherapy treatments are bone marrow transplant and supplemental oxygen therapy. Bone marrow transplant procedure offers the only potential cure for sickle cell anemia. Replacing the system with unaffected bone marrow aids the body in producing normocytic erythrocytes. However, finding a donor provides difficult even with the advent of registries. Also, the extraction of bone marrow possesses serious risk, including death. After the procedure, a mandatory lengthy hospital stay is required. In the hospital and upon leaving, the patient will be administered medications to help prevent rejection of the donated marrow. The procedure is currently only used for those possessing serious symptoms and problems with sickle cell anemia. Regarding supplemental oxygen therapy, this proves beneficial by forcefully increasing oxygen content in the blood via oxygen mask. Supplemental oxygen can be helpful in acute chest syndrome or sickle cell crisis.[2,3,5]
Surgical treatment involve splenectomy to remove a possible damaged spleen from the sickle cells or eye surgery for vision problems associated with sickled cell damage.
New sickle cell treatments on the horizon include gene therapy, the pharmacological treatments of butyric acid, clotrimazole, nitric oxide, and nicosan. [3]
Since sickle cell anemia is caused by a defective gene, researchers speculate that insertion of a normal gene into bone marrow of people with sickle cell anemia will result in the production of normal hemoglobin. Another gene therapy possibility is “turning off” the defective gene, while reactivating another gene responsible for production of fetal hemoglobin (a type of hemoglobin found in newborns) that prevent sickle cells from forming. [3]
Butyric acid, normally utilized as a food additive, may increase the amount of fetal hemoglobin in the blood in some patients. [3]
Clotrimazole, the over-the-counter antifungal medication may help prevent loss of water from erythrocytes, possibly reducing the number of sickle cells formed. [3]
Nitric oxide is decreased in sickle cell anemia, a gas that normal causing vasodilatation. Administration of this agent would prevent the sticking of sickled cells to one another.[3]
Nicosan, an herbal treatment in early trials in the United States, is currently being used to prevent sickle crisis in Nigeria (West Africa). [3]
Reference section Sickle Cell Anemia: Treatments and Drugs – MayoClinic.com.” Sickle Cell Anemia. Mayo Clinic, 1 Apr. 2009. Web. 13 July 2010.
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sickle-cell-anemia/DS00324/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs
Smith WR, Penberthy LT, Bovbjerg VE, et al. (Jan 2008). “Daily assessment of pain in adults with sickle cell disease”. Ann. Intern. Med. 148 (2): 94-101. ISSNÂ 0003-4819. PMID1819533
Sickle Cell Tests.” American Association for Clinical Chemistry (2006). Lab Tests Online. American Association for Clinical Chemistry, 20 Aug. 2006. Web. 13 July 2010.
The case study was taken from first aid usmile step1
“What Is Sickle Cell Disease.” About Sickle Cell Disease. Sickle Cell Disease Association of America — SCDAA Home, 2005. Web. 13 July 2010. http://www.sicklecelldisease.org/about_scd/

Rate of Reaction and Yield Conversion | Experiment

At the outset, the objective of this experiment is to scrutinize the rate of reaction and the yield conversion. And the foremost principal that should be applied in order to determine both rate of reaction and yield conversion is material balance for batch reactions. As the experiment go on, students are supposed to perceive the factors catering the yield, rate of reaction and also the conversion. According to the hypothesis of the experiment, with the increment of ethyl acetate (reactant) from 0.1M to 0.2M the rate of reaction should gradually increase, leading to an augmentation of the rate of reaction as well as the conversion of sodium acetate from sodium hydroxide.
Secondly, the theories that students must be acquainted with is, batch reaction, conversion, rate of reaction, conductivity yield and saponification. Saponification is an essential theory that drive the whole experiment, as it function by hydrolyzing an ester, forming a acidic salt and alcohol. With the absence of the pertinent knowledge of saponification, the experiment will not be successful.
Thirdly, the modus operandi of the experiment, it comprises of 3 focal steps, preparation of reactant, experimental arrangement and procedure to be carried out during experiment. Students are to be particularly vigilant during the experiment, as reactant given, contain some perilous substances that are detrimental to human body.
Subsequently, with the use of two different concentration of acetyl acetate during the experiment, the result and calculation of yield and rate of reaction could be analyzed. The result tabularize based on the two different concentration should show a vast divergence. The 0.2M of ethyl acetate should possess a higher yield and rate of reaction according to the hypothesis of the experiment.
Before proceeding to the conclusion, students are supposed to go through some discussion on the experiment. The points to be discussed are namely preventative measure and the factors affecting the rate of reaction.
As a final point, the conclusion, it concludes whether the hypothesis of the experiment corresponds with the actual experiment performed. Tentatively the conclusion should support the hypothesis of the experiment, which is, as the concentration of ethyl acetate increases, the rate of reaction and conversion also increases. (Singapore Polytechnic 2009)
Material balance with chemical reaction 1. Introduction 1.1 Background
Over the years, heaps of researches have been done to capitalize on the yield, conversion and increase the rate of reaction. These three factors are the point in which have close connection with the profit of the company. By increasing the yield it means more production generate with a standard amount of reactant used. As for rate of reaction, rationally, the faster the rate of reaction the greater the production rate within a certain period. During the experiment, batch process is employed as a medium for chemical reaction between sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate to take place. The reaction produces sodium acetate and ethanol every thirty minutes, recording was taken every one minutes to note down the conductivity values. The whole process of obtaining the product from sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate, consist of batch process, closed system, law of conversion and also saponification reaction.
Batch process, is a process when a fixed charge of raw material is introduced and the products withdrawn before the cycle repeat. A closed system is a system where no material crosses the system boundary. As for The Law of Conservation of Energy it states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can change its form. Lastly For unsteady state process, it means, not all of the conditions in the process remain constant with time or the flows in and out of the system can vary with time.
1.2 Aim
The aim of this experiment on material balance with chemical reaction is to allow students to employ the principle of material balance with chemical reaction for batch reaction by determining the yield, conversion and reaction rate. The purpose is to allow students to understand the change of reaction, when the concentrated NaoH react with ethyl acetate in a reactor as time passes by. With the knowledge of it, we will then be able to understand the saponification reaction of NaoH with ethyl acetate solution.
1.3 Hypothesis
The hypothesis of the experiment is that during the Saponification reaction between NaOH and Ethyl acetate solution in the reactor, the concentration of NaOH would decrease due to the number of NaOH molecules being used for the reaction to produce sodium acetate. Furthermore, by increasing the concentration of ethyl acetate, the rate of reaction will also be increased
2. Theory 2.1 Introduction of Theory
The role of the theory below is to give a more detailed explanations on saponification, batch process, conversion, yield, rate of reaction and conductivity, so that is can allow students to have a better perception on the experiment.
2.2 Batch Process
Batch process is a process in which a fixed charge of raw material is introduced and the product is withdrawn before the cycle repeat. During the experiment, batch process is employed, as reactants are put in to the system for thirty minutes for reaction to take place. After which products are withdrawn and the apparatus used are sluice before another batch of reactant are introduced again. Owing to the change in concentration and production of new product, the reaction is categories under unsteady state. (Singapore Polytechnic 2009)
2.3 Saponification
Saponification is defined as a process where ester is hydrolyzed, forming an acid salt and an alcohol. For this experiment, students are suppose to apply the knowledge they acquired on saponification and react ethyl acetate and sodium hydroxide and to produce sodium acetate and ethanol as the product of the reaction. Sodium acetate is form due to the displacement reaction which occurred during the overall reaction. The hydrogen in ester is displaced by the sodium ion in the sodium hydroxide, thus forming an acid salt; sodium acetate. The reaction is irreversible, hence once the product is formed, it cannot be re reacted to form the initial state of sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate. However, reaction could be accelerated with the use of a strong acid (concentrated sulphuric acid) as the catalyst of the reaction. (Richard Hamner, Green Mountain Soap Company 2006)
2.4 Conversion
Conversion is a technique, when a feed is converted to products. The term conversion can also be defined mathematically as percentage conversion. Percentage conversion is derived by dividing; moles of key reactant that react, with mole of feed introduced and multiply it with 100%. A 100% conversion is not likely to occur in the lab, this is due to the restrain of mechanism, which deprived the ideal conversion to transpire. (Singapore Polytechnic 2009)
2.5 Yield
There are copious definitions for yield. The three generally prevalent definitions are yield based on feed, yield based on the reactant consumed and lastly yield based on the theoretical consumption of the limiting reactant. These three definitions are usually employed by chemical engineering industrial to guesstimate the yield of the products. Yield based on feed are exemplify to be; amount of desired product obtained, divided by amount of key reactant (limiting reactant fed). As for yield based on the reactant consumed, it is depict as; amount of desired products obtained, divided by amount of the key reactant consumed. Lastly as for yield based on the theoretical consumption of the limiting reactant; it is elucidate as; amount of product obtained, divided by the theoretical amount of products that would be obtained based on the limiting reactant if limiting reactant react completely. The usage of the formula varies from the given information. (Singapore Polytechnic 2009)
2.6 Rate of Reaction
Rate of reaction is the speed of the overall reaction; it can be affected by temperature, conductivity, pressure, concentration surface area, and also catalyst.
2.6.1 Temperature
Temperature will radically affect the rate of reaction. The collision of particles is determined by the energy a particle possessed. With a higher temperature, it will cater the particles to have a higher energy, hence increase the effectiveness of collision, and eventually resulting to a faster rate of reaction (Redspot Publishing 2005).
2.6.2 Pressure
Pressure is defined as a condition of being compress. The increase of pressure will cater to a faster rate of reaction as the areas the particle have are smaller after compression. This therefore causes particle of be closely packet together which result to a higher frequency of collision between gaseous molecules. However, the increase of pressure is only applicable for gaseous molecules, as liquid and solid cannot be compressed (Redspot Publishing 2005).
2.6.3 Concentration
Increases of concentration mean that the presences of particles in a specific volume have increased. While the volume/ space remained constant, the quantity of the particles increases, these instigate the frequency of collision to be higher, and also enhancing in the effectiveness of collision. This effect on particles collision will encourage a faster rate of reaction during the reaction (Redspot Publishing 2005).
2.6.4 Surface Area to Volume Ratio
The bigger the size of the particles, the smaller the surface area for collision of particles, whereas, when the particles sizes are reduced, the chances of particles colliding in to each other will be higher. This is due to the increases in surface area of particles with it size are being reduce. Rate of reaction will therefore increases as frequency of collision increased (Redspot Publishing 2005).
2.6.5 Presence of Catalyst
Catalyst is defined as a substance that is capable of reducing the activation energy of particles without itself taking part in the reaction. Therefore with the presence of a catalyst, particles will have a higher energy than the activation energy. These will lead to a higher frequency of collision and also the much more effective collision. Rate of reaction will gradually increases with more collision taking place (Redspot Publishing 2005).
2.7 Conductivity
The conductivity values of sodium hydroxide is tantamount to the conductivity values of the solution, as the conductivity values of other reactants such as ethyl acetate, sodium hydroxide and ethanol are inconsequential. With the conductivity values of the solution ascertained, the concentration of sodium hydroxide in the reacting mixture can then be determined. The rate on how fast concentration of sodium hydroxide is depleting can that be easily achieved, by tabulating a graph (Copyright 2009 — Russell Mainstream Supply Ltd)
3. Procedure 3.1 Preparation of Starting Reactant
Before beginning with the experiment, students should go through and understand the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) of sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate. The understanding of the data sheet is imperative as, without apposite understanding on the chemical used, perilous hazard might occur. The procedure on handling and disposal of chemical must be habituated before the beginning of the experiment. Students are handling with highly acidic concentrated reactant, therefore, disposable glove and chemical goggles should be putted on at all time during the experiment. 500mL of 0.01M of sodium hydroxide solution and 500mL of 0.01M ethyl acetate was the concentration needed to be prepared for this experiment.
500mL of 0.01M sodium hydroxide are suppose to be prepared, to do so, measuring cylinder was used to measure the required volume of 0.01M NaOH and poured in to a 500mL volumetric flask. De ionized water is poured in to the 500mL mark on the volumetric flask for dilution purposes. To ensure a fine dilution, flask should be covered with stopper and shake to ensure solution properly mixed.
Preparation of 500mL of ethyl acetate solution was done by pouring 250mL of de ionized water into a 500mL volumetric flask, followed by measuring the stock solution using a micropipettor and dispenses it to the 500mL volumetric flask. Top up solution up to 500mL mark, and cover it with a stopper and shake the solution to ensure solution is well mixed.
Experimental Setup

Conductivity meter
1-litre reaction beaker
Magnetic stirring device
Conductivity probe
Reacting mixture
Retort stand
Procedure During Experiment
As the preparation of the sodium hydroxide solution is completed, solution is poured in to the reactor with the reaction conditions adjusted to predetermined level. The reaction conditions are directly related to the overall reactions; hence the recording of the condition is essential. Examples of the condition are, temperature, stirring speed, concentration and volume of reactions. Before the stirring process inaugurate, ensure that the conductivity meter probe is positioned into the reacting mixture and a stopwatch is ready for timing purposes. Ethyl acetate is to be poured in to the reactor, and recording should start immediately. While the solution is being stirred in the reactors, conductivity values are recorded at a regular interval of one minute for thirty minutes. After thirty minutes, reactor is stopped and a magnetic rod is used, to remove the magnetic stir bar in the reactor. The conductivity probe is then withdrawn and sluiced scrupulously with de ionized water. As for the product, it is being disposed into a plastic waste container. The experiment is to be repeated based on the experimental methodology discussed with lecturer. However, to ensure consistency of the experiment, all glassware is to be rinsed. Once all the experiment is accomplished, all the equipments should be properly cleaned and chemical used are to be disposed in to the plastic waste container. Finally waste will be send to W314 for proper treatment before discarding and glassware used should be placed back to original location.
Result and Calculation
4.2 Determination of the Yield of Sodium Acetate
Determination of the yield of sodium acetate is associated with the concentration of sodium hydroxide. In tandem with the given information on the concentration of sodium hydroxide, the molar ratio employed can be dexterously deciphered. From here, calculation to verify the yield can be facilely obtained by using the mole, which is calculated using the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate. Finally, utilize the formula of yield calculation and the determination of the yield of sodium acetate can be anatomized.
4.3 Yield and Rate of Conversion of 0.01M Ethyl Acetate Solution for 15 Minutes.
Concentration of sodium hydroxide at one minute interval

NaOH CH3COOC2H5 à C2H5OH CH3COONa
Theoretical Mole of NaOH = 0.01 X 0.5L = 0.005 mol
Actual Mole of NaOH = 0.00156 X 0.5L = 0.00078mol
Number of moles reacted = 0.005 – 0.00078 = 0.00422mol
Conversion of NaOH= 0.00422/0.005 X 100%
= 84.4%
Theoretically, since 1 mole of NaOH react and form 1 mole of CH3COONa, actual mole of CH3COONa= 0.00078
Yield of CH3COONa= 0.00078/0.005
=0.156
4.4 Yield and Rate of Conversion of 0.02M Ethyl Acetate Solution for 15 Minutes

Figure 4.4.2. Graph showing concentration of sodium hydroxide against time (0.02M of ethyl acetate used)
NaOH CH3COOC2H5 à C2H5OH CH3COONa
Set 2
Theoretical mole of NaOH = 0.02 X 0.5L = 0.01 mol
Actual mole of NaOH = 0.0017 X 0.5L = 0.00085mol
Number of moles reacted = 0.01 – 0.00085 = 0.00915mol
Conversion of NaOH= 0.00915/0.01 X 100%
= 91.5%
Theoretically, since 1 mole of NaOH react and form 1 mole of CH3COONa, actual mole of CH3COONa= 0.00085
Yield of CH3COONa= 0.00085/0.01
=0.085
4.5 Rate of Reaction of 0.01M of Ethyl Acetate
Graph 4.5.1. Shows the rate of reaction of sodium hydroxide when 0.01M of ethyl acetate was added.
Graph shown above is straight line. Gradient= 0.00265-0.0012 ÷ 20 – 1 = 0.0000763 (From the graph)
4.6 Rate of Reaction of 0.02M of Ethyl Acetate
Graph 4.6.1.Shows the rate of reaction of sodium hydroxide when 0.02M of ethyl acetate was added.
Graph shown above is straight line.
Gradient= 0.00275 – 0.00125 ÷ 20 – 1 = 0.0000789 (From the graph)
5. Discussion 5.1 Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction
As indicated above, there are numerous factors that are capable of affecting the rate of reaction however; the only applicable one is the differences in concentration as the rest (temperature and pressure) are kept constant. Based on the experiment did, as the volume and concentration increases, the rate of reaction also increases, this is by virtue of the presence of more particles in the solution, hence increasing the chances of particles colliding to each other, which eventually result in an increase in the rate of reaction.
Below is a graph to further elaborate on the explanation on the difference in concentration.
The judgment on the rate of reaction is based on the steepness of the graph. As shown, the black line which contains 0.02M of ethyl acetate has a slower rate of reaction as compared to the one in red which is 0.01M of ethyl acetate. This repudiated the hypothesis of this experiment. The dialectics of this contradiction is, there might be source of contaminant on apparatus or solution used.
5.2 Factors Affecting Conversion and Yield
The ideal rate of conversion and yield will never be actualize under school environment or even in industries. As, in school students are using eye sight as a gauge for the experiment which indubitably cause error due to parallax error, as for industries, despite being able to afford high cost machines and computer, the cunctation between human and machines will cause an slight differ on the rate of conversion and yield.
5.3 Factors Affecting Conductivity Values
As mention on the theory section, the conductivity values of ethyl acetate are imperceptible; therefore the conductivity rate of sodium hydroxide is employed instead.
During the experiment, 2 different concentration of ethyl acetate was used. The first set of experiment, we used a concentration of 0.01M. It produces a constant decreasing rate at every one minute interval. This shows that while the moles of sodium hydroxide are depleting, conductivity value to decreases too.
As for the second set of experiment, the same things occurred but at a same rate as the first set of the experiment. This contravene the theory, as suppositionally, the increases in concentration to 0.02M will cause the moles of sodium hydroxide to deplete at a faster rate, which result to a faster decreasing rate for conductivity. Again, the dialectics of this contradiction is, there might be source of contaminant on apparatus or solution used.
5.4 Precaution in Experiment
As we all know, ethyl acetate are very volatile, it release harmful gas when it is expose to the environments. Therefore, adding of ethyl acetate into the volume metric flask must be carried out in the fume hood to prevent students from inhaling gases produced from ethyl acetate, which is harmful to human body. In addition, safety goggles and rubber gloves should be worn at all times during the experiment. This help to prevent students from having direct contact with the acid which might cause skin irritation of temporary loss of vision.
5.5 Comparison of Two Different Tests
As two different concentrations were employed during the experiments, the result on yield and conversion rate will be different.
5.5.1 Comparison of the Yield of Two Different Tests
Upon completion of experiments, the differences in yield were realised. The yield of 0.01M ethyl acetate was 0.156 and the yield of 0.02M ethyl acetate is 0.085. Theoretically, due to the increment in concentration, the yield of 0.02M of ethyl acetate should be higher as, since more reactants is used; it will rightfully result in more products being formed. However, as mention above, there might be chances of the reactants or apparatus used being contaminated, which result in the huge differences between the yields.
5.5.2 Comparison of the Conversion Rate
The conversion rate of 0.01M of ethyl acetate was 84.4% and the conversion rate of 0.02M of ethyl acetate was 91.5%. The result shown was excellent, as high conversion rate will mean that, majority of the reactant was fully utilized, hence saving cost.
6. Conclusion Based on experiment, I can construe that the higher the concentration of ethyl acetate, it will result to a much faster rate of reaction, and a higher rate of conversion. The conductivity value is interred related and proportioned to the concentration of sodium hydroxide. Therefore, since observation and hypothesis are similar, the hypothesis is true.
The aim of the experiment are also fulfilled, as scrutiny of the experiment have verify that, while the concentration of ethyl acetate got higher, the rate of reaction and rate of conversion increases. In addition, adding of catalyst or increasing surrounding temperature could also result in a faster rate of reaction which tantamount to an increment in rate of conversion.

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