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Should Patients with High Blood Pressure Take Drugs? Research Paper

Table of Contents Treating Different Levels of High Blood Pressure

Advantages of Drug Use

Risks of Taking Drugs

Alternative Treatments

Conclusion

Works Cited

According to Dishman (201), high blood pressure (or hypertension) is increasingly becoming a major health problem. According to recent estimates, one in every three Americans suffer from high blood pressure (Dishman (201). Compared to teenagers and children, the incidence of high blood pressure among adults is relatively high.

Globally, estimates show that more than 25% of the world population suffers from hypertension. This percentage amounts to about one billion people living with hypertension around the world. Cumulatively, more than 70 million Americans suffer from high blood pressure (Dishman 202).

Many people perceive high blood pressure to be a “silent killer” because it is often undetected. However, the main challenge for managing the disease lies in its treatment.

For example, many medical experts are undecided regarding the use of drug treatment for high blood pressure. Rhoden (185) warns patients suffering from mild high blood pressure against the risk of developing severe hypertension when they take over the counter (OTC) drugs.

However, some medical experts approve the use of drugs for the management of the disease because drugs offer immense opportunities for decreasing blood pressure. Indeed, proponents of drug treatment cite the importance of drugs in managing blood pressure as a management tool for the disease (Lenzer 7).

Their contribution considers situations when a lifestyle change is impossible to achieve. This paper investigates the truth behind both arguments (for and against drug use) and ends by stating if patients suffering from high blood pressure should take drugs or not. However, first, an explanation for the treatment options for mild and severe high blood pressure provides the framework the understanding of this paper’s findings.

Treating Different Levels of High Blood Pressure The dilemma witnessed in medicating high blood pressure patients has been mirrored in research studies done by the widely respected, Cochrane Collaboration (Lenzer 3). However, these studies hinge their outcomes on understanding the distinction between “mild” high blood pressure and “high” high blood pressure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lanier explains this distinction by stating that “A reading below 120/80 is considered normal, below 95/60 is considered low blood pressure and higher than 140/90 is considered high blood pressure, or hypertension” (Lanier 4).

Lenzer (7) explains that there is a wide discrepancy between the effectiveness of drugs used to treat “mild” forms of hypertension and severe forms of hypertension. His findings revealed a high unresponsiveness to drugs for patients suffering from mild forms of hypertension.

In fact, the studies show a poor response to drug treatment for patients suffering from “mild” high blood pressure because their risk of stroke, heart disease, and death (which are often associated with severe forms of high blood pressure) are constant, despite the treatment (Lenzer 7).

The above research has faulted previous studies, which have promoted the use of drugs for patients with hypertension by citing their weakness in bundling all forms of hypertension into one group. In other words, Lenzer (8) proposes a difference in the effect of drug treatment for patients suffering from mild and extreme forms of hypertension (older research studies proposed a general positive effect for drug treatment on patients with hypertension, without considering the distinction between mild and severe forms of hypertension).

Lenzer (10) also warns against the possibility of a “disease creep” if patients suffering from mild forms of high blood pressure subject themselves to drug treatments (a “disease creep” occurs when patients suffering from a mild disease subject themselves to a treatment plan designed to treat an extreme form of the disease). Nonetheless, drug treatments for patients with severe high blood pressure are successful and efficient.

However, this outcome is best realized when multiple drugs are used (but even in such circumstances, more harm than good occurs because of the side effects of using multiple drugs). Overall, drug treatments for patients suffering from mild hypertension only poses a strong profit potential for drug companies (by increasing the number of patients depending on the drugs) but it does little to improve the overall well-being of the patients.

Advantages of Drug Use This paper already highlights the negative side effects of drug use for patients with high blood pressure. However, according to Rhoden (177), drug use helps to reduce high blood pressure.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Should Patients with High Blood Pressure Take Drugs? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He highlights the reduction in blood pressure (by opening and widening the blood vessels to allow for more blood flow) as one benefit of drugs in reducing blood pressure (Rhoden 178). Indeed, part of the reason for increased high blood pressure is the narrowing of blood vessels, which occurs from several factors (including too much fat deposits in the blood).

Another way drugs reduce blood pressure is by preventing the blood vessels from narrowing so that they remain wide enough to allow for sufficient blood flow (Rhoden 178). Rhoden (178) does not elaborate how drugs achieve such an outcome, but he couples this advantage with the ability of drugs to reduce the heart’s workload. This effect is normally more efficient for patients who develop high blood pressure from obesity and related complications.

Rhoden (179) explains that regular drug use solves this problem because it reduces the heart workload. Finally, Rhoden (271) explains that drugs help reduce blood pressure by reducing the volume of fluids in the blood. Through a reduction in fluid volume, the blood pressure reduces.

Risks of Taking Drugs Drug treatment methods for high blood pressure group under different levels of medications. However, the most commonly known type of drug medication for hypertension is diuretic drugs (American Heart Association 1). One disadvantage of using this type of drug is the reduction in potassium levels.

However, the American Heart Association (1) proposes supplementary potassium intake as a remedy for potassium loss. Nonetheless, many patients fail to realize that their drug intake reduces their potassium levels and therefore, they fail to supplement their potassium levels (American Heart Association 1).

Albeit uncommon, reports of patients suffering from gout after they have experienced prolonged exposure to diuretic drugs exist. This side effect exposes the danger of drug use for patients with high blood pressure but it barely highlights the risk patients suffering from both high blood pressure and diabetes experience when they use diuretic drugs.

The American Heart Association (1) explains that diabetic patients who use diuretic drugs suffer increased sugar levels when they use the drugs for a long time. However, to remedy increased blood sugar levels, the American Heart Association proposes, “a change in medication, diet, insulin or oral anti-diabetic dosage” (1).

Another side effect for hypertension patients who use diuretic drugs (to treat the condition) lie in the increased chances of impotency that diuretic drugs pose. This side effect rarely occurs but it still adds to the dangers hypertension patients risk when they take drugs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Should Patients with High Blood Pressure Take Drugs? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In an unrelated context, Griffin (1) reports that some types of OTC drugs (such as nosteroidal and anti-inflammatory drugs) may have a severe impact on the wellbeing of patients suffering from high blood pressure. This risk is especially profound when the drugs contain ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, and ketoprofen compounds (because these compounds have serious side effects on the patients) (Griffin 1).

However, certain painkillers are considered to have fewer side effects and therefore, they are not considered to be highly dangerous for patients suffering from high blood pressure.

For example, acetaminophen (an active ingredient in painkilling drugs) has few side effects for patients with high blood pressure (Griffin 1). In other words, this compound does not raise the blood pressure. Nonetheless, regardless of the absence of significant side effects for a specific group of drugs, they still have their own side effects (which do not directly relate to the management of high blood pressure).

Therefore, from this understanding, Griffin (1) cautions patients with high blood pressure from taking prescription drugs for more than ten days.

The potential danger of drugs to inhibit blood flow to the kidney is one effect that manifests as a major concern for patients with high blood pressure (the inhibited blood flow to the kidney slows the functions of the kidneys) (Griffin 1).

Therefore, instead of the kidneys filtering blood more efficiently, it is slow to achieve this purpose (consequently, many fluids increase in the blood and the blood pressure increases) (American Heart Association 1). The increased high blood pressure is especially worse for patients who suffer from some form of heart complication.

Research has proved that when prescription drug use is common, there may be a potential complete damage to the kidneys (Griffin 1). This risk begs the question regarding what patients with high blood pressure should do when they have another discomfort (like a headache or a cold). To answer this question, Griffin (1) suggests that safe drugs (like asprin) are safe to medicate such patients.

Alternative Treatments Since many drug treatment methods have side effects, doctors who have warned against the effects of drug treatment, propose the adoption of alternative treatment methods. This section of the paper concentrates on explaining five alternative treatment methods, proposed by Mayo Clinic (1) to be extremely effective in reducing high blood pressure. One alternative treatment is reducing the body weight and watching the waistline.

The effectiveness of reducing body weight traces its roots from the relation between body weight and blood pressure. Mayo Clinic (1) confirms that there is a positive relation between high blood pressure and excessive body weight. From this relationship, Mayo Clinic (1) proves that reducing even ten pounds of body weight is likely to have a positive impact on blood pressure reduction. Finally, Mayo Clinic (1) explains that body weight reduction also improves the efficiency of drug treatment.

Another alternative treatment for high blood pressure is regular exercising. Regular exercising has enormous benefits. In fact, Mayo Clinic (3) recommends patients to exercise for an hour (everyday) to reduce their blood pressure by about four to nine millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Observing regular exercise is also one way patients with mild high blood pressure can reduce their risk of developing severe high blood pressure (Divine 74).

Divine (74) however warn patients against doing strenuous exercises (say, twice a week) to compensate for other days of the week. Eating a healthy diet is also another medication-free treatment that has a positive effect on reducing blood pressure. Like exercising, eating a healthy diet not only has a positive effect on reducing blood pressure but also on improving the overall health of the patients.

However (concentrating on high blood pressure), it is important to highlight that eating a lot of grains, fruits, vegetables and low-cholesterol foods can reduce the blood pressure significantly (by about 14 mm Hg) (Mayo Clinic 3). This treatment plan defines the dietary approach to blood pressure reduction.

Reducing sodium in the diet is also another treatment plan that has a high efficacy when treating high blood pressure. Indeed, high sodium levels are associated with high blood pressure because even slight reductions of sodium in the diet have a two to eight mm Hg reduction in blood pressure (the recommended level of sodium consumption should be limited to 2,300 milligrams every day) (Mayo Clinic 3).

Lastly, Mayo Clinic (3) advises patients suffering from high blood pressure (and are alcohol consumers) to reduce their alcohol consumption as a strategy to reduce their blood pressure. However, alcohol consumption is a dicey issue for patients with high blood pressure because Mayo Clinic (3) posits that small amounts of alcohol consumption can lower the blood pressure by about two to four mm Hg (this benefit is lost during excessive consumption of alcohol).

Therefore, it is advisable to limit alcohol consumption to small volumes. Comprehensively, the above medication-free treatment methods help to treat high blood pressure without experiencing the negative effects of drugs.

Conclusion After weighing the benefits and side effects of drug use, there is a clear divide between the pros and cons of drug use for patients who have a high blood pressure. However, since not all drugs have a negative (or severe) impact on patients with high blood pressure, there is a need to distinguish “dangerous” and “safe” drugs. It is therefore improper to state broadly that high blood pressure patients should not take drugs.

Indeed this paper shows that some drugs can be beneficial to the patients and ongoing research shows the ability of drugs to lower blood pressure by widening blood veins, reducing fluid volume, and reducing heart workload (as some of the benefits for drug use among patients with hypertension). Nonetheless, these treatment methods are incomparable to the benefits enjoyed by medication-free treatment methods (alternative treatment methods).

These alternative treatment methods do not only have a positive impact on the reduction of blood pressure but they also have a broad and positive impact on the patients’ health. Furthermore, these treatment methods constitute precautionary measures to prevent the occurrence of high blood pressure (and most importantly prevent the worsening of mild hypertension to severe hypertension).

Therefore, the adoption of alternative treatment provides a way for patients with “mild” high blood pressure can prevent the development of “high” high blood pressure. Comprehensively, drug treatment for patients suffering from high blood pressure is not entirely bad if safe drugs are used, but overall, it is advisable for patients to use alternative treatment options to avoid any possibility of suffering from the severe impacts of drug use.

Works Cited American Heart Association 2012, Types of Blood Pressure Medications. Web.

Dishman, Rod. Physical Activity Epidemiology, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 2012. Print.

Divine, Jon. Action Plan for High Blood Pressure, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 2005. Print.

Griffin, Morgan 2012, High Blood Pressure: Everyday Pain Relief. Web.

Lanier, Jennifer 2012, Difference Between High

Olympics Games: Should It Not Be Olympics Festivals? Essay

Nursing Assignment Help What we know about the ancient Greek history today “survived either by pure chance or for literally reasons unconnected with their historical significance” (Crawford and Whitehead ix). Among the interesting activities in the contemporary society that interest me is claim that Olympic Games have its origins in Greek ancient history.

But does it really? Well, olympiakoi agones is the exact world that supposedly translate to ‘Olympic Games’ (Young 4). However, on more investigation, I am led to believe that while Olympic is actually an exact translation from olympiakoi, the term ‘games’ is not an exact translation from the Greek word agones.

In fact, (Young 4) observes that agones is better translated as “struggles”, “pains” or “contests”. Following the revelations about the not-so-accurate translation of the term olympiakoi agones, it could then be that the claim that Olympic Games has its genesis in Southwest Greece more than 2,700 years ago, is more of an association of activities rather than a reality.

I say this because olympiakoi agon was a religious festival, which was to say the least, not associated with sports, or games for that matter. If anything, it appears that the festival was a struggle, or a contest that would involve play at some point in honor of Zeus (Young 4).

Olympic Games as we know them today, involves struggles, contents and even some pains, which are often seen as means to the Olympic medals. Digressing to the definition of the word ‘games’, it appears that activities that qualify as games are not strictly meant to be competitive, and neither are they even meant to be painful or involving struggle (Wittgenstein 33e). At the very basics, games are a way of passing time and enjoying one self, but them again, there is no an accepted definition of the world games and so I could be wrong.

Consider the philosophical thoughts of (Wittgenstein 33e) who argues that explaining what a game is to someone who has no idea is a hard task because “we do not know the boundaries because none has been drawn”. In other words, no boundaries of description has been drawn to the definition of the word games; as such, activities as diverse as playing cards, playing with words, or playing with balls can be described as card games, word games or ball games respectively.

Following this line of thinking, I therefore suppose that the fact that Olympic festivals involved different forms of play is what led historians to relate it with the games as we know them today, and even associate the games’ history to ancient Greece, and hence Olympics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering the above arguments, I am convinced that the only thing that the Olympic festivals in ancient Greece and the contemporary Olympic games share in common is the frequency of being held every four years, and perhaps the name Olympic. I draw the notion that the frequency of the Olympic festivals and the Olympic Games is alike from the understanding that Greeks’ calculate time intervals inclusively.

Beyond that, neither the intent nor the activities in both set of Olympics are similar. Even the inclusion of athletics in olympiakoi agones is contested by (Young 8) who observes that Homer- one of the historians who has written about athletic scenes in the ancient Greece- cannot be taken as an authentic memory of the same, because “rather than preserving a memory of athletics centuries earlier, he represents athletics in his own time” (Young 8).

Yet, it is from Homer’s writing that the contests and games associated with the Olympics (both the festivals and the contemporary games) are drawn. For example, it is observed that Homer’s poems paint the aristocratic warriors as “channeling their aggression and mutual rivalry into games and contests” whenever “they were not on the battlefield” (Crawford and David 46).

This then means that if Homer cannot be taken as an authority in telling us about the Olympic athletics, even less should we believe any texts that generally take his writings as absolute truth.

I also agree with Glass (155-156 cited by Young 19) who argues that a significant number of texts are unreliable despite modern authors believing in them. The generalizations that link the contemporary Olympic Games to the ancient Olympic festivals seem to have been taken from such ancient texts. In my view, the generalizations are not only anachronistic, but also wrong. But again, I too could be wrong.

Overall, I hold the opinion that the olympiakoi agones (if it indeed happened) must have provided the participants and onlookers with a chance to compete and contest for whatever rewards there were (including olive tree crowns) as indicated by (Crawford and Whitehead 48).

However, the activities that people in ancient Greece participated in during the festivals may never be absolutely known by the contemporary scholars because there is a possibility that much of the knowledge passed down the generations has been people’s inventions rather than factual. As such, the claim that the Olympics Games tradition goes back to the ancient Greece history is in my opinion, overstretching the truth.

We will write a custom Essay on Olympics Games: Should It Not Be Olympics Festivals? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Crawford, David, and David Whitehead. Archaic and Classical Greece: A Selection of Ancient Sources in Translation. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983. Print.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Philosophical Investigations. Trans. GEM Anscombe. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1958.

Young, David. A Brief History of the Olympic Games. London: John Wiley

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