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Sex/Gender Differences in Aggression Term Paper

Distinctive Physiological traits and behaviors coupled with the distinctive and unique biological formation basically associated and partaken in males and females of a certain autonomous species is what sex can be said to be (Helgeson 36).

Aggression on the hand is the behavior which is in most cases conceived so as to cause pain, harm, and damage between subjects who are of the same species. Males are generally regarded to be aggressive than females. The most supportive case is that most murders recorded in the world are known to have been committed by males.

Males also tend to express their aggression more physically than females. Males are more confronters than females as females are said to be more tolerable. Though they are relatively less aggressive, their aggression is most indirectly relieved through such psychological aggressions like rejection.

The gender differentiae theory, point out the major differences in aggression when gender is the determinant factor. The theory point out that in human beings men are more likely to partake in physical confrontations as opposed to women. When it comes to verbal aggression, men and women in most cases engage equally. Men and women have a tendency to express aggression differently from one another (Worell 453).

Women are said to perceive their aggression as brought in most cases by loss of self control and too much stress while men view aggressive events as necessitated positive events in taming and regulating those who question, undermine, and challenge their integrity or their valued self-esteem. Women feel remorseful and guilt conscience when involved in acts of aggression than their male counterparts.

The alternative aggression theory, points out that woman engage in indirect aggression more than men. These are gossiping, spreading of malicious character damaging rumors, backbiting and revelation of other people’s secrets without their consent or knowledge. A research was conducted in a college environment to find out: between adolescent boys and girls who engage in indirect aggression more, and the effects of age on aggression?

It was noted that when a certain girl’s request for a date was turned down by her male college mate she would result in gossiping and spreading of false rumors about the male college mate. However, males who were turned down on a date request would immediately get angry and some even became abusive then kept quiet and did not even want their peers to know and that was the end of the matter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The case was also studied in a group situation. When two teenage girls were interested in the same man there was considerable animosity, although not like the kind of animosity that existed between two teen young boys who were interested in the same girl, the latter being high.

No teen boy wanted to concede defeat and sometimes there were exchange of blows and verbal abuse. When the study above was repeated for middle aged adults between age 25 and 40 years, it was observed that the hostility was less but competitiveness in men was still fierce.

When the case involved much older adults the level of aggressiveness had dropped in both male and female although the male were quite competitive with one another as similarly observed in the other studies.

When the two interested parties met, men were observed to get physical but the issue ended there after and later the same men would be seen laughing together sharing a drink or two. Women hostility toward fellow women was seen to increase compared to woman hostility toward men. However, the women involved would not settle the matter there and then. Backbiting and gossips were rampant. The woman who lost would go around gossiping about the man more than the woman because of jealous but hating the woman the more.

Four reasons were found to be the major cause for women to engage in indirect aggression. The first reason was found to be the acceptance of aggression by many societies’ cultures. The other reason is that, during their growth and development years, girls tend to receive negative and rebuking feedbacks concerning direct, physical aggression. For girls, indirect non physical aggression is therefore socially and conventionally accepted.

Social structure of play groups during childhood differ, compact, small and close relation ties are for girls while boys tend to form larger, less binding, and non committal groups. Therefore, the greater close ties in female social trends tend to favor passing and sharing of personal and confidential information in the process of the interaction.

Relativity in physical strengths differences also play a major role in the aggression behavioral, boys expect more success than girls in physical confrontations. Girls also naturally in most cases mature faster than boys thus it is speculated this leads to confidence and greater reliance early in life on the indirect aggression (Morgan 78).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Sex/Gender Differences in Aggression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The research concluded that hostility in male and female decrease with age. Female hostility toward fellow female was more compared to that directed toward male. Where physical aggression was involved 80 percent of the involved were male as compared to female 20 percent. Where indirect aggression like false rumors was observed 70percent of the involved were women as compared to 30 percent male. Where verbal abuse was involved it was observed that both men and women were almost at par.

After duration of time majority of males used to remember the physical aggression and likewise where rejection and emotional manipulation was involved the women never forgot. Aggression toward both sexes increase from childhood up to teenage level then decrease in the subsequent years.

However, male aggression toward male counterparts remained the very high no matter the age bracket especially where a woman was involved. More than a thousand people from different areas, were involved in the research, thus the result portrayed universalism.

The human emotionality theory propagates that women and men tend to be very different especially in terms of emotions, they think differently hence tend to react to various issues differently, thus different aggression reactions. Men are described and portrayed to be very linear- they take the shortest way or route to solving their problems what is called hitting the nail on the head.

On the other hand, women are said to think more conventionally, globally and take time first to consider and contemplate the bigger picture. This makes men to be more temperament and aggressive while women tend to be more reserved and less physically aggressive (Turner 45).

Biologically, gender difference in the use of aggression especially that which is direct start appearing in human beings at the tender age of two years and increase all through a child’s life and adolescence. The society also determines the way aggression is precipitated and handled. Psychologically in instances of war boys tend to be recruited in large numbers to fight in the war.

Those that are exposed to war situations tend to lose their human feelings of compassion and mercy and in turn tend to be more aggressive and unbearable. Women in war situations are raped and sexually abused. This creates deep animosity and contempt for men. The raped woman is psychologically disoriented and tends to think of all men as evil.

This creates fierce aggression towards other male and due to the emotional trauma, the woman in context tend to be cautious of men even a simple touch by a man startles her. Men on the other hand tend to develop deep and greater hate to all that catch the eye, in a way situation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sex/Gender Differences in Aggression by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Men tend to forget and get past emotional aggression more easily than physical aggression. This is the opposite of a woman as women tend to get past and forget physical transgressions than emotional transgressions.

In case of sexual infidelity men get more violent when they catch their partners in the act of physical sexual intercourse as opposed to when they find their partner has been emotionally involved with another person.

However, women act totally the opposite. She gets more hurt and result to aggressive acts when she realizes her partner has been emotionally connected to another person besides her rather than when she finds her partner in bed with another person. These differences are accounted by the gender differences where men are more physically aggressive while women are more emotionally aggressive.

Same gender aggression has been said to be higher than involving opposite sex aggression. The stronger and mightier males tend to physically dominate their weaker counterparts. Female tend to isolate one another and engage in indirect aggression like gossips.

The unusual finding is that nowadays women tend to have more male friends than female friends; they view fellow women as jealous, nagging, and not straight forward. Unlike females men tend to keep long friendships, childhood friends are maintained up to adulthood in men than in women.

This is so as men tend to be more physically aggressive than indirectly while women are the opposite. This trait helps men to solve personal differences more often than women who keep personal differences to themselves only to release them through indirect methods like mockery, which in turn lead to the breaking of friendships.

Due to the higher rate of maturity in women, a woman of the same age with a man is able to handle more stress and confronting issues than the man. This enables women to cope well with men older than them unlike men who when with women older than them look a bit inexperienced and immature. Females are also more accommodative than males.

This is seen where many men especially in Africa and Arab world marry more than one wife and exist in harmony. It is very hard to find a woman with more than one husband living and co-existing under the same roof.

This is also clearly demonstrated in animals where you find in a pack of lions, there is only one male and numerous lionesses. Males tend to aggressively chase and sometimes kill their other male counterparts. Aggression based on gender can thus be seen to be dependant on many issues; some innate and others are societal instigated (Nichols, Graber., Brooks.,

Markets and Economy Analysis Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction

Federal budget deficit and recession

Adjustments in wages and prices and equilibrium

Marketable pollution permits and the command-and-control system

GDP per capita and its weaknesses

Conclusion

References

Introduction A government has the role to regulate all the economic activities to ensure stability and safety of all resources that are available. It is important that government leaders should embrace better policies of promoting the welfare of the people.

The GDP computation applied in measuring economic position in a country have their strengths and weaknesses and a lot of care should be taken to ensure the success of a country is well accounted for.

On the other hand, controlling pollution is an important strategy that a government should adopt to protect the resources available in a country. Government should embark on protecting the available resources and improving the welfare of its citizens by introducing better policies.

Federal budget deficit and recession A budget deficit occurs when a government’s expenditure exceeds the income generated from the economy. As such, the government spends more income than it generates from its economic activities.

When the government experiences a budget deficit, borrowings increase to fill the gap between expenditures and incomes. During a recession the government generates lower incomes while expenses increase and this causes the need to borrow either internally or externally.

A recession occurs when the economy is performing poorly to an extent that the income generated from economic activities is too low to sustain the people and the government. A budget deficit can be used during a recession to stabilize the economy by increasing the government expenditure to ensure that more money is available for investment.

An increase in government expenditure will; result into an increase in the amount of money available for investment and this will help solve the problem of recession. When a government employs more resources, more income is generated and the money in circulation increases. More investments are made when the money available is increased and this will help resolve the problem of recession (Minsky, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adjustments in wages and prices and equilibrium Wages and prices have an effect on the market equilibrium such that a given change on the wages will have an impact on the prices of products offered in the market.

Wages are part of the costs incurred in the production process and producers apply these costs to determine the total costs of producing each unit. The cost of wages reflects on the prices attached to each item because producers must factor all the costs incurred in the production process.

The short-run equilibrium is achieved when wages and prices change without affecting the demand and supply of goods and services. The law of demand provides that man increase in the prices causes a decline in the quantity demanded for commodities in a competitive market.

Changes in the prices of commodities will affect the market equilibrium. Market equilibrium is a state which happens when the consumers are ready to purchase commodities offered in the market at a given prices and at the same time the producers are wiling to offer such products at that given price.

The short-run and long-run equilibrium in the market are achieved when the prices and wages are adjusted at a given margin. When producers adjust the wages, the prices affected and this shifts the market equilibrium (Mankiw, 2008).

Marketable pollution permits and the command-and-control system Marketable pollution permits are provided to companies such that they are allowed to release a given amount of pollutants into the atmosphere. These permits are provided to industries to enable reduce the level of pollution. The permits are renewable and this allows companies to continuously reduce the level of pollutants released from the production process.

On the other hand, the government uses command-and-control system by issuing regulations about how companies should control the amount of pollutants they release to the environment and making follow-up programs to ensure that companies do not deviate from the provisions of the laws (Davies and Mazurek, 1998).

We will write a custom Essay on Markets and Economy Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marketable pollution permits are cheaper to implement because industries are issued with specific regulations which they should adhere to. This causes a higher concentration of polluted areas because companies can purchase and renew the permits. A command-and-control system is more efficient in controlling pollution in a given area because companies are restricted from releasing any pollutants in a given area.

The command-and-control system does not allow companies to purchase or renew their permits and this provides complete restriction on the amount of pollutants released into the environment. A government incurs more costs in regulating the level of pollution when the marketable pollution system is implemented than when the command-and-control system is applied (Davies and Mazurek, 1998).

GDP per capita and its weaknesses Many countries use GDP as a measure of the economic progress however this does not reflect the true wellbeing of the people of a nation. An increase in GDP may be accompanied by a discriminative distribution of resources such that the gap between the poor and the rich is wide.

In addition, GDP does not account for informal market systems which may not be captured by the measures applied. For example, the role of housewives is not accounted for in the GDP calculation; however, these people contribute towards generation of income in an economy.

There are illegal income leakages, such as corruption, smuggling, and others that are experienced in an economy which cause an increase in the GDP whereas such systems are not easy to account for (Kingsbury, 2007).

In my own view, the factors which should be included in the computation of GDP are the gap between the rich and poor. Income distribution is an important factor to consider because an increase in GDP may be as a result of an expansion in the gap.

An improvement in GDP should consider the position of the poor in the economy such that the welfare of the people should be considered when the gap decreases. Secondly, all informal market systems should be accounted for when computing the GDP of a country.

Lastly, all illegal systems of income generation should be well monitored to ensure that there is no leakage on the incomes generated in an economy (Kingsbury, 2007).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Markets and Economy Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Budget deficits are effective methods of regulating inflation in an economy because they provide more investment opportunities. This generates more income for the people and eventually a country is able to solve the problem of inflation.

It has also been established that use of marketable pollution permits allows companies to increase the amount of pollutants they release in a given area compared to command-and-control system of pollution regulation.

Lastly, GDP has been explained as a poor method of measuring the welfare of people in a country and governments should implement other tools to accurately measure the adjustments in the success of their economies.

References Davies, J. C. and Mazurek, J. (1998). Pollution control in the United States: evaluating the system. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Kingsbury, D. (2007). Political development. New York, NY: Routledge.

Mankiw, N. G. (2008). Principles of economics. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.

Minsky, H. P. (2008). Stabilizing an unstable economy. Yale, McGraw-Hill Professional.

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