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Review of the article ‘Book Real World Order’ Report

This is a review of the ‘Book Real World Order’, an article composed by Singer and Aoron Wildavsky and first published on November 1993.

It points out the issues that regard to international relations addressing the need to shift from the old ways of dealing with issues relating to international affairs whereby countries around the globe especially the most powerful ones should put together their efforts in order to enhance peace and democracy as well as ensuring developments as opposed to war.

The authors maintain that the post-cold war times will see different approaches adapted to achieving peace and democracy on one hand. However, it also puts forth issues dealing with problems of conflicts and issues pertaining development.

The key ideas postulated by the authors of this book are that the real world today is driven by or separated into to categories or zones. One of these zones features countries characterized by peace and democracy while the other contains those characterized with turmoil and development.

The countries in the peace zone like Western Europe, US and Canada will have to witness total peace and enjoy freedom of peace and war whereby issues dealing with ethnicity will be forgotten. On the other hand, countries like China and Somali will mature and develop their political standings hence leading to development of democracy. There is need to help these nations towards good governance

In analyzing the article, the authors explain how international relations need to be carried out putting in mind the rapid changes globally. To some extent, I disagree with the thinking of the authors that, these countries like Somali will soon come to be independent embracing democracy. This assumption does not hold water since it is not automatic building on the ever chaos the country experiences since time immemorial.

Written by Yahya Sadowski ‘The Myth of Global Chaos’ article was published in the year 1998. The main idea about this article is about the Chaos Theory, as postulated by American well-known political scientists. The theory gives a variety of dimensions about the causes of conflicts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article majors on bringing people to the end of the Cold World War whereby America assumed the role of a superpower after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. America was then in control of the global nationals issues involving security for instance in bringing sanity in the countries like Somalia and Bosnia.

Conflicts that resulted from ethnicity were less chaotic as opposed to other types of conflicts. Furthermore, the authors argue that chaos in most cases is not a strategic threat, a case where most people will never come to terms. Break of cultural wars are attributed to lack of political stability and structural propensity in the various countries.

Further more the author is concerned about the global complexity, which needs careful planning from the policy makers for them to engage in better planning to be abed to deal with various issues amicably. These arguments propounded by the authors holds some truth and this fact about conflicts is to some extend true. After assuming the role of super power, the US was supposed to engage in good policymaking strategies in order to face the problems, which the countries around the globe faced.

For instance, the author has tried to explain the Chaos Theory in line with the cultural conflicts with an idea of how to solve them standing out clearly. I do therefore support the opinion of the author that even if it has achieved its mission in bringing peace to countries like Bosnia and Kuwait, there is much more still needed to ensure the achievement of security and good governance.

‘Kant or Cant’, the myth of the democratic peace is the title of the article authored by Christopher Layne, and published in 1995. The main idea of the article is the theory of democratic peace, which stipulates that in international sense, democratic countries behave in a manner that is in opposition to those countries that are not democratic.

There are two perspectives when it comes to the democratic sense whereby most countries, which do not engage in war, do so because of the already established structure and institutions that deter occurrence of conflict. In addition, because of the culture of democracy, norms and shared commitments, instances of conflict are avoided.

The key ideas postulated by the author is that there are various dimensions which have been taken or adapted by various political scientists relating to democracy and the behavior of countries towards each other.

We will write a custom Report on Review of the article ‘Book Real World Order’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In democratic peace theory, an instance of war between democracies is constrained because of the fact that the government will be authoritative to its citizens. Furthermore, it is illegitimate under the law for such democracies to enter into war. Democratic norms and perceptions also play a role in ensuring that there is no war outbreak.

On the other hand, the realism theory is opposed to the democratic theory whereby it postulates that it is difficult for one national to establish a political structure in all the states since each state has its own system of governance and political structures. Therefore, it is much difficult to ensure that every state adheres to the rules practiced or observed by another state.

For instance, these two theories vary in that the democratic theory says that changes in a state are able to transform the nature of the international politics while realism is opposed to it by stating that the structure of the international politics will remain the same even if there are internal changes of a state. In the four cases presented, for instance the France war of 1923 used military since it believed that it had strategic interests.

The war ended through withdrawal. In addition, though democratic reasons played a part, realism theory held a more vital position in the end of these conflicts.

As these theories advance, it is advisable for policy makers to have a wide scope of thinking and reasoning rather than basing their reasons of any outbreak of conflicts on the democratic theory. Different states have their own structures and it may not be possible to base on the assumptions that democratic countries do not engage in conflict or war.

The real situation on the ground is that international politics should put in mind the nitty-gritty issues and aspects of different states so us to be able to provide good governance. Therefore, I am in agreement with the fact that in most instances realism theory has been the core cause of conflicts because of the different structures and interests among different countries.

Another article is ‘In Search of Democratic Peace; Problems and Promise’, which forms part of Steve Chan’s works, published in 1997. The main idea of the article is whether democracy exists in various states and on the global or foreign relations bases or stage.

The main idea advanced by this author is about how peace can be forged out in various democracies or states and how the international politics influence peace. For instance, the author is of the view that democracies rarely engage in any form of war or conflicts. Various political specialists who attribute this to similar norms ideologies have supported this.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Review of the article ‘Book Real World Order’ by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author has also tried to bring in his discussion the issue or realism, claiming that it is important for it to be considered especially in forging peace and security when it comes to international affairs. The author has also noted that democracy is in some occasions could hinder good governance for instance pubic influence on certain issues or abstract international agreements.

This is illustrated with the example of Ukraine’s in its efforts of no proliferation efforts of its nuclear weapons. Furthermore, nations involved in trade ties may not engage in war as opposed to those with no ties. Therefore, in conclusion, I concur with the point of view of authors on the issue of democracy. He acknowledges the various factors that enhance peace and democracy some of which are structural resemblance, public influence, and trade ties among others.

Ethos of Hacking Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Introduction

Research questions. Is hacking an internationally accepted concept? Can hacking be positive for security systems of different corporations and how? How the global community can encourage hackers to cooperate in improvement of security systems? What are the main goals of hackers when they break security systems of international corporations? What are potential threats of hacking if it is performed by competitors/enemies/terrorists?

Working thesis. The possible advantage of cooperating with hackers for security systems mangers of international organizations and governmental organizations is the probability to recruit them and use their knowledge to empower different organizations to improve their security systems to prevent vulnerability of these systems and possible leakage of information with regard to the threat of terrorist attack.

Problem Statement

The problem concerning hacking exists since the late twentieth century but now it is based on the lack of knowledge and skills in professional system engineers who work for international corporations and governmental organizations.

As such, investigation should include assessment of the technological basis of the organizations and their knowledge management and recruitment strategies opposed to advanced level of hackers who crack security systems all over the world. Besides, possible cooperation of hackers with terrorists and other organizations and people that impose potential threat on security systems of the countries should be excluded by recruiting hackers by government agencies and international corporations.

Rationale for Study

The reason for conducting the research is the emerging number of technological innovations that increase the possibility for security system invasions and the hypothetical ideas of recruiting hackers so that they work for privately own and governmental organizations. In this respect, hackers can be hired on legal basis to cooperate with security system managers to improve the measures adapted to these systems.


Method of inquiry. The method for the research includes analysis of secondary sources as the research questions are not aimed at evaluating the possibility for cooperation and percentage of hackers that may agree to work for government. Besides, assessment of research questions is planned to be performed with the help of previous researches conducted on the concept of hacking and their motivations and ethical issues.

Previous research. The previous researches concerned the development of hacking in different periods, namely, 1980s and 1990s when this was perceived in different ways by the community, non-governmental and governmental organizations. In other word, different authors attempted to label hackers as crackers or advocate for the positive influence of hacking as it contributes positively to analysis of gaps in security systems of different organizations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Review

The resources reviewed for this research proposal include articles from scholarly journals and conference proceedings. For instance, Roberts and Webber (2002) elaborate on the ethical issues and importance of practical experimentation in analyzing vulnerability systems.

So, this study advocates the hackers’ activity while the report by Stockwell (2008) is aimed at dwelling on the role of hackers in society with regard to the propaganda of democratic ideas and beliefs and the nature of hacking and their ethos for knowledge and desire to examine their skills.

Expected Outcomes and Limitations

It is expected to review the sources available on the issue of hacking in terms of positive and negative perception of this social phenomenon. The limitation includes inability to demonstrate cooperation of hackers with government in practice due to theoretical nature of the research.

Reference List Roberts, P.,