How long have you been disconnected from nature? What is the last time you walk within trees, barefoot outside with your feet touching the grass, get the vitamin D from the real sunshine instead of taking capsules? These days, uncontrolled urbanization and the loss of green space has become the main causes of global warming especially climate change. Through this, our attitudes toward nature are currently being transformed through the recognition of nature’s agency and its ability to resist the anthropogenic. The rising temperature has seriously affected our life which has led us to start to question our relation to nature. In addition, architectures design is required to be green and sustainable with maximum efficiency in resources use and minimal effect on human health and natural environment. To put it simply, protecting the environment while maintaining human comfort. This paper will have a deep analysis of the relationship between human and nature and design strategies on achieving sustainability and thermal comfort in Tropicana rainforest climate base on the Sekeping Serendah Glass Shed.
Sek San Ng, a landscape architect whose collective works highlight the coexist of the hard architecture world and the pliable landscape world. Sekeping Serendah Retreat is one of his notable work which situated in a forest with a hot and humid climate in Selangor, Malaysia. It is designed for relaxation with basic, lavish design and blending in seamlessly with the beauty of the surrounding natural environment. Due to its geographical advantages (one hour away from Kuala Lumpur), it is very popular for people who live in the big city as a getaway from the hectic life and staying in a simple shelter for interacting with nature. Sekeping Serendah provides various type of shelter, but the focus of the research text is going to centre on the glass shed which has a strong relationship with nature and culture.
Man has been in relation to his surroundings since ancient times. They have always depended on their surroundings for survival. All these years of consuming natural resources with give nothing back in return. Coupled with the population explosion, it has doubled the consumption of the natural world, resulting in the imbalance between humans and the natural environment. However, it brings the same suffering to mankind in return – Global Warming. Accelerating sea level rise, increasing temperatures that cause heat waves, wildfire, flooding, human health impacts and many others are nature’s revenge on the man. Fortunately, in decades, people began to realize the importance of nature through the issue of global warming and be responsible for it. They took different measures but the most dramatic change you can see visually is reconnecting people with the natural environment through architecture design.
Today, there is a new trend to connect humans and nature to slow down global warming which is called Biophilia design. “Biophilia design is an innovative way of designing the places where we live, work, and learn”. It is an extension of natural life, incorporating natural materials, light, plants, and other natural world experiences in contemporary architectural surroundings. It is not only the idea of bringing the outside in but more creating a strong relationship between many aspects of nature and our living space. There is a brunch of ways to design biophilia environments such as create a living green wall, visual connections with nature, natural materials and light. For example, as Figure 1 shows that the use of glass material on Sekeping Serendah Glass Shed allows the exterior natural view completely to be seen when you are in the interior space. Besides, we can see the brilliant design of living wall partition and the big windows in the McCann Erickson’s workspace (Figure 2) provide workers with a green and full of natural light environment. Both present the idea of reconnecting human with nature but in a different way.
Figure 2: Sekeping Serendah Glass Shed
Figure 2: McCann Erickson’s workspace
Reviewing back to Figure 1, imagine that you are in the Glass Shed, you probably would wonder whether you are in indoors or outdoors. The interior is no longer only represented by four walls but different possibilities. This led us to rethink the definition of the interior in a new way. The technique of blurring the interior and exterior in Glass Shed aims at being closer with nature. “It doesn’t matter if it is inside or outside, it is continuous” state by Tyler Jones, an architect based in America. Takaharu Tezuka, an architect based in Tokyo, designed a ring shape kindergarten (Figure 3.) as a continuous space for freed learning and playing instead of imposing physical boundaries on the children. The advantage of architectural shape design and fully unfolded sliding door allow the surrounding nature, sunlight and shading accessing the classroom. It’s a great way for kids to learn, rather than stay a whole day in a four-walled classroom.
Figure 3: Fiji Kindergarten, Tokyo
Furthermore, nature has good impacts on human well-being. Assessing natural area helps in stress reduction and attention restoration. That’s why biophilia design is now a trend design for business. It promotes employee performance and keeps people in a calm environment by adding plants into our workspace, living areas. Likewise, Sekeping Serendah Glass Shed which is surrounded by nature allows visitors to leave their worries at work or life and just enjoy being embraced by nature. This emphasizes the inextricable relationship between human and nature.
Design Strategies on achieving sustainability and thermal comfort in Tropicana rainforest climate base on Sekeping Serendah Glass Shed.
The main function of a building is to provide protection from the stresses imposed by the climate. Thermal comfort is the sensation of an individual in a specific environment. It is difficult to define thermal comfort. It will vary from every single person and there are a lot of factors can affect it. Besides, Malaysia is situated at the equatorial and tropical belt that belongs to the Tropicana rainforest climate area which has only one season, summer. The typical average climate temperature is 28-degree Celsius. In this kind of hot and high humidity area, ventilation is pivotal to achieve thermal comfort.
Global warming is bad for countries in tropical rainforest climates, therefore, ventilation design is important in Malaysia, but it is only a palliative. Building design and its components can create multiple natural air ventilation styles to ventilate the space based on each building’s architectural synthesis. Cross ventilation and stack ventilation are the main variables of ventilation in Sekeping Serendah Glass Shed. Both ventilations allows fresh air to be supplied to buildings and supports the healthy breathing of the residents of the building. It also supplies oxygen and eliminates pollutants from the air, thus promoting good indoor air quality.
Figure 5: Sekeping Serendah Glass Shed
Figure 4: Sekeping Serendah Glass Shed
There is a lot of design strategy of ventilation that uses on the Glass Shed for achieving thermal comfort in Tropicana climate. In order to tread the land lightly, the shed is raised by stilts as Figure 4 shown which has the function to improve the airflow movement and retardant from direct heat from the ground. It also emphasizes the verticality and the idea of integrating with the surrounding nature. Moreover, the interior openness layout and the fenestration allow maximum natural light and air get into the interior through the cross ventilation (Figure 5). The interior space without obstruction and the use of casement windows let the space to be open and brighter. Besides, the gap between roof and ceiling are shown in Figure 4 act as an outlet to discharge hot air during stack ventilation. Furthermore, trees around the glass shed also be an important role in reducing the surrounding temperature. It cools the air by blocking sunlight and creating shade thus minimizing the landscape heat load.
“One of the enduring strengths of traditional structures is their intimate relationship with their environment” claimed by Allen G Noble. Malaysia has a hot and humid climate all year around. Therefore, the configuration of traditional houses has often been the outcome of many decades of observing the natural climate rhythms and differences and the awareness of how they could gain from their advantages and strategies to resolve their disadvantages with the limited resources around them. Its architectural structure and features are very considerate of the local geographical environment which includes how to achieve maximize ventilation and minimize heat absorption. Nevertheless, similar adaption design on Malay traditional house can be found in glass shed such as raise stilts, roof joint gap, open space design and others as Figure 6 drawing shown.
Figure 6: A section view of Malay traditional house design
In terms of materiality, Glass Shed use both traditional and modern materials types. Modern materials like glass and steel are integrated into the design to ensure structural stability where it is more sustainable, lightweight and has a low thermal capacity. By implementing the iconic glass material into the design as both windows and doors, it allows a full view of the forest which fully exemplifies the natural environment. This creates the chance for visitor being closer to nature. Another function of glass materials is the reflection. The shade of surround trees has been reflected on the glass which creates an illusion of invisible architecture (Figure 4). Besides, it is worth notable that in order to achieve open space, most of the furniture is made from wire mesh structure (Figure 7). It satisfies the function of sitting and aid in ventilation. On the other hand, timber as low thermal capacity material is applied as part of the floor which makes a positive contribution to the cooling effect. (Figure 8) The gap between the timber floor also helps in stack ventilation as let the air pass through.
Figure 8: timber floor use in Glass Shed
Figure 7: wire mesh chair in Glass House
In conclusion, Sekeping Serendah Glass Shed plays its role here as an accelerator between human and the nature to improve their relationship through being one with nature. Moreover, Glass Shed is the contemporary adaption of the Malay vernacular architecture which accentuates on the natural environment taking the weather and climate into consideration to achieve good thermal comfort in the building. It also extemporises the design element of the Malay traditional house to consolidate the functionality of the building. This approach introduces a new alternative to discovering the description of thermal comfort conditions for an eco-friendlier design that matches not only Malaysia but some other tropical countries with similar surroundings.
Bratman, G., Hamilton, J. and Daily, G. (2012). ‘The impacts of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health’. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, [online] 1249(1), pp.118-136.
Hanafi, Zulkifli. “Housing Design in Relation to Environmental Comfort — a Comparison of the Traditional Malay House and Modern Housing.” Building Research
Adaptive Redesign for Jose Marti Park
Due to climate change, global natural disasters are becoming more frequent and intense, sea levels rise, extreme weather and floods occur frequently, and become natural disasters, causing massive loss of life and damage to private property and public infrastructure. (Blackmore et al., 2008) In September 2018, the hurricane of Florence hit the east coast of the United States. Strong winds, heavy rains, and severe floods have caused serious damage to the southeast coast of the United States. (Reuters, 2018) In October of the same year, Hurricane “Michael” landed in Florida. The squally winds and heavy rains caused enormous damage to the states in the southeastern United States, killing at least 18 people and affecting more than 700,000 families. Economic losses amount to tens of billions of dollars. (Berman et al., 2018) And after the hurricane, it often caused serious flooding problems for coastal cities such as Miami, posing a huge threat to people’s lives. Today, however, the frequent flooding problems caused by climate change, rising sea levels and extreme weather make people increasingly skeptical about the long-term effectiveness and reliability of static infrastructure. With the popularity and acceptance of the concepts of resilience and damage control, a flexible horizontal approach tends to replace flooding protection infrastructure. (Rossano, 2015) People gradually realize that cities must continually improve their resilience to flooding in order to reduce the risks, improve the ecological environment and promote human health and well-being. (Rossano, 2015) This article will take Jose Marti Park as an example to explore future solutions for coastal parks to cope with and adapt to frequent flooding problems and find specific implementation measures to achieve the transition from the rigid antagonism of “hard” engineering to the elastic adaptation of “soft” engineering. This manifesto outlines River First, Room for the River, Live with Flooding, Multiple Use, and Multi-level comprehensive flood control to help Miami satisfy the current and future demands of various residents while making the city more sustainable, resilient and attractive.
Jose Marti Park
Jose Marti Park is located at 351 SW Fourth St., adjacent to the Miami River, in the shadow of the I-95. It’s only a few minutes from the hustle and bustle of downtown Miami. (Miami, n.d.) Jose Marti Park locates above sea level and regularly threatened by flooding problems. (Van Alen, n.d.) Leisure facilities in the park include indoor and outdoor basketball courts, indoor gymnasiums, entertainment buildings, picnic tables and etc. (Janet, 2019)
Because of the topography, the lack of drainage and the impermeable pavement, the park is vulnerable to flooding and heavy rain from the Miami River during the flooding season, which poses a severe challenge to the surrounding low-level coastal communities and the entire south Florida region. (Janet, 2019) Additionally, due to the urban expansion, the shortage supply of the land resource, many buildings invade the waterfront space, destroying the ecological environment of the waterfront, and hindering the development of landscape planning and design of urban waterfront areas. (Janet, 2019) In the development and design of the park, the straightening of the river bank, the concrete reinforcement, and the heavy use of hard pavement in the park hindered the self-repair function of the river and park, destroyed the natural ecological process, and the water seepage function of the land decreased. As a result of that, the frequency and intensity of flood disasters greatly increase. (Van Alen, n.d.)
From the rigid antagonism of “hard” engineering to the elastic adaptation of “soft” engineering
For centuries, the rigid antagonism of “hard” projects has been the main solution to control drainage and flooding. (Rossano, 2015) For example, in some flooding control projects, the levees of heavy-duty construction of reinforced concrete are used to cut and straighten rivers in order to quickly drain river water. However, the floodplain and the natural riverbed disappeared and the rich habitats on both river sides were destroyed. The destructive power of the flood was strengthened, the pressure of the downstream floods increased, and the hydrophilic interface of the city was destroyed. (Brown et al., 2009) Another example is the urban drainage project. In order to solve the waterlogging and satisfy the requirements of instantaneous drainage, the gray pipeline project is relied on, however, the project is huge, the maintenance cost is high and the sustainability is poor. And a large amount of precious rainwater is drained, and rainwater resources are not fully utilized, groundwater is not replenished. (Brown et al., 2009) Due to the dependence on this concentrated underground drainage system, the regulatory functions of rivers, lakes, wetlands and green spaces in the city are gradually lost (Muller, 2007).
In response to climate change, the existing flooding control and drainage abilities of cities need to improve, but should not be merely building more bigger DAMS and complicated water pipe system, but need to think about how to develop a more flexible and efficient “soft” engineering and adapt to changes, finally create sustainable urban ecological environment. (Rossano, 2015) And the public spaces and parks in cities can play an active role, which means urban can combine parkland green space, improve urban environmental quality and build stormwater management infrastructure. During flooding, part of the rainwater can be transferred to the park green space that could absorb rainwater, and a landscape infrastructure park integrated with functions such as rainwater storage, pollution barrier, recycling, and traditional recreational sports would be formed. While bringing into full play the social and ecological benefits of the park, it also brings into full play the benefits of its stormwater storage infrastructure. (Muller, 2007)
Resilience is not just about how to prevent interference, but how to adapt to change. Similarly, sustainability is not to reduce the dynamic nature of a system and thus reduce the efficiency of the system in order to maintain the equilibrium state of a system but to focus on the ability of system regulation and adaptability. (Lee et al., 2018) From defense to adaptation, from flood control to friendship with flooding, from stability and predictability to “risk management” with the tolerance of uncertainty; By cooperating with the natural forces, the landscape approach is applied to transform the flood dredging process into an aesthetic and experiential process. (Rossano, 2015) The design of the Lower Don Land in Toronto is a specific practice to realize water elasticity in high-density urban areas according to the hydrological characteristics of the site. The scheme shows a flexible urban form with high economic efficiency and adaptability to rain and flood from afraid and escape to harmonious coexistence (Stoss, 2019)
Like many port cities that have experienced industrial development, the existing site of about 113 hectares of Lower Don Land in Toronto is strongly devoid of natural elements. The original 500 hectares of wetlands at the intersection of the Don River and Lake Ontario were converted from shoals to beaches, and eventually, the wetlands disappeared completely, becoming mudflats of the Toronto industrial port area. Meanwhile, due to the lack of flooding discharge area, the area adjacent to the Don river is vulnerable to floods. (WATERFRONTToronto, n.d) In order to restore the ecological function of the intersection area of river and lake, Lower Don Land will be built into a new lakeside community with diversified ecological functions, colorful social life with a distinct personality. The designers proposed a “river-first” guideline. The biggest highlights of this scheme is to shape city’s form and construct the landscape infrastructure network, including various public open space, habitats for wildlife, public transport…, based on the dynamic process of water level and the trend of the flood channel and river tributaries, as the generation, development and evolution of the city framework. On this basis, a series of mixed blocks composed of different building types, such as business, culture and office, different densities and different types of public spaces, are formed to enrich the living environment and leisure experience of Lower Don Land.(Stoss, 2019) The planning shows us a whole set of urban development strategies with adaptability and elasticity, which are integrated with the river and human, nature and design. In addition to solving the problems of sediment accumulation and flood caused by artificial and deliberate control of estuary water direction, it provides us with a visual feast of functional and beautiful life landscape composed of the seasonal and permanent landscape. The landscape generated by the dynamic process of the river spans all kinds of spatial scales from the neighborhood to the block to the whole city and promotes various voids in the overall landscape framework of the city. Designers try to replace the rigid forms and structures of modernism with the more flexible urban forms generated by natural processes and become a better way to organize urban voids (WATERFRONTToronto, 2010).
Room for the river
The Netherlands is located in the lowland delta of northwestern Europe. It is a typical lowland country. About 50% of the country is below sea level, and about 1/4 of the existing land is reclaimed. It has been threatened by floods for a long time. (Lee, Chun,