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Push Oriented Concept In Process Of Internationalization Economics Essay

The literature regarding the process of internationalization has been using the “push-oriented” concept which states that the outward movement of the firms is driven by strategic objectives. However, based on the recent phenomena of newcomers and latecomers MNCs, internationalization is reconsidered to be a “pull” process as well. John A. Mathews (2006) argues that the best definition for internationalization nowadays is “the process of the firm’s becoming integrated in international economic activities”. He emphasizes on the important use of the term “integration” which covers both the “pull and push” concept of previous authors’ definitions. Internationalization is considering the global economy as pre-existing and offering resources to the companies which aim for involvement in the international global market place.
The conceptual and theoretical frameworks developed regarding the drivers of firms to internationalize start from the idea that firms expand abroad because of their capacity to utilize their advantages in the host countries. This concept was formulated by Hymer (1960) and Kindleberger (1969), who built up on even earlier idea of internationalization discussed in terms of international trade and FDI and not in terms of the specific firm’s activities.
Theoretical perspectives that explain the level and pattern of FDI or MNCs activities vary from conventional economic theories (Caves, 1971; Hymer, 1976; Kindleberger, 1969), internationalization models (Buckley

The Factors Which Determined Oligopoly Market Economics Essay

The term Oligopoly is derived from Greek words oligoi, which means ‘few’, and polien which means ‘to sell’. So a market where there are only a few sellers or producers of a product and each has considerable influence on the market is called Oligopoly market (Rankin