Normal public school is producing better students than home school The advantages of normal public school One of the main advantages of normal public is the student is able to live in community. Public school provide large amount of opportunity to students, from a great deal of group project to team sports. (Advantages of Public schools, n.d.) According to the majority of survey respondents, public school students are typically capable to live in community. There are ninety two percent of respondent indicated that students in normal public school are able to live in community, as shown in figure 1.
(Personal survey 2011)
Other advantages are normal public school students gain a diverse social education.
(Kusuma et al. 2001,pg 38) Normal public school provide variety of students that comes
from different socioeconomic classes and background. Normal public school students has
the chances to meet it and solving different point of view and understand people with
various backgrounds and values. (Education Bug n.d.)
In addition, there are wider extracurricular provided by the normal public school.
Normal public school frequently offer a series of sports to a range of clubs and other
opportunity. Normal public school mostly have the facilities such as swimming pool or
purchase equipment ,such as laboratory equipment. Therefore, more curriculum are
available in normal public school. (Education Bug n.d.)
Moreover, student in normal public school is guarantee to have a teacher with
teaching certificate. Public schoolâ€™s teacher is required to have a bachelorâ€™s degree and
must pass in the Malaysian qualifications agencyâ€™s exam (MQA). (Kusuma et al. 2001,pg
The disadvantages of home school The drawback of home school is the additional financial burden. The textbooks are usually expensive, the parents need to pay a premium price for it.(Pros and Cons of Homeschooling, 2008) Besides that, the curriculum needed is costly .The parents are require to spent on field trips, computer software, and materials for project. (Disadvantages of Home Schooling, 2002)
Another disadvantage of home school is the teachers or parents are not qualified to teach all the subject. The teachers or parents may not have a degree in education. Moreover, parents are oblige to dedicate and tolerant to their child. (Negative effects of homeschooling, 2008)
Furthermore, home school students will have the problem in social interaction. Home school students are less chances to interact and socialize. (Pros and Cons of Homeschooling, 2008)Home school students are at a disadvantage, because they do not have the opportunities to have relationship with their peers. (Disadvantages of Home Schooling, 2002) Responses from the survey indicate that sixty four percent of respondent are agree that home school will produced the student which is poor in social development,as shown in figure 2.
(Personal survey 2011)
Home school students
4.0 Conclusion Based on this data, one could say that the normal public school system is producing better students compared to home school system. Students in normal public school is learning within a group setting, it give a stage to the students to have the diverse social interaction. Moreover, normal public school is provided varies of curricular activities for the student. However, normal public school could not provide one to one attention to all the students. They could not learn within their own level. Nevertheless, this is provided by home school system. Home school students is lack of social interaction and some parents may not qualified to teach the subject. This is the drawback of home school system. Therefore, normal public school system is still a better education system for producing a better students if the government could reduce the number of student in a class.
Abstract This investigation is discussed whether normal public school system or home school system is producing a better students. A variety of primary and secondary research were used including a survey, an internet source, book source to provide the evidence to support the conclusions. The major of findings indicate that the public school system is producing a better student. The public school students are able to learn within a group setting, and has diverse social interaction with peers. Moreover, there are varies of curricular activities provided in public school. The disadvantages of home school are usually more expensive and the parents may not qualified to teach the subject. It is also harder to provide social interaction. The benefit of home school is small to teacher ratio and the students able to learn within their level. While the drawback of public school is high student to teacher ratio and scheduled learning. Quality of a student will be affected by the education system. A good education system will produce a better student. The report concludes that it is important for everyone to know the definition of home school and public school, the pros and cons of public school and home school.
Production planning process
Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations
In this research work it can easily be concluded that in the production planning process, there are two main objectives
To satisfying customer demand
To achievement of the lowest cost
The increase of inventory level may result in increase of customer demand although the holding costs are often at very high level the total and cost not estimated at minimum level. Focusing on the minimal cost as a result cause failing to supply the customer demand and its consequence is loss for the company.
Production is the driving force to which most other functions reacts in any manufacturing activity. Particularly with inventories as it exists because of the needs of production.
Like all other manufacturing controls, is to contribute to the profits of the enterprise it is also ultimate objective of production planning and control. Customers are satisfied through the meeting of delivery schedules and it establishes inventory management and control.
The aims of production planning and control are to establish routes and schedules for work that will ensure the optimum utilization of materials, workers, and machines and to provide the means for ensuring the operation of the plant in accordance with these plans.
In production planning and control, the four basic phases of control easily identified.
The plan for the processing of materials through the plant established through the functions of process planning, loading, and scheduling. The function of dispatching puts the plan into effect; that is, operations started in accordance with the plant. Actual performance compared to the planned performance and action taken when required corrective. In some cases, re-planning is necessary to ensure the effective utilization of the manufacturing facilities and personnel.
Process Planning (Routing) is the determination of where each operation on a component part, subassembly, or assembly is to be performed results in a route for the movement of a manufacturing lot through the factory. Prior determination of these routes is the job of the manufacturing engineering function.
Loading is once the route has been established, the work required can be loaded against the selected machine or workstation. The total time required to perform the operation is computed by multiplying the unit operation times given on the standard process sheet by the number of parts to be processed. This total time is then added to the work already planned for the workstation. This is the function of loading, and it results in a tabulated list or chart showing the planned utilization of the machines or workstations in the plant.
Scheduling is the last of the planning functions. It determines when an operation is to be performed, or when work is to be completed; the difference lies in the detail of the scheduling procedure. In a centralized control situation – where all process planning, loading, and scheduling for the plant are done in a central office- the details of the schedule may specify the starting and finishing time for an operation. On the other hand, the central schedule may simply give a completion time for the work in a given department.
Combining Functions is itself a full process. While it is easy to define “where” as process planning, “how much work” as loading, and “when as scheduling, in actual operations these three functions are often combined and performed concurrently. How far in advance routes, loads, and schedules should be established always presents an interesting problem. Obviously, it is desirable that a minimum of changes be made after schedules are established. This objective can be approached if the amount of work scheduled for the factory or department is equal to or slightly greater than the manufacturing cycle. For optimum control, it should never be less than the manufacturing cycle.
Authorizing the start of an operation on the shop floor is the function of dispatching. This function may be centralized or decentralized. Again using our machine-shop example, the departmental dispatcher would authorize the start of each of the three machine operations – three dispatch actions based on the foreman’s routing and scheduling of the work through his department. This is de-centralized dispatching.
In the manufacturing activity of a plant is said to be “in control” when the actual performance is within the objectives of the planned performance. When jobs started and completed on schedule, there should be very little, if any, concern about the meeting of commitments. Optimum operation of the plant, however attained only if the original plan has been carefully prepared to utilize the manufacturing facilities fully and effectively.
Corrective action is the keystone of any production planning and control activity. A plant in which all manufacturing activity runs on schedule in all probability not being scheduled to its optimum productive capacity. With an optimum schedule, manufacturing delays are the rule, not the exception.
Re-planning not a corrective action, it revises routes, loads, and schedules; a new plan is developed. In manufacturing, this is often required. Changes in market conditions, manufacturing methods, or many other factors affecting the plant will often indicate that a new manufacturing plan needed.
Factors affecting production planning and control affects the application of production planning and control to manufacturing are the same as the factors we have already discussed that affect inventory management and control.
The complexity of the product that is important, not what the product is, except as this may in turn relate to the market served. Production control procedures are much more complex and involve many more records in the manufacture of large steam turbine generator sets or locomotives to customer orders then in the production of large quantities of a standard product involving only a few component parts, such as electric blankets, steam irons, or similar small appliances.
Type of manufacturing is probably the most influential factor in the control situation. For a large continuous manufacturing plant producing a standard product, we have already indicated that the routing was included in the planning of the plant layout.
Though no production control function eliminated, the least control that results in effective operation of the factory is the best control. It must remember that production planning and control systems should be tools of management. The objective is not an elaborate and detailed system of controls and records, but rather, the optimum operation of the plant for maximum profits.
Production planning and control systems emphasis on the control of work-in-process, the system will in effect tie together all previous records and forms developed in all planning for the manufacture of the product.
Value to production planning and control is that it will indicate future trends in demand for manufactured product. Work shift policies, plans for an increase or decrease in manufacturing activity, or possible plant expansions may often based upon the market forecasts, in turn affect the planning of the production planning, and control group.
Blueprints and bills of materials used by production planning and control when they become a component part of the packaged instructions issued to the shop through the control office. One good planning procedure is to accumulate all necessary data for a shop order in a single package the standard process sheet, the blueprint, the bill of material (if an assembly operation is involved), the route sheet, and possibly the schedule for the production of the order.
The shop order, the standard process sheet, and the route sheet are often one piece of paper- usually called the shop order or the manufacturing order.
Load charts are prepared to show the productive capacity that has been “sold” and at the same time the available productive capacity. These charts may be prepared for each workstation or machine in the plant, or they may be for groups of machines or departments.
Job tickets authorize the performance of individual operations in the manufacturing process.
There is no single pattern for the organization of the production planning and control activity. In many small plants, the routing, loading, and scheduling functions may well be included in the duties of the operating line; the shop manager, superintended, and supervisors. However, it is difficult to combine day-to-day work with adequate planning, and as a result it is often more feasible to break away the production planning and control functions and assign them to qualified specialists. These groups should organize as staff sections normally reporting to the top manufacturing executive.
Centralized PPC depends upon the design of the production planning and control system. In a completely centralized setup, determination of shipping promises, analysis of sales, stock, and shop orders, preparation of routes, load charts, and schedule charts, and dispatching of work to the shop complete with job tickets and all other necessary paper would be accomplished by a central production planning and control unit. In addition, as work is completed, a careful analysis of the actual performance would make, and if corrective action were required, this group would initiate it.
In decentralized PPC the plan must develop into a detailed plan on the shop floor. Some companies are now endeavouring to make each supervisor a manager of his own departmental operation. In these cases, the supervisor furnished with a complete staff for the production planning and control of the activities in the department.
Planning Phase indicates some details of the duties involved in the production-planning phase. Working from the basic data mentioned earlier, the personnel in this part of the activity routes and load and schedule charts.
In Control Phase completed job ticket, or its equivalent, is the key to this phase of the production planning and control system. It means of reporting from the shop floor that indicates that a job is completed or if daily job tickets turned in, the daily progress of a job can be determined.
Good relationships with other functions all the other functions in the enterprise are essential to effective production planning and control. Full cooperation with the marketing group is necessary, particularly in view of the importance of market conditions and the goodwill of customers. Both product engineering and process engineering must keep production planning and control informed as to their plans to avoid the manufacture of goods either to incorrect specifications or by an improper method.
The cost of the control system in relation to the value of goods shipped is another possibility.
Again, however, this may not be sound: if markets slump, a bad ratio will develop. Many good production planning and control systems have discontinued because of “high costs” under these conditions- and have never revived after business picket up.
In a study of benefits and costs of computerized production planning and control systems,
Schroeder et al. list the following performance criteria by which production planning and control systems might judge:
Percent of time meeting delivery promises
Percent of orders requiring “splits” because of unavailable material.
Number of expeditors
Average unit cost.
The research topic is Production Planning and Control (PPC) with special emphases on Performance Measurement (PM). Proper planning in all areas for any industry like Site Selection, Building, Machinery, Transportation, Availability of Materials, Procurement of Materials, Production, Quality Control, Yield, Efficacy, Performance are the basic entities for survival and growth. The central axes of all such activities, we capable of concluding that Production Planning