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Psychological Development: Racism, Affirmative Action and Health Care Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction


Human Civil Rights (Affirmative Action)




Introduction Human beings have had different relationships among themselves throughout the history of mankind. However, some of these encounters have not been for the good of each party, instead, they have resulted in oppressions, discriminations and related negative consequences. Several sociopolitical factors have been identified as playing a crucial role in shaping people’s psychological states.

This research paper evaluates three of them; racism, affirmative action and health care. It also discusses the potential impact on psychological development, distress and behavior on a culturally diverse individual.

Racism According to research findings by Anderson, social and political factors determine the kind of relationships which people of different cultural backgrounds have as they interact (2003). The perceptions which members of the society have towards each other are crucial. Racism in America has been one of the most sensitive factors since it can be the source of a range of other negative aspects.

America is one of the most diverse countries in the world due to the high number of immigrants recorded as from the 17th through the 20th centuries. The number of Native Americans was overtaken by the arrival of colonists and immigrants from Europe as well as slaves brought from different parts of the world (Thompson, 2009). In general, the U.S has been mainly dominated by the Whites.

Most researchers have established that racism has been a key subject among the Native Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans, American Jews, American Muslims, Arab Americans, Italian Americans, Irish Americans, and other immigrants into the United States (Anderson, 2003).

Many institutions in America have for a long time been structured along racial differences. They include educational institutions, training camps and government institutions.

Racism is characterized by segregation and oppression, particularly when it comes to provision of shelter, employment opportunities, and access to education (Thompson, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the fact that formal racism in America was abolished during and after the World War II, it is still being witnessed across some sectors of the society for instance in politics.

A national poll conducted by Thompson revealed that the voting patterns of most Americans are significantly influenced by racial affiliation (2009). Racial discrimination against Latin Americans, African Americans, and the Muslims is significantly high among the American population. Racism has also been showed to occur across virtually all ethnic groups in the U.S.

Modern critical researchers have concluded that the involvement of U.S. in the Middle East is driven by racial overtones especially in the manner in which they perceive and handle Arabs (Anderson, 2003). Prior years saw the design of foreign policies in the U.S. guided by racial considerations where some races were considered to be superior while others inferior.

Investigators have found that America Muslims have been facing racial discrimination in airports and other immigration policies since the infamous September 11 event.

It is evident that racism has massive impacts on the general development of an individual who is culturally diverse. Someone who is born into such an environment may grow with a feeling of inferiority due to how they are treated.

Discrimination can have adverse effects on the psychological development of a person. Moreover, a person may feel distressed when being taken through detailed screening and interrogation when visiting or immigrating into the United States. Being perceived and treated like a criminal or terrorist can force an individual who feels discriminated to develop criminal behaviors.

The one who is born into the race considered superior will also propagate the same attitudes especially if the person has no chance of interacting regularly with people from other cultural backgrounds. Research findings reveal that individuals who do not meet people of different racial origins are more discriminatory compared to those who live in multi-cultural settings (Anderson, 2003).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Psychological Development: Racism, Affirmative Action and Health Care specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Human Civil Rights (Affirmative Action) With the significantly adverse effects of racial discrimination, there is need to develop appropriate policies that address these problems.

The oppressed members of the society need to be assisted in fighting for their rights. Different groups of people in America have employed various means ranging from peaceful demonstrations, advocacy, agitation, to forced legislations in order to bring equality in the society.

This has led to the formulation of affirmative action in the United States. It is a policy which is designed to enhance access to education facilities and services as well as employment opportunities for the minority groups and women in the society (Wright, 1998).

Affirmative action has been very instrumental in dealing with past injustices and discriminations directed towards the minority. Currently, many institutions such as universities, companies, healthcare providers, and security forces are more representative of the diverse American population, thanks to the Human Civil Rights. Enrolment in universities, recruitment services, and employment has become less discriminatory against the minority groups and women.

Researchers have established that the members of the dominant groups argue that affirmative action increases discrimination against the majority who happen to be white men (Wright, 1998). Those against affirmative action claim that only merit should be used in selecting candidates for different positions or opportunities.

The proponents of affirmative action, on the other hand, argue that there has been no decline in opportunities for the majority group as a result of implementation of the policy. For instance, they point out that there has been notable increase in university enrollment for the majority as it has been for the minority groups. This implies that affirmative action is not an enemy of the common good.

In fact, the proponents of affirmative action have noted that there has always been discrimination among the members of the dominant group themselves. Priority has been mostly accorded to the athletes, children of former students as well as those with special musical talents. This has not been based on merit.

Affirmative action can have tremendous impact on the development of an individual. Members of the minority groups as well as women can feel empowered to achieve their potentials.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychological Development: Racism, Affirmative Action and Health Care by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An assurance of protection from discrimination by the policy enables them to develop positive psychological orientation. The attitudes towards life of the beneficiaries will also be positive and hence leading less distressing lives.

Healthcare The primary objective of every nation is to have a healthy population which can spearhead social, political, and economic progress. Equitable provision of health care services is therefore paramount. According to research findings, however, there have been significant disparities in the provision of health care along racial lines (Wright, 1998). Both access and the quality of health care have been hampered by racial discrimination.

Significant numbers of preventable deaths among the races perceived to be inferior occur compared to those occurring among the whites. Some of the reasons advanced to explain these deaths include lack of health insurance, poor service, and failure to seek medical attention in time (Thompson, 2009).

Infamous claims of official experimentation of some medical activities on some races have resulted in almost complete distrust of the entire medical industry. Discriminatory handling of patients by healthcare providers has also been cited as one of the major cause of inequitable health care services.

Inappropriate healthcare provision has direct impact on the psychological development of the individual and hence life in general. Uncertainty of getting proper treatment may cause further problems for the patients. These challenges may result in the development of depression and stress which only serve to worsen the situation of the culturally diverse person.

Conclusion The paper has evaluated racism, affirmative action, and health care inequality as some of the most common sociopolitical factors that have significant influences on a culturally diverse individual.

The potential impacts of each factor have also been described. It is evident, therefore, that more need to be done if the negative impacts of the many sociopolitical factors are to be minimized if not eliminated from the multicultural American society.

References Anderson, J. K. (2003). Multicultural America: a historical perspective. [Peer Reviewed]

Journal of U.S Department of Justice, 3(5), 35-51

Thompson, V. L. (2009). The consequences of racism in America. Community of Mental Health Journal, 43(3), 224-235

Wright, W. D. (1998). Racism and civil rights matters (2nd ed.). Greenwood Plc.

Car Pollution in Moscow Expository Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Air pollution in Moscow is an overwhelming trouble that the residents of the region face. It has affected visitors from other parts of the world too. The increase of the peoples’ desire to have luxurious living has become problematic, for it has adversely affected Moscow’s environment. This is through the many cars they are buying.

The main issue is the quality of air. This essay will focus on car pollution; the role that cars have played in polluting the air.

The explosion of the number of cars in Moscow has largely contributed to the air pollution in this city. The fuel used by the vehicles is the root cause of the air pollution. The fuel burned in the process of combustion produces power for propelling the vehicles.

This process emits either carbon dioxide or even the more dangerous carbon monoxide into the atmosphere. The city has now a capacity of about three million cars on traffic ever day. These cars produce an extremely large amount of the waste gases, which has largely contributed to the poor air quality.

Apart from the quality of air, the streets have also become very problematic due to traffic jam. This has kept people on the road for longer time, delaying them to reach their destinations. The jam also increases the time the engines are on; therefore increasing the amount of the waste gas emitted to the atmosphere.

This has caused the average temperature of this city to go higher than the surrounding countryside. The carbon dioxide causes a warming effect through the greenhouse effect. In fact, the gas pushed in to the air is so much that a blanket of smog covers the city almost all the year.

This has made the people living in this place very uncomfortable. Still on the problem of temperature, carbon dioxide emitted by all vehicles cause the destruction of ozone layer, which helps in preventing a lot of heat from the sun from reaching the earth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The layer also blocks dangerous rays from the sun from coming down to earth, hence protecting human beings. The increase in the number of motto vehicles is a formidable threat, and has already started bringing effects on this ozone layer, escalating the health problems of people.

Cars or vehicles also have other different emissions which are very dangerous. Lead, nitrogen monoxide, and dust or particulate pollutants. Others are things such us tire wear, break fluid leakage and the wearing of brake linings. These types of pollutants are very dangerous and the number of vehicles increases them. Particulate pollutants may not only arise from within the vehicles, but also the dust particles that the vehicles stir as they move.

There are several health issues that the increase of cars has caused. Influenza, premature death, increased number of people that are hospitalized, cancer, problems on growth and development in young children. Asthma attacks and bronchitis have been the main ones and the number of people suffering from these two is increasing on the increase of the number of cars.

Influenza epidemic has been reported to be on the rise in this city. Hospitals have had to increase their bed capacity and even get to the point of recalling their staff that were on holidays to help in taking care of the sick people. The major cause of this is the air pollution, which cars contribute the most.

This has increased pressure on the already strained health services. The number of the patients coming to hospitals for flu and respiratory related complications has increased showing that the condition of air of this place is not at any better state.

This affirms that the poor air quality in the city has actually made the flu problem worse. Even though the overall level of gas emission may be reducing as compared to some time 10 years ago, the rising number of vehicles is the greatest threat to the target level of pollutant gasses that the nation of Russia was to reach this year. This is what is putting pressure on the medical services being offered in this nation.

This pollution has affected children a lot more than the adults. This trend is quite dangerous for it increases the infant mortality rate. This shows the magnitude of the effects of the air pollution. The effects of this air pollution are also increased by the escalating urban population, for these diseases are usually communicable diseases.

We will write a custom Essay on Car Pollution in Moscow specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The pollution as we have said is also causing a lot of complication to the children, especially during birth. They are born with defects, tumors and cancerous illnesses during birth. The older people also suffer from such blood diseases as diabetes. The number of these problems has also increased.

This is due to such chemical additives like lead, benzene, chromium, and asbestos, which are used with the fuel or generally in the engines of the motto vehicles. They come out with the gaseous exhaust as small particles which get into the bodies of people through breathing in the polluted air.

The bad air is not only a problem to the people, but also animals and plants. Sulfur in the atmosphere has the potential of killing plants. The increased carbon dioxide reduces the level of oxygen in the atmosphere and the plants lack oxygen that is very necessary for the production of food in them.

The imbalanced temperature also affects the optimum temperature that the specific crops or plants need to survive. This would still have a direct effect on the lifestyle of people. People need plants even in the city, for they are good for producing oxygen to supplement the percentage of the oxygen in the air. Their death will increase the stuffy nature of the already polluted city.

The government and the citizens need to focus on this problem. Policies should be formulated to help reduce the numbers of vehicles in town. One of the measures that should be used is to restrict the use of personal vehicles going into and through the city. People should not focus on prestige but on saving the environment, saving the people suffering problems of air pollution and creating a fresh environment.

They should therefore use trains and buses to move from one part of the city to the other. This will help a lot in reducing the traffic jams and therefore even save time of travelling. The government through the authorities in charge of the towns should make sure they introduce laws and regulations that will reduce the number of vehicles.

This essay has discussed the nature of air pollution caused by motto vehicles, seeing that the main way they pollute the environment is by the exhaust gases which at times carry traces of poisonous chemicals.

The essay has also discussed some of the impacts of this pollution to the health of people and touched on the effects on plants and animals. Finally, it gives a recommendation of some ways the government and the public can use to reduce the car pollution.

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