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Polyester: History, Development and Applications

Polyester is a synthetic fiber derived from coal, air, water, and petroleum. Polyester fibers are formed from a chemical reaction between an acid and alcohol, and is developed in a 20th-century laboratory. In the formation of polyester reaction, two or more molecules combine to make a large molecule whose structure repeats throughout its length. Polyester fibers can form very long molecules that are very stable and strong.
Polyester has been considered to have several advantages over traditional fabrics such as cotton. One of its most important quality is that it does not absorb moisture, but does absorb oil; this quality makes polyester the perfect fabric for the application of water-, soil-, and fire-resistant finishes. It’s another quality, that is, low absorbency also makes it naturally resistant to stains. Polyester is used in the manufacture of many products, including clothing, home furnishings, industrial fabrics, computer and recording tapes, and electrical insulation.
As we go along further, we would see the various uses of polyester in all the several fields such as clothing, furnishing, etc. Fabrics woven from polyester thread or yarn are used extensively in apparel and home furnishings, from shirts and pants to jackets and hats, bed sheets, blankets and upholstered furniture. Industrial polyester fibers, yarns and ropes are used in tire reinforcements, fabrics for conveyor belts, safety belts, coated fabrics and plastic reinforcements with high-energy absorption. Polyester fiber is used as cushioning and insulating material in pillows, comforters and upholstery padding.
We would discuss in detail the history of polyester, the method of manufacturing of polyester, its various uses, and its importance in our day to day life, how much we use polyester in our life without really noticing that it is polyester we are using.
INTRODUCTION: In short we can say that polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Even though there are many types of polyester, the term “polyester” as a specific material most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET).
Polyesters include naturally-occurring chemicals. Naturally occurring chemicals include that are found in nature and are not man-made such as in the cut in of plant cuticles. An example of synthetic fiber is synthetics through step-growth polymerization such as polycarbonate and polybutyrate. Generally natural polyesters and even a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, that is, they can break down or decay naturally without any special treatment, and can therefore be thrown away without causing pollution. Whereas on the other hand, most synthetic polyesters, which are more commonly used, are not biodegradable.
Polyester is a term often defined as “long-chain polymers chemically composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester and a dihydric alcohol and a terephthalic acid”. In simpler terms, it means that polyester is the linking of several esters within the fibers. Reaction of alcohol with carboxylic acid results in the formation of esters.
Polyester also refers to the various polymers in which the backbones are formed by the “esterification condensation of polyfunctional alcohols and acids”.
Polyester can also be classified as saturated and unsaturated polyesters.
Saturated polyesters refer to that family of polyesters in which the polyester backbones are saturated. They are thus not as reactive as unsaturated polyesters. The saturated polyesters consist of low molecular weight liquids used as plasticizers and as reactants in forming urethane polymers, and linear, high molecular weight thermoplastics such as polyethylene terephthalate (Dacron and Mylar). Usual reactants for the saturated polyesters are a glycol and an acid or anhydride.
Unsaturated polyesters refer to that family of polyesters in which the backbone consists of alkyl thermosetting resins characterized by vinyl unsaturation. They are mostly used in reinforced plastics. These are the most widely used and economical family of resins.
Characteristics of polyester Polyester fabrics and fibers are extremely strong and thus durable.
Polyester is very durable: it is resistant to most chemicals, stretching and shrinking, wrinkle resistant, mildew and abrasion resistant.
Polyester is hydrophobic in nature, that is, these molecules and quick drying. It can be used for insulation by manufacturing hollow fibers.
Polyester’s quality to retain its shape is good for making outdoor clothing for harsh climates.
Polyester can be easily washed and dried, without the added tension of ironing and all because it does not form wrinkles.
HISTORY OF POLYESTER: Polyester became famous for – Scrunch it, pull it, and wash it – without any wear and wrinkles. Polyester was the fabric of choice in an economy that was changing in terms of speed, efficiency and convenience. The textile industry’s answer to food industry producing fries and coke was the production of Polyester – quick, cheap and easy.
Carothers’ Work
It was W.H.Carothers who discovered that alcohols and carboxyl acids could be successfully mixed to create fibers. Carothers was working for DuPont at the time and unfortunately when he discovered Nylon, polyester took a back seat.

Types of Agriculture and Farming

Food is the major indispensable, fundamental and vital need of the people. “It has been calculated that a human under stress, performing hard labor, needs 2000grams of water, 470 grams of dry weight various carbohydrates and fats, 60 to 70grams of dry weight proteins and the appropriate amount of vitamins and minerals. Otherwise said, the colony will need a minimum of 30000 kg water, 7050 kg carbohydrates and fats and 900 kg proteins daily”. The food produced in Arcturus is analogous and like the earth, but here the formula and the procedure followed is different from the agriculture practiced in the earth. Because of the limited space, the higher crop yield, and the disadvantages of soil-based growing, as soil cannot be brought from earth, if it is done so the consequences and expenses that are invested would be more. And even by using soil will escort or lead to immense risks such as the biological contamination for the soil are needed insects and other organisms, which except the risk to transfer few sicknesses can also mutate and multiply themselves unnoticed and damage the station and the colonists. Therefore unique and special type of growing crops should be used which will provide more yield and the best quality alternative should be used. Some of them are:
Passive sub-irrigation
static solution culture
Vertical farming

It is a type of cultivation in which the crops are nurtured and are fully fledged by using stimulated and non-natural soil which restrains nafion which has gelatos within it. These are made up of nafion with supplementary polymers and additional materials which are contaminated and toxic. Crops that can be developed by means of this method are: wheat, pulses, maize, fruit trees, and nuts etc.
Crops with rigid and stiff roots are grown and nurtured by this method under these crops will be matured on a lattice like arrangement and drape perpendicularly. Water will be converted into mist, haze and water vapors which the roots of the plants will be lynching in. The plants that can be grown using Aeroponics are
Wheat, corn potatoes and salad components like lettuce and herbs.
Hydroponics is a division of hydro culture and is a technique of mounting plants by means of mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil. This is an inimitable and an amazing system of growing crops with out the utilization of the loam and soil with the application and relevance of distinctive process and with the assist of inimitable, exclusive and distinctive intermediate. In this technique the crops are fully grown in intensely concentrated solution and static, inert medium like periled gravel etc.
Passive sub-irrigation:
Passive sub-irrigation is a type of hydroponics which is also acknowledged and recognized by the name passive hydroponics or semi hydroponics. In this course of action plants are nurtured with the facilitate of the inert porous medium. This inert medium transfers water and fertilizers to the roots by capillary procedures and events. This accomplishment can be completed by means of a separate and detached reservoir. This will trim and spruce down the labor and fabricate stable, constant and steady delivering of water to the roots.
Static solution culture:
In static solution culture plants are developed in urns and containers of nutrient solution. These are not grown in normal containers; it can be grown only in glassMason jarsand other urns. The solution is generally quietly ventilated. Sometimes it can be bunged too. If bunged, the solution echelon and stratum is reserved stumpy enough that sufficient parts of roots are exceeding the solution so they get passable and ample oxygen.
Aquaponics is afood generationorganization that coalesces with conformistaquaculturewithin amutual and symbiotic environment. In standard aquaculture,excretion and the propulsionfrom the flora and fauna hoisted can accrue and accumulate in the water, increasing toxicity. In an Aquaponics arrangement, water from an aquaculture system is noshed to ahydroponicsystem where thederivativesare conked out down bynitrogen-fixing microorganismsintonitratesandnitrites, which are consumed and utilized by the plants as nutrients. The water is then re disseminated and circulated reverse to the aquaculture system.
Fogponics is an advanced and highly developed outline ofAeroponics. In this processwater invaporizedform relocateand transfer nutrientsandoxygento enclosed perchedplant roots. With the help of the similar common initiative following Aeroponics excluding fogponics consume a 5-30µm vapor and mist surrounded by the rooting compartment and as use for a foliar nourishing mechanism. Plants preeminently absorb particles from the 1-25µm assortments; the minute particulate dimension means faster absorption.The additional advantage of utilizing fogponics over traditional hydroponics classification is that the plants necessitate smaller quantity of energy in root growth and mass, and are able to still maintain a large plant.
Vertical farming:
Vertical farming is taming plant life within askyscraperorangery and conservatoryor on perpendicularly inclined facades. The recent and the latest thoughts and ideas of vertical farming exercise procedures analogous to glass domicile, where natural sunlight can be amplified with simulated lighting.
Organoponicsare an organization of urban macrobiotic gardens. They habitually contain low-level tangible ramparts crammed with organic substances and soil, with lines of trickle irrigation arranged on the exterior part of the emergent media.
Irrigation is the simulated application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the mounting ofagricultural crops, safeguarding oflandscapes, and foliage, vegetationof disturbed soils in dehydrated areas and at some stage in periods of derisory and inadequate rainfall. The majority of the agriculture on earth is rain nourished. That accomplishment is reliant on the well-timed monsoon and adequate rainfall extend throughout most of the budding season as the rainfall is convoluted and complicated to be created within the space settlement, it would be a challenging task to provide rain to the plants at exact stages or else the plant will not be able to develop properly. Therefore the plants must be irrigated properly. As the plants are not grown in the similar way as grown on the earth, the water will be transported directly to the plants through the pipes.
Agriculture will also endow its manufacture as unprocessed raw supplies to many different industries. These industries include like those of rubber industry, cotton industry and food dispensation industry. These eatable manufacturing centers will make diverse food foodstuffs for both the citizens and the animals. As crops produces oxygen the oxygen package and transportation center will be established. And even the organic compounds such as the cow dung can be used for making goober gas therefore; a waste management plant will be established.
Storage of grains is another imperative, important and vital measure to protect the grains from bacteria. The grains will be stored according to their seeds or crop type. Grains will be accumulated in
aerated, ventilated, desiccated areas, so that there is a smaller amount probability of syndrome. For fruits and vegetables freezing storage room vicinity will be at their position. Also there will be confined and supplementary undersized marketplace where these will be vended and they will have the permanent price for selling. The grains will be amassed in silos encompassing unlike partition at unusual levels, increasing productivity. The mound will have the majority required grain at below end while slightest essential but vital at top. There will be no contact of each harvest acquiesce. Earthworms are the manurists that renovate the putrefying and decomposing plant substance into nutrient affluent manure although less rich than fertilizers but more efficient. Birds and butterflies are the major Pollinators also there will be artificial pollination APS. In this pollen grains will be passed on to a plant via robots.
vitamin K (1110.6), vitamin A (294.8), manganese (84), folate (65.6), magnesium (39.1), iron (35.7), vitamin C (29.4), vitamin B2 (24.7), calcium (24.5), potassium (24), vitamin B6 (22), tryptophan (21.9), fiber (17.3), copper (15.5), vitamin B1 (11.1), protein (10.7), phosphorous (10.1), zinc (9.1), vitamin E (8.6), omega 3 fatty acids (6), vitamin B3 (4.4), selenium (3.9)
Sesame Seeds
copper (74), manganese (44), tryptophan (37.5), calcium (35.1), magnesium (31.6), iron (29.1), phosphorous (22.6), zinc (18.7), vitamin B1 (18.7), fiber (17)
vitamin K (143.5), vitamin A (58.2), vitamin C (44.8), folate (38), manganese (35.5), chromium (13.1), potassium (9.3), molybdenum (9), fiber (7.6), vitamin B1 (7.3), iron (6.8), vitamin B2 (6.5), phosphorous (5), calcium (4), protein (3.6), omega 3 fatty acids (3.2), tryptophan (3.1), vitamin B3 (2.8), vitamin B6 (2.5)
chromium (20.7), vitamin C (17.1), fiber (11.5), manganese (11), molybdenum (10.7), vitamin B6 (9.5), tryptophan (9.4), folate (7.6), potassium (7.2), phosphorous (5.3), copper (5)
vitamin C (57.3), vitamin A (22.4), vitamin K (17.8), molybdenum (12), potassium (11.4), manganese (9.5), fiber (7.9), chromium (7.5), vitamin B1 (7.3), vitamin B6 (7), folate (6.8), copper (6.5), vitamin B3 (5.6), vitamin B2 (5.3), magnesium (5), iron (4.5), vitamin B5 (4.4), phosphorous (4.3), vitamin E (3.4), tryptophan (3.1), protein (3.1)
Crimini mushrooms
selenium (52.6), vitamin B2 (40.6), copper (35.5), vitamin B3 (26.9), tryptophan (25), vitamin B5 (21.3), potassium (18.1), phosphorous (17), zinc (10.4), manganese (10), vitamin B1 (8.7), vitamin B6 (8), protein (7.1), folate (5), fiber (3.4), magnesium (3.2), iron (3.2), calcium (2.6)
iodine (276.7), vitamin K (16.5), folate (9), magnesium (6), calcium (3.4), iron (3.2), tryptophan (3.1)
vitamin C (136.1), manganese (21), fiber (13.2), iodine (8.6), potassium (6.8), folate (6.4), vitamin B2 (5.9), vitamin B5 (4.9), omega 3 fatty acids (4.4.), vitamin B6 (4), vitamin K (4), magnesium (3.6), copper (3.5)
manganese (62), vitamin C (51.3), fiber (33.4), folate (8), vitamin B2 (7.1), magnesium (5.5), vitamin B3 (5.5), potassium (5.3), copper (5)
molybdenum (172), tryptophan (115.6), manganese (71), protein (57.2), iron (49.1), phosphorous (42.1), fiber (41.3), vitamin K (41.3), omega 3 fatty acids (41.2), magnesium (37), copper (35), vitamin B2 (28.8), potassium (25.3)
manganese (35.5), tryptophan (28.1), vitamin B3 (22), folate (21.9), copper (21), protein (18.8)
vitamin C (116.2), fiber (12.5), folate (9.9), vitamin B1(7.3), potassium (6.8), vitamin A (5.4), calcium (5.2)
vitamin B1 (24), folate (19), fiber (18.4), vitamin C (16.9), phosphorous (16.9), manganese (16), vitamin B5 (14.4)
vitamin A (686.3), vitamin K (20.1), vitamin C (18.9), fiber (14.6), potassium (11.3), vitamin B6 (9), manganese (8.5), molybdenum (8.1), vitamin B1 (8), vitamin B3 (5.6), phosphorous (5.4), magnesi
The next chart shows which foods contain the following nutrients, and are listed in alphabetical order
sesame seed (97.5), sea weed (17), spinach (13.6), lettuce (3.6), orange (4), mushroom (1.8)
onion (12.9), lettuce (11.7), tomato (4.2)
sesame seed (205.6), peanut (57.5), mushroom (25), soy bean (20.3), spinach (8.6), raspberry (4.1), tomato (3.6), onion (3.1), strawberry (2.4)
sesame seed (47.2), raspberry (27.2), soy bean (24), carrot (13), corn (11.2), spinach (9.6), orange (9.5), strawberry (9.2), onion (7.2), lettuce (6.8), tomato (4.4), mushroom (2.4)
peanut (60), sea weed (45), spinach (36.4), lettuce (33.9), corn (11.6), orange (7.6), raspberry (6.5), onion (4.8), strawberry (4.4), carrot (3.8), tomato (3.8), mushroom (3.5)
seaweed (1383.5), strawberry (6)
sesame seed (80.8), soy bean (28.5), spinach (19.8), sea weed (16), lettuce (6.1), tomato (2.5), mushroom (2.3)
sesame seed (87.8), sea weed (30), spinach (21.7), soy bean (21.5), raspberry
(4.5), carrot (4.1), tomato (2.8), strawberry (2.5), mushroom (2.3)
sesame seed (122.2), peanut (97.3), raspberry (50.4), spinach (46.7), soy bean (41.3), lettuce (32), strawberry (14.6), corn (9.8), carrot (7.6), mushroom (7.1), onion (6.9), tomato (5.3)
soy bean (100), lettuce (8), carrot (7.2), onion (6.7), tomato (6.7)
Omega 3 fatty acids
soy bean (24), spinach (3.3), strawberry (3.1), lettuce (2.9)
soy bean (14.7), spinach (13.3), mushroom (12.8), carrot (10.1), lettuce (8.3), tomato (6.3), orange (5.2), strawberry (4.7), onion (4.5), raspberry (4.3)
sesame seed (62.8), soy bean (24.5), mushroom (12), corn (10.3), spinach (5.6), carrot (4.8), lettuce (4.5), onion (3.3), tomato (2.4)
peanut (51.5), soy bean (33.3), spinach (5.9), mushroom (5), lettuce (3.2), tomato (1.7)
mushroom (37), spinach (2.2)
sesame seed (104.2), peanut (77), soy bean (67.2), mushroom (17.6), sea weed (15.5), spinach (12.2), onion (5.9), lettuce (2.8), tomato (1.7)
Vitamin A
carrot (612.8), spinach (163.8), lettuce (52), tomato (12.4), orange (4.1)
Vitamin B1
sesame seed (51.9), corn (14.6), carrot (7.1), lettuce (6.5), spinach (6.2), mushroom (6.1), orange (5.6), tomato (4.1)
Vitamin B2
mushroom (28.6), soy bean (16.7), spinach (13.7), lettuce (5.8), raspberry (5.8), strawberry (4.1), tomato (2.9)
Vitamin B3
peanut (60.3), mushroom (19), carrot (5)raspberry (4.5), tomato (3.1), lettuce (2.5), spinach (2.4)
Vitamin B5
mushroom (15), corn (8.8), strawberry (3.4), tomato (2.4)
Vitamin B6
spinach (12.2), carrot (8), onion (5.9), mushroom (5.6), tomato (3.9), strawberry (2.8), lettuce (2.2)
Vitamin C
strawberry (94.5), orange (88.7), raspberry (41.7), lettuce (40), tomato (31.8), carrot (1.69), spinach (16.3), onion (10.7), corn (10.3)
Vitamin E
spinach (4.8), tomato (1.9)
Vitamin K
spinach (617), lettuce (128.1), sea weed (82.5), soy bean (24), carrot (17.9), tomato (9.9), strawberry (2.8)
sesame seed (51.9), mushroom (7.3), spinach (5.1)