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Policy Making Process Essay

Table of Contents Introduction

Agenda setting






Reference List

Introduction US$ 20, 000 for a ticket, US$ 50, 000 to access smaller discussion units away from the main conference, and US$ 60, 000 for accommodation on the lower side. That is the cost of attending the ongoing 43rd World Economic Forum popularly referred to as Davos 2011.

Global leaders in various fields; industry, academia, civil society, government, and the media converge at the Swiss Ski resort during the annual meeting to reflect on, rethink, strategize, explore, find solutions to, and develop policies that shape world agenda. The meeting is one of the occasions when policymaking is a core business of the day. The art of policymaking is a common practice amongst leaders in many organizations whether public or private.

According to the American Heritage Dictionary (2006), “policy making is; high development more particularly of official government policy’’. Officials in government institutions do develop public policies in order to provide solutions to public issues by means of a political process. Although policymaking is normally a long tedious demanding process, all the steps involved are actually necessary for desirable results to be archived. Policy making conforms to the steps discussed below for a better yield.

Agenda setting This is the initial step into policy making where an issue of concern and/or to be evaluated by the government is brought up. The issue may be tabled by the government or citizens during consultations with government officials. Such consultations are necessary as individuals can advise on issues affecting them which officials may be oblivious of. If various matters come up to be addressed at this stage, prioritization is done in order to select what to first handle when all cases cannot be addressed at that particular juncture.

Politicians, public officials, and elites should be accountable for their actions to the public and not pursue their personal interests without any constraints. Governments, and any other institutions for that matter involved in decision making process should be transparent and accessible to the public. Any concerns raised by stakeholders are factored in the process and they are offered a chance to freely challenge the decision making process.

Formulation After setting the agenda described above, possible solutions are then elaborated at this stage. Public demand is taken into account in formulating a solution to the issue and possible available options are carefully weighed out.

Special interest groups such as those whose concerns lie with the environment, business, and human rights, among others are consulted in the formulation process, caution is however taken not to divert from the main objective of the policy for their own purpose. It is understood that since many conflicting interests are involved, there is no one correct solution to the agenda as complex issues need to be solved in a versatile environment characterized by uncertainty.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Decision-making After all considerations in the formulating process, a final decision is taken by the government amongst the possible solutions floated. There are several possibilities in this decision-making. The government can go ahead with its proposal to the solution, use other counterproposals made by stakeholders, or compromise between the two. The decision can also be to take no action in which case the status quo is maintained.

Implementation With the final decision made, government officials possibly together with all the stakeholders translate the policy to a concrete action plan by use of substantive policy tools. An entirely new routine sometimes arise from the made decision. In some cases, new regulations are mandated and enforcement procedures developed to allow for the implementation of the policy.

Evaluation This is the final stage of a policy making process. According to Lindblom (1968), evaluation is, “the systematic assessment and acquisition of information so as to provide useful feedback about some object”. This can be performed by government officials or other parties concern with the policy once implemented.

Formal means of evaluation like data analysis, or informal ones involving citizens’ reaction are deployed in evaluating the policy. Of concern during the evaluation process include among others: the effectiveness and net impact of the policy- that is, a revelation of failures, successes or need for any modifications to be made. In the event of a problem with a particular policy, the policy-making steps begin again.

Conclusion Commitment to consultations and information is important in enhancing active participation at all levels and should be embraced. This should be taken in good time; at initial stages of policy making process to gather numerous possible solutions and required information. Clarifications on the public’s limit of access to information, citizen’s rights as pertaining to the policy, and procedures for feedback are made.

Adequate material and human resources are allocated to implementing the policy in addition to cross government and public coordination so as to enhance feedback and implementation. Together with promoting active citizenship and evaluation of a policy, transparent, amenable, external scrutiny of a policy making process leads to accountability.

In a nutshell, implementation of all the above steps results in: strengthened public trust in their officials, meeting of societal challenges, and improvement of the quality of a policy.

We will write a custom Essay on Policy Making Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Editors of The American Heritage dictionaries. (2006). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Lindblom, C. (1968). The policy making process. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

History of the Islamic Civilization Essay

Nursing Assignment Help During the 10th through the 14th centuries, various professionals from the then Islamic world contributed immensely to the growth and development of Europe. Through preserving earlier traditions and making inventions of their own, the Muslim artistes, scientists, thinkers, princes, and laborers, brought various changes in astronomy, math, philosophy, agriculture, and sanitation.

Consequently, they made remarkable contributions to the European Renaissance in which many new inventions and beliefs were instituted. The age of Islamic civilization started when Muslim conquests led to the establishment of the Caliphate, or Islamic Empire, during the 8th to 10th century.

Consequently, the Muslim world was recognized as the epicenter of all knowledge. In astronomy, Islamic civilization in Spain made important discoveries. Since they had to know the direction of Makka, they invented valuable astronomical instruments to assist them in this (Mottaleb, para. 7). Due to this, the Muslim astronomers discovered several new things, such as the invention that the celestial spheres are not solid, the idea that the heavens are less dense than air and the possibility of the earth rotating on its own axis.

In math, the Islamic thinkers made significant contributions by developing algebra, algorithms, as well as several other advances in arithmetic, calculus, trigonometry, geometry, and calculus, which did not exist among the Greek (Hughes, Part I). In addition, they are also responsible for the addition of decimal point notation to numbers.

Muslim philosophers of Spain played a major role towards preserving the ideologies of Aristotle, whose opinions were widely embraced by those who did not embrace Christianity and the Islamic faith.

The Arab philosophers also welcomed other ideas from other places such as China and India, which increased their knowledge from their own studies. Their philosophies were highly influential among the Muslims and Christians of the region.

In Spain, the ideas of the influential Muslim philosophers were translated to other languages such as Hebrew and Latin, which enhanced their spread. It is said that the translation assisted in the development of the modern European philosophy. The Islamic civilization witnessed many advances in agriculture. Muslim traders introduced different crops from other parts of the world that could not grow in the Islamic lands. Crops such as sorghum, rice, cotton, citrus fruits, and sugar cane were introduced in the lands.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Improved farming techniques, such as cash cropping, crop rotation, and irrigation were also introduced. Lastly, the rise of Islam brought fundamental changes in sanitation both in Spain and in Europe. The Muslim scientists discovered the cause of various maladies and taught the people to maintain high standards of hygiene in order to avoid falling sick. In addition, waste management was being undertaken in the various major Islamic towns.

During the Spanish Inquisition, Muslims were ordered to convert to the Catholic faith or risk being persecuted because of their faith. This had devastating effects on them. During the early years of the Inquisition, several Muslims were executed. Consequently, because of the resultant panic, many Spanish Muslims left the nation (“Spanish Inquisition,” para. 3). Most of them were traders, physicians, and academics.

This migration enabled them to take their knowledge in other parts of Europe. More so, because of the Inquisitions, many of the Muslims lost their lives, which drastically reduced their influence in the region. The censorship of Islamic material and the limitation of the entrance of students studying overseas, to prevent them from bringing Islamic ideas into the nation, and the general atmosphere of fear limited the growth of Islam in Spain during the Inquisition.

Works Cited Hughes, Bettany. “The Islamic roots of Modern civilization and the construction of European identity.” Spiritual Change, n.d. Web.

Mottaleb, Abdul. “The Influence of Civilization on European Civilization during the Renaissance Period in the Field of Medicine or its Allied Subject. “ Islamset, n.d. Web.

“Spanish Inquisition.” Spanish Fiestas, n.d. Web.