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Plague Disease Myths Essay (Critical Writing)

Plague refers to a disease spread by fleas which are infected by their hosts, in most cases rats. The fleas used to change host especially after the death of the rat, and the next host they preferred may have been human being. During that process, they infected humans.

Plague was first experienced in Europe in the mid of the fourteenth century when the first wave of the infection killed about twenty five million people. The infection continued spreading throughout Europe in the eighteenth century, and at that time the cause of the bacterial infection had not been ascertained yet. Upon infection, an individual experienced severe pain, and in a few days eighty percent of the infected people succumbed to death.

In one school, the plague killed twenty boys almost simultaneously. This caused other students to stay away from school as they opted not to attend it (Schoolmaster 1484). Considering the case in England, the plague was caused by filth in the streets and the sputum and dog’s urine which clogged the rushes on the floor of houses (Erasmus 1512).

The rich in the society managed to flee from the country, and as a result, the poor were the ones who were left vulnerable to the disease. This also happened in Paris where only a few porters and wage earners who resided there were left (Versoris 1523).

Johann Weyer wrote in his The Deceptions of Demons in 1583 that individuals also spread the deadly plague by smearing the gates to the city of Casale in Western Lombardy with a certain ointment that caused the disease. Thus, everyone who touched those gates was infected, and as a result died.

Unfortunately, the heirs of the deceased are the ones who made payments for the gates to be smeared so that they would have obtained a quick inheritance. This was the case at Casale where it was reported that people got infected by simply touching the gates (Weyer 1583).

Each and every household which was affected by the pestilence was immediately quarantined, and in the event of that person’s death in a specific place, the one had to be buried in that particular place. Furthermore, many people died because of hunger since the roads were under heavy guard to ensure that no infected individuals travelled from one place to another. (Staden 1571)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gold was used to meet the expense of pest houses so as to quarantine the infected while gallows were used to punish the violators of health regulations. In addition, the gallows were also used to frighten other people, and bonfires were used to eliminate the infected (Motto 1576). A particular woman whose husband had a fever was sure he would have died, but he was miraculously healed. He was fed by a piece of bread that had touched St. Domenica’s body. The bread was sent to him by Angelica. (Centennni 1624).

An individual really thought a lot about what would have happened in the event their household would have been invaded by the plagues. It was a tough time as everyone wondered who they would lose first to the disease, the daughter first or the son. It also happened that after the son had died, the daughter followed, and eventually the individual died as well.

Even in the season of severity, an individual would still have compassion and be charitable. Convalescents and servants of two pest houses were fed by a particular individual who also paid guards and gravediggers with alms sent to him/her by the lordships (Dragoni 1630).

The infected patients hung toads on their neckline so that their venom would draw out the poison of the disease within a few days (Roachas 1647). In Barcelona, there was a high demand for nurses who although called to serve neglected the patients in many instances and made them die quickly so that they could collect the agreed fee (Parets 1651). News was received that in Rome Italy it was now violent. People opted to refrain but four individuals opted to believe in providence rather than not see a fine place (Reresby 1656).

People feared to buy wigs with the assumption that the wings were obtained from the heads of people who died of the plague (Pepys 1665). The European nations including France, Holland, Spain and Italy prohibited ships from England. As a consequence, foreign trade and manufacture of goods declined causing a stoppage (Defoe 1665). The plague was believed to be a punishment from the gods due to the sins of the people and remedies were not considered to be available like in the case of ordinary maladies (Bertrand 1720).

The events happened from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century affected the whole of Europe (Clark

Public Health’ Social, Psychosocial and Economic Factors Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Referring to the recent lectures and examined readings, I have learnt that there is a range of factors influencing the public health, and these factors are social, psychosocial, political, and economic ones; thus, the public health is affected by the fact of living in rural or urban environments, by climatic changes, and by differences in ecosystems (Costanza 2012, p. 24).

I received the opportunity to think over such a significant fact that ecosystem influences the public health directly, but a man has the more influential effect on the ecosystem itself, and this effect is often negative that is why it is important to become ‘Earth Friendly’ (Landon 2006, p. 158). Furthermore, I have changed my vision about the role of living in the rural territories for the people’s health because today I know that many people living in the country suffer from depression, poverty, and even violence (Landon 2006, p. 183).

On the other hand, the life in cities is also challenging for people because they can suffer not only from the hazardous effect of the industrial pollutants but also from social isolation (Landon 2006, p. 183). At this stage, I can also think about the direct connection between the public health, environments, and policies because the effective policies can contribute to improving the public health (Costanza 2012, p. 24).

This knowledge is important for individuals because reflecting on aspects of living in the rural and urban territories, people can choose the places to live to improve their health and quality of life (Lopez 2012, p. 230).

Changes in ecosystems influence individuals complexly because, for instance, the extreme use of fossil fuels leads to air pollution and provokes asthma, and the use of fossil fuels leads to climatic changes which cause mental health because of the necessity to adapt to new conditions (Landon 2006, p. 157). Moreover, people with low incomes can choose to move to cities in order to avoid poverty because, for instance, poor quality of housing leads to poor hygiene and emotional stress (Landon 2006; Lopez 2012, p. 230).

This information is also related to the life in communities because, according to Lopez, communities are responsible for improvement of their ecosystems and for promoting their social capital (Lopez 2012, p. 228). Connections with the other persons are important for people to improve their mental health, and this idea is correlated with the discussion of negative effects of social isolation typical for many urban territories with high-rise buildings when the social balance is absent (Lopez 2012, p. 230).

Governments can also play an important role in improving the public health because, according to Baum, the liberal-democratic approach is effective to contribute not only to economic development but also to direct disease prevention and health promotion (Baum 2008, p. 73-74; Baum 2008, p. 383). Moreover, governments are responsible for developing policies to prevent negative effects of climatic changes which can lead to malnutrition and lack of resources (Landon 2006, p. 139).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The learnt concepts and ideas are also important for the future career because now I can refer to the concrete associations between the people’s psychological state and the environments where they live; thus, I can refer, for instance, to the issue of loneliness which affects depression, to inappropriate nutrition because of unemployment, or to the development of cardiac and respiratory diseases because of living in a city (An ensemble of definitions 1998; Landon, M 2006, p. 200).

To decide about the risk of infectious diseases, I should refer to the aspects of climate and social factors influential for the people’s health because poverty or the lack of water resources can lead to violating the principles of hygiene, for instance (Health A to Z 2013).

The knowledge about all the aspects of environments in which the patient lives is important for me to create the complete picture of the health risks for this person, with references to social, psychosocial, and economic factors which can seem insignificant for clients themselves (Health A to Z 2013).

Reference List An ensemble of definitions 1998. Web.

Baum, F 2008, ‘Health Economic Policies’, in F Baum (ed.), The New Public Health, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 371-388.

Baum, F 2008, ‘Politics and Ideologies: The Invisible Hands of Public Health’, in F Baum (ed.), The new public health, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 71-97.

Costanza, R 2012, ‘Ecosystem health and ecological engineering’, Ecological Engineering, vol. 45. no. 1, pp. 24-29. Health A to Z 2013, .

We will write a custom Essay on Public Health’ Social, Psychosocial and Economic Factors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Landon, M 2006, ‘Action at global and local levels’, in M Landon (ed.), Environment, health and sustainable development, Open University Press, Maidenhead, pp. 198-207.

Landon, M 2006, ‘Global climate change and human health’, in M Landon (ed.), Environment, health and sustainable development, Open University Press, Maidenhead, pp. 139-155.

Landon, M 2006, ‘The balance of ecosystems and human health’, in M Landon (ed.), Environment, health and sustainable development, Open University Press, Maidenhead, pp. 156-166.

Landon, M 2006, ‘The urban environment and health’, in M Landon (ed.), Environment, health and sustainable development, Open University Press, Maidenhead, pp. 183-197.

Lopez, R 2012, ‘Social Capital’, in R Lopez (ed.), The built environment and public health, Jossey-Bass, Hoboken, pp. 227-245.