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Osmosis and Diffusion in the Cell Membrane

Currently, the accepted model of the structure of the cell membrane is the fluid mosaic model. The model explains how the membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell. The main component of the membrane is the phospholipid bilayer. This bilayer acts like a gate, allowing nonpolar molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide to cross over with ease but limits the passage of polar molecules like sugars.
In order for cells to survive, they need to take in nutrients and to eliminate waste. Therefore, there has to be methods to allow substances to travel across the cell membrane. The two main types of movements that cells utilize are passive transport, which does not require energy, and active transport, which does involve the use of energy. This investigation will focus on passive transport, specifically simple diffusion and osmosis. In simple diffusion, molecules tend to spread out evenly, moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. It will continue to move down its concentration gradient until the concentration is uniform throughout. Osmosis is just the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a more dilute region to a more concentrated region. Osmosis is crucial to the survival of an organism because it controls the balance of water between the cell and its surroundings. In order for simple diffusion and osmosis to happen, there must be a moist and permeable membrane and a concentration gradient to move down.
Depending on how much solute there is, a solution can be either isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic. In an isotonic solution, the cell has the same solute concentration as the solution and thus no net movement of water occurs. Water would flow in and out of the cell at the same rate. However if a cell’s surrounding has more solute, than that solution would be considered hypertonic. In an attempt to correct the offset of concentration, water from the cell would leave to make the cell’s surrounding less concentrated. There is a net movement of water away from the cell and in most cases the cell would shrivel up and die. On the other hand, a hypotonic solution is when a solution has less solute than the cell. To make the cell less concentrated, water would enter the cell at a faster rate than it leaves. The cell swells up with water and sometimes even burst if too much water enters. In all three types of solution, water is trying to reach a state of equilibrium.
In this experiment we will a) determine the size of several small molecules based on whether or not they diffuse across the semi-permeable membrane, and b) study the relationship between solute concentration and the movement of water, and how it affects osmosis. The hypotheses for these objectives are as follows:
Since glucose is a simple sugar, or monosaccharide, it will be able to diffuse across the membrane with much more ease than starch, a polysaccharide. Polysaccharides are bigger because they are composed of monosaccharides bonded together.
As molarity and solute concentration increases, so will the net movement of water from the beaker into the bag. Water is trying to reach equilibrium by moving into the more concentrated region so that it can dilute the solution.
This experiment was divided into 2 sections. Part 1 tested diffusion while part 2 investigated osmosis. In both section, moist 30-cm pieces of dialysis tubing were used to represent the semi-permeable membrane of cells. The tubing has pores that allow for some substances, such as water, to pass through while it blocking others. For the first part of the experiment we formed a bag out of the tubing by tying one end of it with string and poured 15 mL of the clear 15% glucose/ 1% starch solution into it. We will be testing this to see whether or not the solution is able to diffuse out of the tubing. We used two substances to represent a few of the many things that try to diffuse through the cell membrane.
Next, we dipped one strip of glucose tes-tape into the solution in the bag and another strip into 185 mL of distilled water in the beaker. The purpose of this is to check if the glucose is present in the water and to see that glucose really is in the solution. The strip dipped into water exhibited no change in color but the one soaked in the solution changed to a green color indicating that glucose was there. Afterward, we added about 4 mL of Lugol’s solution (KI) in the beaker of distilled water. Normally, the KI solution is a light brown/golden yellow color but when starch is present, it produces a navy blue black color. When KI was mixed with the water it turned the water a clear yellow. Again we used a tes-tape strip to test for glucose and we got a negative reading. Finally we tied the other end of the tubing and submerged the bag into the solution. We have to let the bag be immersed for 30 minutes to allow the solution enough time to diffuse and reach equilibrium.
Soon we were able to see the solution inside the bag turn into a dark blue black color. The color of the water of the beaker remained a transparent yellow. When time elapsed, we used the test stripes for both the beaker and the bag and both strips turned green.
For the second part of the experiment, we used dialysis tubings to make six bags. This time around we poured 25 mL of varying concentrations of sucrose into the each bag. The six bags held distilled water, a 0.2 M, 0.4 M, 0.6 M, 0.8 M, and 1.0 M solution of sucrose respectively. Sucrose is a disaccharide and commonly known as table sugar. It was used because sucrose is found commonly in human bodies. Many different concentrations of sucrose were used to measure the relationship between molarity and osmosis while the bag full of distilled water was the control.
After securing the contents of the bags, we individually weighed each bag using an electronic balance. We filled six beakers with 185 mL of distilled water. Since the bags have a higher concentration of solute, osmosis will occur to try to dilute the solution in the bag so that equilibrium between the contents of the bag and beaker is reached. We simultaneously submerged the six bags into each beaker, which gives each bag equal amount of time to go through osmosis. After about 25-30 minutes of waiting we removed the bags from the water, blotted the excess water, and massed them again using the balance. Finally we checked to see if there was a difference between the initial mass (before submerging) and final mass (after the 30 minutes) of the bag.
Through osmosis, water is both leaving and entering the bag. Glucose also is leaving the bag through the pores. This is evident when we used the test strips to check for glucose. In the initial solution, before the bag was added, the test strip showed no change in color, but letting the bag sit for 30 minutes, the strip turned green, indicating that glucose was present. Lugol’s solution also was entering the bag. When there is no starch, the KI does not react and remain a yellow tint. However, if starch is introduced, the KI mixes with it and turns the solution dark.
The tubing represented the semi-permeable cell membrane. One way substances enter and leave the membrane is through simple diffusion in which substances go from an area of high concentration to low concentration. Since the glucose and starch in the bag were of higher concentration than that of the beaker, they naturally wanted to diffuse through the tubing and into the beaker. The same thing occurs with Lugol’s solution, except that it wants to enter the bag instead. KI and glucose were able to pass through the tubing but starch was too big to fit through the pores.
This experimented could be modified to allow quantitative data that shows that water diffused into the dialysis bag. One would use an electronic scale to mass the contents of the bag before and after submerging it into the beaker. The difference between the final and initial mass would show how much water diffused.
Water molecules are probably the smallest because it is only made up 3 small molecules and able to easily diffuse through the tubing. KI molecules are next because it consists of two larger molecules, followed by glucose molecules because they are made up of many carbons, hydrogens, and oxygens. These three molecules were able to diffuse through the membrane pores. This leaves the starch molecules as the largest since they were unable to diffuse through and because they are polysaccharides.
The glucose and KI solution would diffuse out of the bag while water would diffuse into the bag. Starch is unable to diffuse so it would remain in the beaker only. When the KI diffuses through it will mix with the starch outside and thus change the color of the water in the beaker to a blue black color.
According to our results, it seems that as the molarity of the sucrose in the dialysis bag increases so does the change in mass. This is due to osmosis. Water from outside would enter the bag in an attempt to dilute the sucrose solution and the higher the concentration the more water would come in to dilute it.
If all bags were placed into a 0.4 M sucrose solution, then all of the bags would try to reach equilibrium relative to the 0.4 M sucrose solution. The 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 M bags would gain water because the concentrations inside these bags are higher and water would enter to lessen the molarity. In the distilled water and 0.2 M bags, water would actually flow into the beaker because the beaker has the higher concentration. The 0.4 M bag is already in equilibrium with the beaker. Since the beaker solution is isotonic, there would be no net movement of water.
We calculated the percent change in mass and not the actual change in mass because the initial mass of each bag was not the same as the others. We use the percent change because the mass difference has to be relative to that particularly initial mass. If all of the initial masses were the same, we would be able to use the actual change in mass instead.
The percent change in mass is equal to the final mass minus the initial mass and the result of divided over the initial mass and then multiplied by 100 percent. In an equation form it would be [(final mass – initial mass)/initial mass] X 100% = percent change. Thus percent change of mass for this particular problem would be [(18 g – 20 g)/18 g] X 100% = (-2 g/18 g) X 100% = -0.1111 X 100% = 11.11%
The sucrose solution in the bag would have been hypotonic to the distilled water in the beaker since water entered the bag and left entered the beaker of water.
For the first experiment, the glucose test strip that was initially dipped into the beaker containing distilled water and Lugol’s solution remained a yellow color. However, the strip that was initially dipped into the bag of 15% glucose/1% starch turned green (Table 1). If the strip turns a green color, it means that glucose is present in that solution. Although we used a solution labeled 15% glucose/1% starch, we tested it just to make sure glucose really was there. After letting the bag sit in the beaker, two test strips were used to see if there was glucose after the experiment was completed. The strips were dipped into the beaker and bag and both turned green. Also the bag turned a dark color which indicated that there was starch still there.
For the second experiment, except for the 0.6 M bag, the initial mass of each bag starting with the most dilute concentration, consecutively got higher. This same exact trend occurred with the final masses of the bags and all bags displayed increased mass. Also starting with the least concentration solution, the percent change in mass generally increased as the molarity increased (Table 2). Compared to the class averages, most of our values were around the class values. Some of our data were a little higher, especially the percent change for the 1.0 M solution (Table 3).
Our data provided support for our hypothesis that glucose would be able to diffuse through. Since glucose was not present in the beaker initially but was there after the bag was submerged, this means that glucose must have been able to diffuse through the pores of the tubing. Since the bag is the only source of glucose, diffusion is the only method in which glucose could have entered into the beaker. Starch on the other hand was unable to diffuse across the membrane. It remained in the bag only and hence the bag was the only section that turned that distinct dark blue color.
The results from part 2 also matched the general accepted knowledge of osmosis. Osmosis will usually occur when there are unbalanced regions of concentrations. In trying to establish equilibrium, water from the less concentrated solution will flow through the cell membrane into the more concentrated solution to try to lower the concentration. This is what basically happened with our 5 bags of sucrose. There was a net movement of water from the beaker and into the bag.
A few errors occurred while the experiment took place. In the first part, the inside of the bag did not turn to the blue black color when we added the 4 mL of Lugol’s solution. In the end we had to add a few more drops in before the inside of the bag would change color. In the second part, the reason why some of our numbers are higher than the class average was probably because our group was one of the first groups to have the set-up of the six bags in the six beakers. Our experiment would have had more time to allow osmosis to occur than other groups did.
Our data and results can be applied to the further studies of osmosis and diffusion, especially to passive transport in human cells.

Antacids Structure and Uses

Antacids are medications that increase the pH balance in your stomach. A number of symptoms, including heartburn, gastritis, and gastro -esophageal reflux disease (GERD), can be treated with them. In most cases, antacids start working within a few minutes. It is important to note that they may not always be necessary, and they can have serious consequences if used improperly.
The most common of these bases are hydroxides, carbonates, or bicarbonates. The following table contains a list of the active ingredients found in several common commercial antacids, and the reactions by which these antacids neutralize the HCl in stomach acid.
Compound
Chemical Formula
Chemical Reaction
Aluminum hydroxide
Al(OH)3
Al(OH)3(s) 3 HCl(aq) —–> AlCl3(aq) 3 H2O(l)
Calcium carbonate
CaCO3
CaCO3(s) 2 HCl(aq) —–> CaCl2(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g)
Magnesium carbonate
MgCO3
MgCO3(s) 2 HCl(aq) —–> MgCl2(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g)
Magnesium hydroxide
Mg(OH)2
Mg(OH)2(s) 2 HCl(aq) —–> MgCl2(aq) 2 H2O(l)
Sodium bicarbonate
NaHCO3
NaHCO3(aq) HCl(aq) —–> NaCl(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g)

What Are Antacids?
How Do They Work?
Types of Antacids
Is Simethicone an Antacid?
What Are Antacids Used For?
When to Consult Your Doctor About Antacids
Final Thoughts on Antacids
Working of antacids
The opposite of an acid is a base, and that’s exactly what an antacid is. Antacids make you feel better by increasing the pH balance in your stomach. The pH system is a scale for measuring the acidity or alkalinity of a given environment (in this case, your stomach). The scale goes from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. Below 7 is acid. Above 7 is alkaline
Normally, the acid level in your stomach is about 2 or 3. Trouble may start when your pH drops below those numbers. To make you feel better, an antacid need not bring the pH level all the way up to 7 (neutral), which would be a highly unnatural state for your stomach. In order to work, all the antacid has to do is get you to 3 or 4. It does this by neutralizing some of the excess acid.
Due to several complex factors, a base can’t neutralize your acid all by itself. A base needs some chemical “helpers,” or ingredients, to accompany it as it neutralizes the acid in your stomach.
All antacids contain at least one of these four primary ingredients:
Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium
Aluminum.
Antacids are medications that increase the pH balance in your stomach. A number of symptoms, including heartburn, gastritis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), can be treated with them. In most cases, antacids start working within a few minutes. It is important to note that they may not always be necessary, and they can have serious consequences if used improperly.

What Are Antacids?
Antacids are medicines that work by increasing the pH balance in your stomach. Americans currently spend close to $1 billion per year on antacids. This is because antacids can quickly relieve the symptoms associated with occasional heartburn and indigestion. Though they cause problems for some, antacids can be taken safely by most people. Consumers who use antacids only once in a while, and as directed, are unlikely to experience significant side effects.
But antacids may not always be necessary, and they can have serious consequences if used improperly. Frequent and prolonged use can cause irreparable harm to your heart, kidneys, or bones. Even if used occasionally and in moderation, antacids can cause problems for people with special medical conditions.
How Do They Work?
The opposite of an acid is a base, and that’s exactly what an antacid is.
Antacids make you feel better by increasing the pH balance in your stomach. The pH system is a scale for measuring the acidity or alkalinity of a given environment (in this case, your stomach). The scale goes from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. Below 7 is acid. Above 7 is alkaline.
Normally, the acid level in your stomach is about 2 or 3. Trouble may start when your pH drops below those numbers. To make you feel better, an antacid need not bring the pH level all the way up to 7 (neutral), which would be a highly unnatural state for your stomach. In order to work, all the antacid has to do is get you to 3 or 4. It does this by neutralizing some of the excess acid.
Due to several complex factors, a base can’t neutralize your acid all by itself. A base needs some chemical “helpers,” or ingredients, to accompany it as it neutralizes the acid in your stomach. All antacids contain at least one of these four primary ingredients:
Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium
Aluminum.
Types of Antacids
As mentioned above, antacids have four types of ingredients. Within these four types, there are many different brands. Below we discuss each type, name several brands, and discuss their possible side effects.
Sodium Antacids (Alka-Seltzer, Bromo-Seltzer, and Others)
Sodium bicarbonate (commonly known as baking soda) is perhaps the best-known of the sodium-containing antacids. It is potent and fast-acting. As its name suggests, it is high in sodium. If you’re on a salt-restricted diet, and especially if the diet is intended to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), take a sodium-containing antacid only under a doctor’s orders.
Calcium Antacids (Tums, Alka-2, Titralac„¢, and Others)
Antacids in the form of calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate are also potent and fast-acting. Regular or heavy doses of calcium (more than five or six times per week) can cause constipation. Heavy and extended use of this product may clog your kidneys and cut down the amount of blood they can process. Extended use of calcium antacids can also cause kidney stones.
Magnesium Antacids (Maalox, Mylanta, Riopan, Gelusil, and Others)
Magnesium salts come in many forms — carbonate, glycinate, hydroxide, oxide, trisilicate, and aluminosilicate. it has a mild laxative effect; it can cause diarrhea. For this reason, magnesium salts are rarely used as the only active ingredients in an antacid, but are combined with aluminum, which counteracts the laxative effect. (The brand names listed above all contain magnesium-aluminum combinations.)Like calcium, magnesium may cause kidney stones if taken for a prolonged period, especially if the kidneys are functioning improperly to begin with. A serious magnesium overload in the bloodstream (hypermagnesemia) can also cause blood pressure to drop, leading to respiratory or cardiac depression – a potentially dangerous decrease in lung or heart function.
Antacids are medications that increase the pH balance in your stomach. A number of symptoms, including heartburn, gastritis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), can be treated with them. In most cases, antacids start working within a few minutes. It is important to note that they may not always be necessary, and they can have serious consequences if used improperly.

Aluminum Antacids (Rolaids, Alternagel , Amphojel, and Others)
Salts of aluminum (hydroxide, carbonate gel, or phosphate gel) can also cause constipation. For these reasons, aluminum is usually used in combination with the other three primary ingredients.
Used heavily over an extended period, antacids containing aluminum can weaken bones, especially in people who have kidney problems. Aluminum can cause dietary phosphates, calcium, and fluoride to leave the body, eventually causing bone problems such as osteomalacia or osteoporosis.
It should be emphasized that aluminum-containing antacids present virtually no danger to people who have normal kidney function and who use these products only occasionally and as directed.
Uses of Antacids
Antacids can be used to treat a number of common symptoms in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Some of these antacid uses include:
Indigestion
Gastritis
Heartburn
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Peptic ulcer.
Indigestion
Indigestion is a fuzzy word that is often used to refer to vague abdominal discomfort. It is also referred to as:
Sour stomach
Acid indigestion
Upset stomach
Acid stomach.
Gastritis
Gastritis is a condition that occurs when your stomach lining becomes inflamed by too much acid secretion.
Heartburn
Heartburn occurs when the stomach’s contents, including its corrosive juices, go into reverse and come back up the esophagus (known as acid reflux or gastro- esophageal reflux).
Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease
If you experience gastro esophageal reflux frequently, then you may have something called gastro esophageal reflux disease, or GERD for short.
Peptic Ulcer
If the location of the burning sensation is a little lower, and if it stays around formore than a few days, you could have a peptic ulcer. An ulcer is simply a sore in your stomach that keeps getting irritated by stomach acid.
Side effects
Excess calcium from supplements, fortified food and high-calcium diets, can cause the milk-alkali syndrome, which has serious toxicity and can be fatal. In 1915, Bertram Sippy introduced the “Sippy regimen” of hourly ingestion of milk and cream, the gradual addition of eggs and cooked cereal, for 10 days, combined with alkaline powders, which provided symptomatic relief for peptic ulcer disease. Over the next several decades, the Sippy regimen resulted in renal failure, alkalosis, and hypercalemia, mostly in men with peptic ulcer disease. These adverse effects were reversed when the regimen stopped, but it was fatal in some patients with protracted vomiting. Milk alkali syndrome declined in men after effective treatments were developed for peptic ulcer disease. But during the past 15 years, it has been reported in women taking calcium supplements above the recommended range of 1200 to 1500 mg daily, for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and is exacerbated by dehydration. Calcium has been added to over-the-counter products, which contributes to inadvertent excessive intake.
The New England Journal of Medicine reported a typical case of a woman who arrived in the emergency department vomiting and altered mental status, writhing in pain. She had consumed large quantities of chewable antacid tablets containing calcium carbonate. She gradually recovered.
Compounds containing calcium may also increase calcium output in the urine, which might be associated with kidney stones. Calcium salts may cause constipation.
Other adverse effects from antacids include
Carbonate: regular high doses may cause alkalosis, which in turn may result in altered excretion of other drugs, and kidney stones. A chemical reaction between the carbonate and hydrochloric acid may produce carbon dioxide gas. This causes gastric distension which may not be well tolerated. Carbon dioxide formation can also lead to headaches and decreased muscle flexibility.
Aluminum hydroxide: may lead to the formation of insoluble aluminium-phosphate-complexes, with a risk for hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Although aluminium has a low gastrointestinal absorption, accumulation may occur in the presence of renal insufficiency. Aluminium-containing drugs may cause constipation.
Magnesium hydroxide: It has laxative properties. Magnesium may accumulate in patients with renal failure leading to hypermagnesemia, with cardiovascular and neurological complications. See Milk of magnesia.
Sodium: increased intake of sodium may be deleterious for arterial hypertension, heart failure and many renal diseases.
Side effects from antacids vary depending on individual and other medications they may be taking at the time. Those who experience side effects most commonly suffer from changes in bowel functions, such as diarrhea, constipation, or flatulence.
Although reactions to any drug may vary from person to person, generally those medications that contain aluminum or calcium are the likeliest to cause constipation, those that contain magnesium are the likeliest to cause diarrhea. Some products combine these ingredients, which essentially cancels them out, to forestall unpleasant side effects.
In general, people with kidney problems should probably not take antacids as this can sometimes cause a condition known as alkalosis. In other people, side effects may occur if substances such as salt, sugar, or aspirin, are added to a particular medication. As with all medications, always carefully read the product label on the package and check with your doctor or pharmacist if you have any question about potential drug interactions or side effects.
Some side effects, such as constipation and diarrhea, are fairly obvious. Other more serious side effects, such as stomach or intestinal; bleeding, can be more difficult to recognize. In general, any sign of blood in the stool or the presence of vomiting is a danger sign and should be brought to the immediate attention of a physician.
If your symptoms persist for more than 10 days to two weeks while you are using the medication, you should stop taking it and consult your doctor. Persistent symptoms may indicate that you have more a serious problem than occasional acid reflux. Pregnant or nursing baby should always consult your doctor before taking this medication. Generally, you should not give these medications to children under the age of 12 unless under the advice and supervision of your doctor or the package label has indicated that the product is safe for young children
Antacids (The Truth About Antacid)
I’m sure you know of someone who suffers from heartburn on a regular basis and takes antacids like they’re candy. It might even be you. Most people think the answers to all their stomach problems can be resolved by taking over-the-counter antacids. In reality, their digestive problems typically stem from low stomach acid, very few digestive enzymes, and huge meals that were not chewed well enough. These meals cause food to sit in the digestive tract longer than they should.
As a result, food ferments, causing gas and bloating when it is not properly digested. As gases rise and reach the esophagus, they cause pain in the chest that some say feels like a heart attack. Too much gas causes the valve that keeps the stomach contents out of the esophagus to stretch. This spills acid into the esophagus, causing the stinging sensation other wise known as heartburn.
Taking an antacid medication may temporarily ease the burning sensation since it reduces stomach acid. When this is done, improper food digestion occurs, and then ferments. Then the whole problem starts all over again. By using antacids to control stomach acid, the stomach compensates by providing more acid.
Below I have outlined common ingredients in antacids and their effects on our body. Please read carefully through them. It is amazing that, especially if taken in large doses, antacids can be harmful to your health!
Aluminum salts: These salts interfere with the absorption of phosphates. This can lead to constipation, loss of appetite, weakness, and bone damage. Aluminum salts can aggravate patients with Alzheimer’s disease, kidney disease, those who are dehydrated, and those with certain bone disorders.
Calcium salts: In excess, calcium sales can cause constipation, urinary tract disorders, headaches, mood changes, muscles weakness, and nausea.
Sodium bicarbonate: This has a laxative effect. Sodium bicarbonate can also affect blood pressure and cause swollen feet and legs.
In addition, antacids can interfere with the absorption of vitamins and medication, especially antibiotics. Antacids that contain magnesium can be dangerous when given to people who have a kidney disease. It can also be dangerous for those who suffer from dehydration. I have read that antacids block the vitamin B12€¦the most vital vitamin for the human brain. Researchers believe that the lack of vitamin B12 in the brain may be one cause of Alzheimer’s disease.
If indeed you have osteoporosis or are at risk, or if you are a child, you should never take antacids. I am in the process of putting out 10 proven tips that will reduce your heartburn within a very short period of time. I too have suffered from years and years of agonizing heartburn and it is my pleasure to share these secrets to you. Until recently, I learned the truth about antacids and some proven methods of curing heartburn.
Let face it, if you are going to settle for treating heartburn instead of curing it, you’ll be wasting your money! This method of treatment will bring absolutely no long term effects and a possibility of esophagus cancer could occur. In our next newsletter, I will discuss 10 techniques to conquering heartburn.
Antacids are medications that increase the pH balance in your stomach. A number of symptoms, including heartburn, gastritis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), can be treated with them. In most cases, antacids start working within a few minutes. It is important to note that they may not always be necessary, and they can have serious consequences if used improperly.

Is Simethicone an Antacid?
Some antacids contain an ingredient called simethicone, a gastric defoaming agent that breaks up gas bubbles, making them easier to eliminate from your body.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says simethicone is safe and effective in combination with antacids for relief of intestinal gas associated with heartburn. Not all antacids contain simethicone.
If you are looking for relief of symptoms associated with gas, read the antacid’s label carefully to make sure it contains simethicone.
What Are Antacids Used For?
Antacids can be used to treat a number of common symptoms in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Some of these antacid uses include:
Indigestion
Gastritis
Heartburn
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD for short)
Peptic ulcer.
If antacids fail to relieve symptoms of any of these conditions within 10 to 15 minutes, or if symptoms are severe, you should visit your doctor.

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