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Once a Warrior-Always a Warrior Critical Essay

The book, “Once a Warrior–Always a Warrior” by Hoge gives an account of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) alongside other war reactions, which veterans, service members, government workers or contractor previously deployed in a war zone endure after coming back home.

Hoge was triggered to write this book so as to bridge the gap that exists between combat veterans, the society and mental health professionals in as far as comprehending PTSD is concerned.

Unfortunately, the medical definition of PTSD does not show any understanding of this disorder in the context of someone who has been through combat. It is misused to refer to any post-war behavioural problem like having failed relationships, being violent and getting in fights, or driving under the influence of alcohol.

PTSD is seen as a mental disorder but in actual sense, it is a physical condition that has a huge toll on the whole body and can be understood well via the developing science of stress physiology (describes the body’s normal response to extreme stress). Each person has a breaking point, which if reached leads to total exhaustion.

Veterans succumb to total physical and metal exhaustions since reaching the breaking point is inevitable in an event such as war. As objectively stated there is not sign of a mental condition in such an instance (xiii).

As Hoge writes, PTSD is associated with different meanings among different people. It is considered to be among the 300 diagnoses described in detail in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

It is defined based on a specific set of symptoms, which have been present for more than one month. It can be acute if the symptoms have lasted between 1 and 3 months and chronic if more than 3 months. If the symptoms begin six months after combat trauma, then this is known as delayed onset.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, warriors with delayed onset did experience some reactions that were similar to what the warriors experienced during the time of trauma but apparently suppressed them or avoided dealing with them. The clear-cut between the three categories of PTSD has not proved useful.

PTSD is defined by mental health professionals depending on the particular list of symptoms that prevail. Unfortunately, as earlier stated, it does not capture the full picture with regard to reactions to war. Neither does it distinguish between what is normal and what is abnormal within a military context. This is because PTSD is continuously confused with some normal reactions experienced by warriors/veterans during war.

Combat stress, acute stress reaction, post-traumatic stress and combat stress reaction are some other terms used to refer to PTSD. Medical professional also use these terms thereby creating confusion.

Combat and post-traumatic stresses are used to refer to less severe forms of distress or symptoms as compared with PTSD. They are not essential terms that could be used because they lack a clear definition.

A combat stress reaction/acute stress reaction/operational stress reaction is associated with being on a battlefield. It refers to the direct and immediate reaction to critical stress, exhaustion or trauma. It is a reflection of the point in time when a veteran reaches “breaking point” and requires time to shut down.

It can manifest itself in almost every form of physical symptom such as “chest pain, neurological symptoms, fatigue, shaking of the muscles, headaches, shortness of breath” or as behavioural reaction such as panic, bizarre behaviour, rage, inability to think clearly, agitation” (Hoge 1-2). This kind of stress reaction is not a mental disorder and is easily managed by rest and reassurance.

Some people perceive PTSD as a catchall phrase used to refer to the reactions of post-war veterans upon coming back home like shell shock and battle fatigue. PTSD is mainly closely linked to several reactions, emotions and perceptions, which do not form part of a neat diagnosis.

We will write a custom Essay on Once a Warrior-Always a Warrior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More PTSD has been contraindicated with concussions, being referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Most post-war veterans have been advised that their post-war problems like anger, fatigue, memory issues. PTSD symptoms, sleeplessness and poor concentration ability are due to medically unattended concussions that resulted from exposure to blasts.

PTSD among warriors can be a day-to-day experience where warriors are haunted by memories they eagerly desire to forget. Warriors are always alert as if they expect some form of danger that others are no aware of. They endure lack of sleep at night; react to stimuli as if they were still at war.

It becomes very arduous for a lay person to understand the behaviour of these post-war warriors. These kinds of reactions are very important during survival in combat and may be required later in future hence the title of the book, “Once a Warrior–Always a warrior”.

Therefore, to some extent they are normal in a certain environment. This notion in mind, it becomes difficult to define what is normal and what is not normal in this post-war context.

According to the book, PTSD is diagnosed on the basis of Axis I for DSM-IV. The essence of diagnosis is to enable the medical professional team to communicate in the same language hence, will be more confident while managing and treating a patient. Apparently, it has been easy to diagnose PTSD due to its uniqueness among other DSM disorders.

The uniqueness is attributed to the fact that it is explicitly linked to one or more traumatic event. While assessing for a diagnosis, medical professionals inquire about the nature of the trauma and symptoms.

When the trauma is considered to have resulted into the occurrence of the requisite number and nature of symptoms going for more than one month, then a PTSD diagnosis is made.

I would make a diagnosis of PTSD on the basis of Axis IV for the DSM-IV version. The reason why I make this diagnosis is because it has been attributed to psychosocial and environmental factors in this case war and responses adopted to enhance survival in times of war.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Once a Warrior-Always a Warrior by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main difference between the diagnosis made in the book and the one I have made is that the previous one is considered to be a clinical disorder while the later is not.

The diagnosis can be clarified by breaking down DSM definition of PTSD. This way, it will be evident that every symptom of PTSD develops as a result of the body’s response to serious stress or danger. Usually, six different criteria, A via F, and all must be met for the diagnosis to stand true.

Criterion A defines a trauma as an event that involves serious injury or death. The DSM diagnosis requires responses such as horror, intense fear or helplessness to result at the time of the trauma. There should be a sufficient number of symptoms: 17 in number.

Criterion B is where the patient experiences five different kinds of symptoms associated with re-experiencing the traumatic event. Criterion C is associated with symptoms depicting avoidance while criterion D entails five symptoms that suggest hyper-arousal (Hoge 12).

Some aspect of PTSD aroused my attention. Warriors in a war zone area have to develop survival tactics that enable them to make it through the war period. Some behaviours, as long as they are not harming other people cannot be considered to be abnormal.

For example, if a post-war veteran develops a strong desire to collect guns up to the highest acceptable level by law and does not intend to use the weapons in any evil way to harm others, Doctor Hoge does not consider this to be not abnormal despite the fact that other people consider abnormal.

It is no doubt that warriors/veterans have developed some peculiar behaviour while at war which may seem to be a deviation from the normal.

However, it is important for the loved ones and the warriors themselves to acknowledge the changes that have taken place so as to avoid the detrimental repercussions that come along with post-war effects hence avoid unpleasant surprises and shocks (Hoge xiv).

The book was published last year therefore there is no much difference between now and then. However, it has transverse across historic times like when referring to Iraq and Afghanistan battlefields which occurred in the mid twentieth century.

It has incorporated the enormous advances that have occurred to help in understanding PTSD better and this includes neurobiology and diagnosing, evaluating and treating the condition. Neurobiology research in relation to PTSD has involved numerous experiments to study animals upon being subjected to stress, and humans who have suffered trauma.

This advanced research has helped in bringing about a greater understanding of PTSD as a physiological condition rather than an emotional or psychological disorder. Based on this advanced neurobiology research, PTSD affects the whole body; the cardiovascular system, endocrine system as well as the immune system.

PTSD can lead to physical, emotional, behavioural, psychological and cognitive reactions, all of which have a physiological basis. The advanced findings have led to the development of new PTSD treatments like psychotherapy/talk therapy, as well as medications that target particular brain areas and body responses.

Works Cited Hoge, Charles W. Once a Warrior–Always a Warrior. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press, 2010.

Environmental Leadership Program (ELP) Research Paper

Nursing Assignment Help With the current innovative changes in information technology, there has been an equally significant change in the expectations, motivations, and emotions that drive individuals to greatness in their day-to-day activities.

As a result, studies note that when the emotional needs of workers are satisfied through various aspects of information technology such as social networking, enhanced interaction, and productivity tools, there is the need to change the existing leadership skills to accommodate the ever-changing work environment. This phenomenon of adjusting one’s leadership skills relative to different environmental requirements is better referred to as environmental leadership[1].

Accordingly, most psychologists note that each person has the potential to bring out different aspects of personal identity relative to various environmental needs by changing one’s emotional perceptions of a particular situation. Here, it is worth noting that environmental leaders are individuals who create avenues such as educational programs whereby other individuals get to satisfy their emotional needs by interacting with others.

Moreover, through such interpersonal interactions, people get to realize when and how they are bound to influence the emotional requirements of other people at a personal or team level[2].

As a result, environmental leadership entails creating a favorable environment within which individuals get to bring out their best through encouraging them at an individual and group level. Subsequently, environmental leadership promotes a culture, which inspires individuals to do what is best for the greatest number of the larger population.

Additionally, environmental leadership does not entail leading others to do what is required, but to develop environments that enable individuals to bring out certain skills and qualities, which support a large group of people to realize the end result[3].

While keeping the principles of environmental leadership in mind, this research paper reviews the activities of the Environmental Leadership Program (ELP), which is a group of professionals who train environmental leaders from diverse backgrounds, and encourage these leaders to pursue a common goal for the benefit of the community and the country as a whole.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Here, the essay looks at the effectiveness of ELP in articulating its goals and objectives by considering the program’s short- and long-term goals from a historical perspective.

The Environmental Leadership Program (ELP) began way back in 1997, and since then the group has remained committed to promoting environmental leadership in the environmental community. In a nutshell, ELP is an educational program aimed at training and instilling environmental leadership in persons drawn from diverse ethnic, professional, cultural, and geographic backgrounds.

ELP as a whole recognizes the linkage between leadership and relationships, and as a result, the program’s vision entails developing certain personal skills, which are very important in creating strong linkages or networks between diverse groups of people[4]. The end result of the program is thus influenced by the collective ability of the networks created between the participants.

Subsequently, ELP recognizes the role diversity plays in terms of influencing the successes or failures in public leadership. As a result, the program encourages the development of environmental leadership groups reflecting the country’s diversity besides encouraging the leaders to develop certain individual skills, which promote cohesion and reconciliation.

Furthermore, ELP encourages its members to take note of the fact that leadership at both environmental and community levels, entails professionalism whereby environmental leaders should be able to take calculated risks relative to complex situations[5].

With the guidance of the above-mentioned principles, ELP aims at developing a diverse community comprising of environmental leaders endowed with effective leadership skills, which enable them to work across professional, ethnic, cultural, and regional differences. The program’s top management includes an executive director, a board of trustees, and the advisory committee.

Under this framework, the program aims at training fresh environmental leaders with various attributes such as effective communication skills, innovation, diversity, and collaboration[6]. Here, the program targets eligible participants from different set-ups such as non-profit organizations, business communities, academia, and government institutions.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Environmental Leadership Program (ELP) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These participants are given training and learning opportunities, which allow them to develop or expand their leadership qualities through the fellowship program. Under the fellowship program, fresh leaders are linked with their senior fellows through various regional and national associations.

Furthermore, the new fellows are linked with senior fellows through interactive networks and other mentoring programs. Finally, the program content and elements are informed by the needs of the larger environmental communities, which require environmental leaders with relevant skills to deal with complex situations[7].

As a result, to satisfy the community’s requirements for environmental leaders, the fellowship program entails an annual selection of about 15-20 leaders, who are given training and learning opportunities at the regional level. Here, the participants are drawn from different professional and personal settings since the program aims at broadening diversity within the environmental leadership movement.

Another requirement for the program involves selection of fellows with at least ten years experience in different professional areas such as business, academia, non-governmental organizations, and government institutions. After selection, the fellows take part in a total of three overnight retreats for 11 days in a one year course.

Each of the three retreats is designed to instill different leadership skills and competencies, which include strength-based leadership, diversity, coalition building, and interpersonal communication[8].

Here, course assignments include development of individual leadership plans, which also serve as roadmaps in the fellow’s professional and personal career. Additionally, the training entails participating in networking workshops and bringing the fellows to work together in forums, events, and conferences addressing issues of public interest.

As a result, from the foregoing discussions, there is evidence to suggest that ELP offers the participants the opportunity to develop lifelong skills and competencies through collaborative peer support. Furthermore, after training, the fresh fellows graduate into senior fellows who can take part in training other leaders using online materials, events, partnerships, and other mentoring courses within ELP[9].

Using this approach, ELP fellows have achieved the program’s short-term goals, which include expanding the regional networks across the larger Delaware Valley including Eastern Pennsylvania, the Greater Boston region, Southern New Jersey, the Southeast regions, the New England states, and the Mid-Atlantic region. Conversely, ELP wishes to expand the program to a national level by designing unique training programs and networks suitable for all U.S. Territories[10].

Not sure if you can write a paper on Environmental Leadership Program (ELP) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Overall, the paper has presented an elaborate discussion regarding the Environmental Leadership Program in the Delaware Valley and the surrounding regions.

And from the foregoing discussions, it is worth noting that ELP is run by senior environmental leaders who have realized the need to satisfy different human insufficiencies by bringing persons with different skills and competencies together, and encouraging them to fight the common goal.

As noted earlier, an individual becomes satisfied emotionally upon interacting with other individuals in an environment favorable enough to encourage each individual to bring out his or her best.

As a result, the ELP program comprises of individuals drawn from diverse ethnic, professional, cultural, and regional set-ups. Thus, the idea of interlinking these people aims at creating an environment whereby every member of a particular group works towards achieving the common good for all regardless of their political, cultural, ethnic, or professional inclinations.

Reference List Carmazzi, Arthur F., “Environmental Leadership: The new leadership style of the not so distant future,” Directive Communication, n.d. Web.

Environmental Leadership Program, “Environmental leadership program: About us, fellowship program, news and events, and ELP all community retreat,” Environmental Leadership Program, n.d. Web.

Footnotes Arthur, Carmazzi F., “Environmental Leadership: The new leadership style of the not so distant future,” Directive Communication. Arthur, Carmazzi F., “Environmental Leadership.”

Arthur, Carmazzi F., “Environmental Leadership.”

Environmental Leadership Program, “Environmental leadership program: About us, fellowship program, news and events, and ELP all community retreat,” Environmental Leadership Program.

Environmental Leadership Program, “Environmental leadership program.”

Environmental Leadership Program, “Environmental leadership program.”

Environmental Leadership Program, “Environmental leadership program.”

Environmental Leadership Program, “Environmental leadership program.”

Environmental Leadership Program, “Environmental leadership program.”

Environmental Leadership Program, “Environmental leadership program.”

Environmental Leadership Program, “Environmental leadership program.”