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Neurological Disorder: Effects of Schizophrenia on the Brain and Behavior Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction

Behavioral Symptoms and Functional Deficits

Neurological Basis

Biological and Environmental Factors

Cognitive and Pharmacological Therapies

Prognosis for Schizophrenics



Introduction Human beings have been faced with numerous psychological and neurological disorders for as long as they have existed. According to Robins and Regier, a number of these diseases and disorders do alter the normal functioning of the body system particularly the brain (1999). The manifestation of the diseases and disorders are usually through abnormal behavioral orientations and related mental symptoms.

Psychiatric disorders, as defined by Salters-Pedneault, refers to any behavioral or mental/cognitive symptoms that cause a person to be very distressed, the individual may be paralyzed in one way or another thus making him/her very much exposed to various disabilities, pain, and may sometimes cause death (2009). However, all these manifestations need to be experienced by an individual for a period not less than two weeks in order to be categorized as a psychiatric disorder.

It is important to note that temporary mental states such as grief resulting from the loss of a relative or a close friend may not be considered psychiatric in nature. The research paper discusses schizophrenia as a neurological disorder.

Behavioral Symptoms and Functional Deficits Schizophrenia has been known as one of the most common neurological disorders especially in the United States. This disorder is highly chronic, harsh, and with the capability of paralyzing the victims brain and hence cognitive abilities. An individual suffering from the disorder usually develops improper perception of reality.

According to Salters-Pedneault (2009), it is normally associated with auditory delusions or hallucinations, distorted thinking as well as talking patterns, and a general dysfunction in the social and occupational dimensions of everyday life. Furthermore, a schizophrenic normally exhibits notable cognitive deficits like memory loss, asocial characteristics, and a general lack of concern.

For individuals prone to develop the disorder, the early stages of adulthood are usually associated with the commencement of schizophrenia. Most significantly, schizophrenia may only be detected by the use of personal experiences and observable behavior of the victim due to the fact that laboratory testing has not yet been developed.

Neurological Basis A number of theories to explain schizophrenia as a disorder have been put forward. In general, according to research findings by Robins and Regier, an individual’s genetic composition as well as the environment that one is brought up in and related neurological factors has been associated with the onset of schizophrenia (1999).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A neurological basis of this disorder may be linked to a disproportion of the neurotransmitters (chemicals in the brain) and brain-structure distortion. Neurological researchers have found that too much neurotransmitter dopamine, glutamate, amino-butyric acid, serotonin, among others may be associated with schizophrenia disorder. Many research findings reveal that the actual causes of schizophrenic characteristics have not been established yet (Gattaz

Father-son Relationship In The Odyssey by Homer Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction

The relationship


Works Cited

Introduction In Homer’s most famous epic poem, “The Odyssey” there is certain facts that are obvious to the reader about the nature of a father –son relationship. For instance, that the structure and the organization of the Greeks was patriarchal (Caldwell 40). The men were highly respected especially those that were strong and courageous. Their sons were mostly prized too if they exhibited their father’s achievements and skills.

In Odyssey therefore, it is expected that the relationship of Odysseus and Telemachus is as admiring as it is; the father is proud of his son, who is courageous and the son is proud of his father who has earned a reputation as a warrior who defended his territory bravely.

However, it is surprisingly that distance earned the father –son affection. A son must earn his father’s respect and it is by leaving home and fighting his own battles that a son is able to achieve this. Through distance, a son and a father establish their share of beliefs and values but not through direct contact

The relationship In the Odyssey, the father and the son spend most of their time apart and it is through distance that they developed admiration and love for each other. The physical distance between the father and the son is vital and cements their relationship. The father created the distance by being far from home for twenty years.

His son then decided to go on a journey and look for him. It is through this journey that Telemachus is able to prove his worth. Blazina says that there is unique bond between Odysseus and his son Telemachus “desired to connect all along” (285) and the distance strengthens this bond and proves their achievements.

Telemachus went and faced the king when he was enquiring on his father’s whereabouts as explained in the most important quotes from the Odyssey, “to see lord Menelaus…There face-to-face [to] implore father’s whereabouts” (Homer 52).

There is also the connection of emotion when the father and the son meet, “salt tears rose from the wells of longing in both men…./So helpless they cried pouring out tears” (Homer 268). The distance allowed the father and the son to develop a strong bond and feelings towards each other.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In respect to the distance that existed between the father and the son, Telemachus discovered his father in him. Through Telemachus victory, Odysseus saw himself in his son. There are some secrets, not pronounced in fathers that appear in their sons. The father is similar to his son and the vice versa is true. Some aspects and values that fathers and sons share define them.

These values are in The Odysseys by Homer to help shape father- son relationship. According to Homer there are characteristics, “that a son must be willing to do anything for his father, whether it is avenging him or keeping a secret for him (49).” Through these believes and values, the father and son establishes a solid relationship where every one looks after the other.

With this sense of responsibility to look after one another, the sons will always avenge their fathers from any humiliation. When Telemachus went enquiring from the king about his father the king told him of Orestes and what he did to the man who murdered his father. Nestor says, “… you’ve heard of Agamemnon – how he came… how Aigisthos waited to destroy him…paid a bitter price for it in the end… that is a good thing…a son behind him… (Homer 41).

Further Research Which excerpt from part 2 of the Odyssey best supports the conclusion that Odysseus is clever? 5 238 Which excerpt from the Odyssey demonstrates the importance of hospitality in Greek society? 5 143 What Excerpt from Part 2 of the Odyssey Best Establishes Odysseus’s Weakness? 5 461 Which Greek values are found in The Odyssey? 5 487 Why The Odyssey is an epic poem? 5 38 In the Odyssey – Amphimedon, what motivates Odysseus to dress as a beggar? 5 144 According to Homer every man should have a son that would avenge for him when he his gone. A son should look at his father as his greatest father and uphold him in his highest esteem. The father on the other hand should protect his son from any harm. Odysseus would do anything to protect his son from any danger. He was gone for twenty years but when he returned Odysseus made sure that he protected his son.

He attacked all the suitors who disturbed his son saying, “You yellow dogs, you thought I’d never make it/you took my house to plunder…You dared bid for my wife while I was still alive…Your last hour has come. You die in blood” (Homer 410) He made sure that he put them to death because that what they deserved for disturbing his son.

Conclusion In conclusion, the relationship between a father and his son is strong bond that cannot be broken. It is usually internal as expressed in the Odyssey. It is stipulated clearly that a father will go to any limits to protect his son and with the same measure; a son will protect his father.

However, the quality of this relationship is determined through the distance between the two. As aforementioned, a worth of a man develops by fighting and winning own battles. Odysseus won his battle just like Telemachus and each saw himself through the lenses of victory of the other and their relationship grew stronger every day.

We will write a custom Essay on Father-son Relationship In The Odyssey by Homer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Blazina, Chis. “Mythos and Men: Toward New Paradigms of Masculinity.” The Journal Of Men’s Studies 5.4 (1997): 285-294.

Caldwell, Richard. The Origin of the Gods: A Psychoanalytic Study of Greek Theogonic Myth, 1993. New York: Oxford University Press.

Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. W. H. D. Rouse. New York: Signet Classics, 1999.