Bacteria are single celled microorganisms, that don’t have a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Bacteria cells have many properties. They consist mainly of; ribosomes, flagella, cell wall made of peptidoglycan, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic membrane, and nucleoid. Bacteria can either live independently or dependently requiring another living organism to keep it alive. There are two types of bacteria: – anaerobic (does not requiring oxygen for growth) and aerobic (requires oxygen for growth). Anaerobes use glycolysis for energy, while aerobes use cellular respiration. ‘Oxygen can actually be rather toxic, and for a cell to be able to use molecular oxygen, it must be able to manufacture specific enzymes that detoxify oxygen waste products,'(1).
Bacteria spread by dividing. They can multiply at a rate of: – doubling ever 20min if the conditions are ideal. Most bacteria prefer an optimal temperature of about 37°C.
The temperature of the human body is around 37°C, and this is why bacteria usually thrive on the human body. Consequently it is important to have products that will contain and destroy unnecessary bacteria.
(1)http://microbiology.suite101.com/article.cfm/difference_between_aerobic_anaerobic_bacteria (Tami Port, 2009)
Serratia marcescens is a pathogenic, anaerobic bacterium. Serratia Marcescens comes from the bacteria family enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria has a pH of 5-9, and can grow within temperatures of 5-40ï‚°c but its optimal temperature ranges between 30-35ï‚°c. Being anaerobic it uses glycolysis for its energy. Glycolysis in the cytoplasm rapidly breaks down glucose molecules into two pyruvate ions (pyruvic acid), which create two to four ATP molecules.
Serratia marcescens usually ranges between dark red to pale pink in colour, as it has a pigment called prodigiosin. It has a cell shape of bacillus, and the gram stain is negative. Negative meaning it has an additional outer membrane containing lipids.
Serratia spreads by direct contact. The bacteria is usually associated with; urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, meningitis and arthritis. Its natural habitat usually occurs in soil water, and intestines.
http://www.bacteriamuseum.org/cms/Pathogenic-Bacteria/pathogenic-bacteria.html (Dr. T. M. Wassenaar, 2009)
Heinemann Queensland science project, Biology a contextual approach text book, (Maggie spenceley, Barbra Weller, Margaret Mason, Katharine Fullerton, Chris Tsilemanis, Barbra Evans, Pauline Ladiges, John McKenzie, Phil Batterham, 2004)
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/228495-overview, (Basilio J Anía, 2009)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serratia_marcescens, Hejazi A, Falkiner FR (1997). “Serratia marcescens”. J Med Microbiol
Tea tree oil History
Tea tree oil was first used by indigenous people thousands of years ago. They used the tea tree leaves by crushing them and applying them to wounds and cuts. They also inhaled the oil for respiratory tract infections and to ease congestion.
Tea tree oil was discovered scientifically in 1923, by Arthur Penfold. The oil is obtained by the stem distillation of leaves of Melaleuca aternfolia, a native plant to Australia. Penfold tested the oil and discovered that its antiseptic properties were about 12 times stronger than carbolic acid, which was widely used.
During World War II tea tree oil was distributed to Australian soldiers in their first aid kits, as it was considered as a near perfect antiseptic. Throughout the war the oil was acclaimed for its insect repellent and anti-fungal properties.
Tea tree oil has been tested by many Australian researchers and scientists, and has been proven to work better than some commercially available antibiotics.
Heart Failure: Physiological Basis of Treatments
Heart failure is a clinical complex syndrome of symptoms and signs resulting from any structural or functional cardiac disorder. Untreated it has a poor prognosis, but this can be improved considerably with early and optimal treatment.(1) The most common causes of heart failure in our country is coronary artery disease (CAD) and non-ischemic causes of systolic dysfunction and may have an identifiable cause (e.g., hypertension (HT), valvular disease, myocardial toxins, or myocarditis) or may have no prominent cause (e.g., idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy).Patients with HF are almost equally divided into those with impairment of left ventricular blood ejection (systolic dysfunction) those with preserved ejection fraction(EF) and impairment of the tendency of the ventricle to fill with (diastolic dysfunction). The result of either type of HF is decreased cardiac output (CO). Less blood is pumped from the heart to the body. Decreased CO also can lead to decreased blood pressure (BP). Although the systolic function is reduced or not, most of the current evidence on drug treatment is for HF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The cardiac manifestations of HF are dyspnea and fatigue, which may reduce exercise ability, and fluid accumulation, which may cause to pulmonary (fluid backing up in the lungs) and peripheral edema. The classification system that is most commonly used to quantify the amount of functional limitation assumed by HF is presented. This system divide patients to 1 of 4 functional classes depending on the degree of effort needed to elicit symptoms, only at levels that would limit normal individuals (class I), on ordinary exertion (class II), on less-than-ordinary exertion (class III), patients might have features of HF at rest (class IV). But functional classification reflects the subjective assessment of physician and patient.(1,2) The principal manifestation of the HF such progression is a process known as remodeling which occurs as a homeostatic attempt to decrease wall stress, through increases in wall thickness. This ultimately results in a change in the geometry of the left ventricle (LV) such that the chamber dilates, hypertrophies, and becomes more spherical. The process of cardiac remodeling generally precedes the development of symptoms. The process of remodeling continues after the appearance of symptoms and may contribute importantly to worsening of symptoms despite treatment. Heart failure is a very common disease that can have a high death rate. Despite advancements in treatment, the death rate has been increasing. Therefore, understanding the disease mechanism and its progression, common causes, risk factors, signs and symptoms, and treatments are very important.
DEFINITION A state in which heart fails to maintain an adequate circulation (CO) for the needs of body, despite a satisfactory venous filling (VF) pressure.( by definition excludes those condition in which the CO is low due to decreased venous filling pressure like in hypo volaemic shock condition)
Classifications Acute and chronic HF
Left ventricular, right ventricular