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Myocardial Infarction Case Study

Bree Dela Rosa
Case Study #1 M.I. Soon is a construction worker and is 44 years old. He has a family history of heart diseases and is trying to stop smoking. He had his first myocardial infarction, and his physician prescribed him a medication called a beta blocker. He completes the inpatient cardiac rehabilitation a little over a week ago, and the doctor and wife are recommending that M.I. Soon to seek a fitness facility. His resting heart rate (RHR) is 78 beats per minute (bpm) with a max heart rate of 132 and blood pressure of 136/82 mmHg. M.I. Soon has never exercised before and he regularly eats fast food such as McDonald’s, Burger King, etc. for lunch. He believes he has enough exercise from working, as he states, “Hey, I work hard all day, isn’t that enough!”. M.I. Soon regularly stops on the way home to the tavern with some friends to grab a couple of drinks.
Introduction Myocardial Infarction (MI) is one of the common heart disorders considered to be severely fatal. In many cases, this condition requires control and prevention of atheroma as a way of preventing MI. Development of coronary occlusion is the initial presentation of atheroma, which leads to myocardial infarction. Early diagnosis has helped many patients avoid severe consequences of the condition. The initial management is to restore the perfusion in the affected myocardium. To accomplish this, various approaches must be instituted as discussed below. As such, public education is necessary for making people understand the need for early diagnosis.
Goals
Short Term (1-4 weeks)
Go for a 30-minute walk in the morning before work or with his wife or after his lunch once once a day for 2 weeks.
Educate him to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as the number of cold ones.
Exercise to lose a pound weekly with a combination of moderate intensity exercise and strength training.
Long Term (3months-6months)
Maintain an optimal blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg.
To increase the strength and intensity of the exercise as time goes, METs > 8.
Burn between 1,800 – 2,000 kcals each week after the training period and eating less high saturated food, which will help lower blood pressure and improve cholesterol and blood sugar.
Recommendations for Fitting Workouts into schedule
This exercise will be incorporated into the schedule during the day.
The patient will do the workout in the morning before any activity.
Exercise shall be done in parts whenever there is time constraint such as 10 minutes of the stationary bike or treadmill in the morning before work and 15 minutes after work.
It is advisable to create time for the gym every day.
Reasons for frequency of aerobic
Everyday exercise is best because the patient has a lot of free time.
Due to the state of cardiovascular, aerobic exercise is more important than resistance training.
Reasons for frequency
In the initial two weeks, two bouts of resistance training will help in improving muscle strength in the patient.
Two sessions will help him keep normal muscle strength and to avoid soreness during aerobic exercise.
Static stretches done every day during cool down exercises will help in maintaining flexibility.
Exercise Prescription and Justifications Week 1
Monday
Warm up exercise (5 mins / 5.0 METS)
Myocardial infarction patients should start their regular exercises with warm up exercises to make themselves used to exercise. This must be done on the treadmill at a gradient of 0 degrees and a low speed of 2 mph.
Reason
This exercise helps in increasing the body temperature and especially of the muscle in preparation for better performance in following exercises.
The warm up exercise also excites the sympathetic nervous system, which improves the performance during the exercise.
Treadmill exercise (30 min / 8.0 METS)
This exercise is slightly moderate 20-minute walks at a speed of 2.5 mph at a gradient of 3 degrees. Remember to slow down between the two bouts for 5 minutes.

Reasons
Since it’s the first treadmill exercise for him, the patient must complete the exercise to develop the habit and to keep him out of undesirable habits such as drinking.
Cooldown Exercise (8 mins / 5.0 METs)
The gradient will be set back to 0 degrees and a speed of 2 mph for 8 minutes before stepping out of the treadmill. Additionally, the patient will have to sit at a V shape and stretch in the middle from left to right.
Reasons
This exercise will facilitate the transition from active sympathetic nervous system to parasympathetic for recovery from the strenuous exercise for 4 minutes.
Butterfly Stretch (2 Minutes / 2.5 METs)
Sit on the floor with legs spread out in a V position, towards the middle reach as far as you can with both arms out and hold for 30 seconds and, then towards the left and right left for 30 seconds.

Reasons
This cooldown exercise will also help in eradicating the lactic acid buildup with the view of preventing muscle soreness.
Wednesday
Warm up exercise (10 mins / 5.0 METS)
Put the treadmill at a gradient of 0 degrees and a low speed of 1.9 mph.

Reasons:
This exercise helps in increasing the body temperature and especially of the muscle in preparation for better performance in following exercises.
The warm up exercise also excites the sympathetic nervous system, which improves the performance during the training.
Exercises
Leg Swings (10 Min / 3.0 METS)
Swing the leg horizontally at 90 degrees while keeping the torso straight. Do this ten times then changing to another leg for ten minutes. Simply make yourself stable and swing your legs until the end of 10 minutes as demonstrated in the image below.

Reasons
This exercise will help stretch and warm the leg muscles in preparedness for following exercises.
Will warm up the muscle in preparation for further exercise.
Walking Knee Hugs (10 min / 4.0 METS)
This exercise will require stepping and lift the knee closer to the chest while keeping the back straight. Do both legs and monitor time with your phone, stopwatch, and or clock until the end of ten minutes while maintaining the balance as shown in the picture below.

Reason
To help the patient with balance during exercise.
This will also assist in warming up the muscles before the following training.
Cooldown Exercise (8 mins / 5.0 METs)
Side Lunge (4 Minutes / 3.0 METS)
Stand up straight with your feet shoulder width apart. Have your hands placed on your waist. Step out to one side to push your thigh until you feel a “pull” on your muscle, hold for 30 seconds each side.
Reason
This will help the patient warm up his muscles and gain balance on both feet increase body temperature and raise the level of intensity in exercise performance.
The patient will also be able to stretch his muscles moderately.
Hip flexor stretch (3 minutes / 2.5 METs)
Do the exercise with one knee on the ground and the other knee raised with foot on the ground. Make sure you slightly shift weight to the front leg while keeping torso straight and arm of down knee extended upwards as shown below. Hold each side for 30 seconds and do two sets each.

Reasons
To facilitate the active transition exercise to recovery.
To promote removal of lactate to decrease immediate muscle soreness.
Butterfly Stretch (2 minutes / 2.5 METs)
Sit on the floor with legs spread out in a V position, towards the middle reach as far as you can with both arms out and hold for 30 seconds and, then towards the left and right left for 30 seconds.

Reasons
This cooldown exercise will also help in eradicating the lactic acid buildup with the view of preventing muscle soreness.
Hamstring Stretch (3 minutes / 2.5 METs)
Lying on your back in an 180-degree angle and keep your back straight. Your hips should be level with your lower back on the floor. Slowly bend your knees towards your chest, and keep your left leg extended on the floor.

Reasons
Slowly bending your knees towards your chest, keep your dominant leg extended until you feel a mild discomfort from the stretch.
Friday
Warm up exercise (10 mins / 5.0 METS)
Treadmill at a gradient of 0 degrees and a low speed of 2 mph.

Reasons
This exercise helps in increasing the body temperature and especially of the muscle in preparation for better performance in following exercises.
The warm up exercise also excites the sympathetic nervous system, which improves the performance during the exercise.
Exercise Treadmill Walking (40 minutes / 8.0 METS)
Walk on the treadmill for two bouts of 15 minutes at 2.5 mph at 3% grade. Between bouts remove back to 0% grade and walk at a comfortable rate at 2 mph for 5 minutes.

Reasons for duration
I gave him two 15 minute bouts because it is her first day of the exercise program and I wanted her to be able to complete the task to increase confidence. The 5-minute rest between bouts I believe is sufficient to make sure he can complete the full duration of exercise.
Reasons for mode
The treadmill is very easy to adjust so that the client can set it to the particular speed and grade I have instructed to work at. I want her mode of exercise to require little thought since she may already feel uncomfortable in a gym setting because of her inexperience.
The treadmill is a type An exercise, so it does not require much skill to use for someone inexperienced with exercise.
Reasons for intensity (RPE)
The Relative Perceived Exertion (RPE) for M.I. Soon should be <10. For the exercise to be effective it should be a routine; whereby, every day he should take 30 minutes to do the exercise.
For the exercise to be effective it should be a routine; whereby, every day he should take 30 minutes to do the exercise. This is done to increase the level of calories lost within a week and help the individual adapt to the exercises as a lifestyle.
Cooldown (8 mins)
Treadmill (6 minutes / 5.0 METs)
The gradient will be set back to 0 degrees and a speed of 1.9 mph for 8 minutes before stepping out of the treadmill. Additionally, the patient will have to sit at a V shape and stretch in the middle from left to right.
Reasons
This exercise will facilitate the transition from active sympathetic nervous system to parasympathetic for recovery from the strenuous exercise for 4 minutes.
Butterfly Stretch (2 Minutes / 2.5 METs)

Reasons
Sit on the floor with legs spread out in a V position, towards the middle reach as far as you can with both arms out and hold for 30 seconds and, then towards the left and right left for 30 seconds.
This cooldown exercise will also help in eradicating the lactic acid buildup with the view of preventing muscle soreness.
WEEK 2
Monday
Warm up (10 minutes / 5.0 METS)
Stationary bike with zero resistance at comfortable speed for 5 minutes.

Reasons
To increase the temperature of muscle to perform better during exercise.
To activate the sympathetic nervous system to improve exercise performance.
Exercise (35min / 7.0 METS):
Use the stationary bike for two bouts of 15 minutes with a resistance of between 284kgm/min (50 Watts) and 406kgm/min (68 Watts). Between bouts, remove resistance and pedal at a comfortable pace for 5 minutes before beginning next bout.
Reasons for duration
Transitioning from the treadmill from week one to a stationary bike I am starting M.I. soon with 15 minute bouts to adjust and complete the exercise with confidence.
I want to give him 5 minute rests in-between to make sure there is not a lot of stress and that he receives enough intake of water so he can complete the exercise.
Reasons for mode
I chose the stationary bike for his form of exercise since it safe for a sedentary and obese individual with little or no experience of exercise.
The stationary bike is effective and useful for people who have never exercised before or who exercise a little.
Reasons for intensity (RPE)
The Relative Perceived Exertion (RPE) for M.I. Soon should be <10. For the exercise to be effective it should be a routine; whereby, every day he should take 30 minutes to do the exercise.
For the exercise to be effective it should be a routine; whereby, every day he should take 30 minutes to do the exercise. This is done to increase the level of calories lost within a week and help the individual adapt to the exercises as a lifestyle.
Cooldown (8 mins)
Stationary Bike (5 minutes)
With no resistance peddle for around 5 minutes and then get off to proceed to stretches.

Hamstring Stretch (3 minutes / 2.5 METs)
Lie on your back with your legs extended in an 180-degree angle and keep your back straight. Your hips should be level with your lower back on the floor. Slowly bend your knees towards your chest, and keep your left leg extended on the floor.

Reasons
Stretch to the point of mild discomfort but not to the point of feeling discomfort or pain.
Wednesday
Warm Up
Warm up (10 minutes / 5.0 METS)
Stationary bike with zero resistance at a comfortable speed for 5 minutes.

Reasons
To increase the temperature of muscle to perform better during exercise.
To activate the sympathetic nervous system to improve exercise performance.
Exercise (35 Minutes / 8.0 METS)
Use the stationary bike for two bouts of 15 minutes with a resistance of between 284kgm/min (50 Watts) and 406kgm/min (68 Watts). Between bouts, remove resistance and pedal at a comfortable pace for 5 minutes before beginning next bout.

Reasons
Less stress on joints
Help reduce the mechanical stress, on back, hips, and ankles even when compared to walking.You can indulge in daily exercise with a lower risk of injury.
Cool Down (8 minutes)
Stationary Bike (6 minutes / 5.0 METs)
Remove resistance and peddle for around 6 minutes and then get off to proceed to stretches.

Butterfly Stretch (2 Minutes / 2.5 METs)
Sit on the floor with legs spread out in a V position, towards the middle reach as far as you can with both arms out and hold for 30 seconds and, then towards the left and right left for 30 seconds.
Reasons
This cooldown exercise will also help in eradicating the lactic acid buildup with the view of preventing muscle soreness.
Day 3 Friday
Warm up exercise (5 mins / 5.0 METS)
Myocardial infarction patients should start their regular exercises with warm up exercises to make themselves used to exercise. This must be done on the treadmill at a gradient of 0 degrees and a low speed of 1.9 – 2 mph.

Reason
This exercise helps in increasing the body temperature and especially of the muscle in preparation for better performance in following exercises.
The warm up exercise also excites the sympathetic nervous system, which improves the performance during the exercise.
Treadmill exercise (30 min / 7.0 METS)
This exercise is slightly strenuous as it takes 20 separate 20-minute walks at a speed of 2.5 mph at a gradient of 3 degrees. Remember to slow down between the two bouts for 5 minutes.

Reasons
Since it’s the first treadmill exercise for him, the patient must complete the exercise to develop the habit and to keep him out of undesirable habits such as drinking.
Cooldown (8 Minutes)
Treadmill (6 minutes / 5.0 METs)
The gradient will be set back to 0 degrees and a speed of 1.9 mph for 8 minutes before stepping out of the treadmill. Additionally, the patient must sit at a V shape and stretch in the middle from left to right.
Reasons
This exercise will facilitate the transition from active sympathetic nervous system to parasympathetic for recovery from the strenuous exercise for 4 minutes.
Hip flexor stretch (2minutes / 2.5 METs)
Do the exercise with one knee on the ground and the other knee raised with foot on the ground. Make sure you slightly shift weight to the front leg while keeping torso straight and arm of down knee extended upwards as shown below. Hold each side for 30 seconds and do two sets each.

Reasons
To facilitate the active transition exercise to recovery.
To promote removal of lactate to decrease immediate muscle soreness.
Strength and Conditioning Week 1 (Repeat the following week)
Monday, Wednesday, Friday
Lat pull downs (5 minutes / 3.0 METs)
Ten repetitions of 25 pounds the first week, then the second week increase the weights by 5 pounds with a weight that is equivalent to a 3 or 4 rating on the RPE scale. Pull with arms starting fully extended until the bar is just below neck height in a controlled rhythm. When you begin this, take it slow. If you are feeling chest pain, stop the exercise as with all the strength exercises provided.

Lateral Band Walk (5 Minutes / 3.0 METs)
Place your feet shoulder width apart to create tension inbetween the bands. Form a 60 degree squat position, and shift your weight to the right side, steping sideways take 10-12 steps before heading back to the start postion and do the same on the left side.

Shoulder Press (5 Minutes / 4.0 METs)
Hold a 10 lb (this is the start) dumbbell in each hand and sit on a bench with back support, plant both feet on the ground, bend your elbows down to your ear and lift back up. Remember not to hold your breath when performing this exercise, take it slow and go at your pace.

Leg Press (5 Minutes / 3.0 METs)
Set the leg press weight at 50 lbs. Leg and torso should be at a 90-degree angle. As you go down breathe in and out slowly push down until your legs make another 90-degree angle and push back up in start position.

Reasons for exercises
These exercises are a combination of lower body and upper body that are doable that can be done with inexpensive equipment at home or the gym facility.
These are appropriate exercises for someone who is not used to strength training, regardless of job description, these are easy to follow, and they are not confusing or difficult for someone who is inexperienced
These exercises also target large and small muscle groups that will help with his balance.
Reasons for repetitions
Lifting in a rhythmic and full range in motion
I chose for the exercises to be ten repetitions of lighter weights for M.I. to adjust to the movement and patterns to develop technique and consistency.
He will gain muscular strength, lean body mass, endurance, and insulin sensitivity.
I highly remind and advise him each exercise session to not hold his breath while he is performing any of the strength exercises since it will increase the pressure in his chest by placing a greater workload on his heart.
Reasons for Strength or “Resistance.”
I chose a moderate level of intensity because I want M.I. Soon to adapt to the strength and conditioning training and not make him too sore.
5 minutes for each exercise will allow M.I. Soon to finish all the reps I suggested. I do not want him to feel in denial with the exercise demand, but I want him to accept the purpose of exercise and the benefits.
Cooldown (8 Minutes)
Treadmill (6 minutes / 5.0 METs)
The gradient will be set to 0 degrees and a speed of 2 mph for 6 minutes before stepping out of the treadmill.

Butterfly Stretch (2 Minutes / 2.5 METs)
Sit on the floor with legs spread out in a V position, towards the middle reach as far as you can with both arms out and hold for 30 seconds and, then towards the left and right left for 30 seconds.
Quad stretch on side (2 minutes / 2.5 METs)
Standing up grab or chair or find a pole to stand next to and lift your left leg back until you feel this “pull” in the muscle, and repeat for the right leg.

Reasons for Cooldown:
This cooldown exercises will also help in eradicating the lactic acid buildup with the view of preventing muscle soreness.
This exercise will facilitate the transition from active sympathetic nervous system to parasympathetic for recovery from the strenuous exercise.
Education and Risk Factor Management It is important for you to understand that the type of diet you take determines your risk of exposure to further heart complications. The point is, different food contents have different nutrients. Always remember that fast food may be affordable and presumably convenient, but it contains a lot of saturated fat, calories, and sodium. For this reason, with the Myocardial infarction, you should modify your frequency of fast food consumption. There may not be specific patterns on how to take fast food, but I recommend that you don’t eat it very often. Alcohol, on the other hand, may be recommended by researchers but the exact amount has not been agreed on yet (Frederico et al., 2009). Therefore, my recommendation is that you take not more that 14 alcohol units in one week and the units should not exceed four in a single day. Also, please ensure that you have at least two days that you do not consume it. The bottom line is that moderate and habitual alcohol consumption lowers the risk of heart-related disorders. However, sometimes the short-term consequence is that it may cause sudden cardiac death.
I recommend that you refrain from smoking because it increases the chances of heart diseases infections. This is because it contributes to the fatty conditions in the coronary system. Also, be informed that the tobacco chemicals will damage your heart cells and expose you to atherosclerosis, a condition that affects the functioning of the heart and blood cells in the body (Antman, 2007). With your MI, smoking cigarettes will worsen your condition because the tobacco chemicals have the ability to weaken the resilience of the cardiovascular system and thus heighten the chances of succumbing. You should, therefore, avoid smoking at all costs to reduce the likelihood of recurring and causing more damage to the heart and other cardiovascular organs and vessels. If you find it hard to stop smoking, it would be wise to see a doctor or a practice nurse. By doing so, you will get help and advice on the how to make use of the nicotine replacement therapy.
The best medication to improve your health is the Beta-blocker due to the following reasons. First, they are drugs that will enhance your outlook. These drugs are believed to prevent vertical hemorrhage in patients who have cirrhosis and heart conditions. It is worth noting that the body has a way of responding to increased stress caused by heart attack or unstable angina. What it does is, it increases the heart rate as well as the blood pressure. Therefore, beta-blockers are good for you because they will reduce both the heart rate and its workload. You should take these drugs as soon as you your heart condition are identified. However, to increase efficiency, they can be taken together with an ACE inhibitor and sometimes a statin. The American Heart Association has recommended treatment using Beta-blockers. It has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality as compared to other therapies. Moreover, the management of obesity would be useful in preventing the reoccurrence of myocardial infarction (Ades, Savage

Impact of Non Native Insects on Agricultural Ecosystems

Subject
Using examples, describe how invasive, non-native insects can affect agricultural ecosystems and “wild” ecosystems in areas outside their native range
Abstract
The global climate is changing rapidly and this trend is expected to continue throughout and beyond the 21st century. Rising temperatures as well as new precipitation patterns are toady affecting different aspects of natural world and human society worldwide. Indeed, we are experiencing many changes as a result of climate change in the ecosystems on an astonishingly pace and scale. Non-native species are thought to be of greatest threats as a result of the current global warming. There are almost approximately two thousand established invasive species in Britain. Indeed, the factor of non-native species cost Great Britain approximately £1.7 billion annually. As each species have their way of responding to these changes in environment, its interactions with the physical world as well as the organism around it change too. This causes a cascade of influence within the entire ecosystem. In fact, such influence can lead to a spreading out of species into new areas, interaction of different species to a point of species extinctions. This paper aims to examine and describe with examples how invasive or non-native insects can impact agriculture ecosystems and wild ecosystems in areas outside their naive range.
Non-native insects also referred as exotic, non-indigenous, alien, or introductions are insects introduced to new areas or living outside their native distribution range as a result of human activities, either deliberate or accidental. According to Krueger and May (1991) non native species can be described as the transfer of different organisms outside their native range. Different type of animals have been transferred or transported to different locations as a result of different means and introduced into new areas for many years. Many of these introductions have been both accidental and intentional, however, many have not. For intentional, the primary reason is for agriculture or livestock production such as domesticated cattle, honeybees, goats, swine etc.
Invasive species either large or small have devastating impact on agricultural ecosystem and wild ecosystem in areas outside their native range. According to Schowalter and Whitmore (2002) invasive insects are one of the major threats to native wildlife and other plantations worldwide. In fact, approximately 42 percent of endangered or threatened species are at risk mainly as a result of invasive species. Agricultural ecosystems are also at high risk from invasive species. The effect of invasive insects on our agricultural products cost billions of dollars annually.
An invasive species are many type of living organism-an amphibian, insects, plant, bacteria, fungus or eggs that are not native to an ecosystem and has the potential to cause harm to the environment. However, for the purpose of this paper, we shall examine the species insect as the invasion species. Insects in non-native areas have the potential to harm the environment especially the agricultural ecosystem. They do grow and reproduce rapidly and hence spread in a hostile way, with the potential to cause harm and thus, they are labeled as “invasive”.
It is important to understand that invasive insects might not come from a different country.
According to Wittenberg and Cock (2001), invasive species such as insects pose great threat on biodiversity across the globe. However, insects from a large part of the invasion fauna across the globe appears to have received excessively less attention regarding their impact on the agricultural and wild ecosystem compared to aquatic or vertebrate organisms (Levine et al. 2003; Long 2003). Nevertheless, according to Jenkins (2003) through direct interactions, invasive insects have the potential to affect native biodiversity, for instance, a herbivore feeding on a native plant that wild animals are supposed to feed on. Evans (2006) note that the migration of insects to a new location has the potential to attack native prey or host. Additionally, invasive insects has the potential to affect native species as well as ecosystems indirectly through cascading impacts or other several mechanism such as the spread of diseases, competing for space and food (NRC, 2002).
Invasive insects can particularly be harmful to native plants populations. Nevertheless, many publications examining ecological impacts of non-native insects do not appropriately quantify these effects. However, the most documented effects on invasive species are undoubtedly these caused by insects on agriculture and wild ecosystems. According to Mallet (2005) hybridization between native ecosystems and invasive insects is a major concern as a result of disturbances that can produce in native genetic resources. Indeed, hybridization has been established in plants and in many cases has continued to show a negative effect on native species (Long 2003).
In particular, North America has been largely been affected by invasive insects that are said to originate from Europe. For instance, the balsam woolly adelgid, A. piceae, (pictured below 1) as well as the hemlock wooly adelgid, A. tsugae, are said to pose threat to forest ecosystems in Northern America through killing Fraser fir and Carolina hemlock, Tsuga Canadensis on a large scale (Small et al. 2005). As shown in image 2 below:

Image 1: balsam woolly adelgid, A. piceae

Image 2: hemlock wooly adelgid, A. tsugae,attackingFraser fir and Carolina hemlock
Another example is the gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar (image 3 below)as well as the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae,is seriously affecting the hemlock and oak forest in North America (Orwig and Foster, 1998). Another example of invasive insects threatening agriculture is the scale insects Orthezia insignis, which are seriously threatening endemic gumwood (Fowler, 2004) and the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus compactus that are attacking a number of vegetations in Hawaii.

Image 3: gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar
Since their accidental introduction to North America from Europe, around mid 19th Century, the gypsy moth (L. dispar) has become major pests that affect trees in Eastern North America (Liebhold et al. 1995). Additionally, Eurasian insects have also caused serious issues for many trees in America and Europe including the spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum image 4 below (Lynch 2004), as well as the recently introduced emerald ash borer, which in the past few years has affected over 15 million ash trees (Poland and McCullough 2006).

Image 4: Spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum attacking a plant
By reducing or killing the host plant populations, invasive insects also have the potential to impact many other native plants species. According to Gray (2011), the bugs which were introduced accidently in Britain from other countries are at this period considered as the greatest threat to many garden plants. Plants such as rosemary and sage, lilies and fritillaries flowers and shrubs like berberis are today under attack from invasive insects. Many insects have been confined to attack plants in the south east of England. As a result, many horticulturalists have monitored the spread of insects such as Scarlet lily Beetle (Lilioceris lilii) image 5 below, Rosemary Beetle, Hemerocallis gall midge (Contarinia quinquenotata), and Berberis sawfly (Arge berberidis) have warned that the insects have the potential to spread quickly northward and westward across Britain devouring plantations (Gray, 2001).

Image 5: Scarlet lily Beetle, Lilioceris lilii attacking a leave
The Royal Horticultural Society (2016) has described the invasive insects as “most wanted” pests and they are urging farmers to be on the lookout. The organization continues and said that the spread of these insects is quite worrying as they defoliate the plantations and spoil the flowers. Even though they do not kill the plants they leave the weakened to a point that they cannot grow properly. Climate change is the main cause of this move as summer got hotter and winter milder, it has cause insects that were in the south of England to migrate and spread further north. These insects (Scarlet lily Beetle, Rosemary Beetle, Hemerocallis gall midge, and Berberis sawfly) are among the increasing number of non-native species that are causing devastation across the England landscape.
One of the common insect is Rosemary Beetle (Chrysolina americana) that has spread quickly attacking herbs such as sage, lavender, rosemary and thyme. The image below shows Rosemary Beetle:

Image 6: Rosemary Beetle
As they establish themselves in the new environment, invasive insects in Canadian forests such as Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera engage in competitive and trophic interactions with native species and hence potentially impacting natives through several direct and indirect mechanisms (Gandhi and Herms 2010). Invasive insects such as phytophagous feed on native woody plants and thus compete with native species for space and food and they also consume native insects and parasitoids. As well as direct interactions such as interference competition and consumption, non-native insects might therefore interact with native species through other mechanisms such as indirect mutualism, trophic cascades, and exploitative competition (White et al. 2006).
According to Lovett et al. (1995) this interactions are most of the time considered to be negative. However, there are some beneficial of mutuality interaction with naïve species. For instance, the impact of interactions between natives and invasive might occur are different levels of ecological organization such as the level of the gene, population, ecosystem, community and individual (Parker et al. 1999).
As discussed above, the introduction of invasive insects such as gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is most of the time described as one of the most destructive ecological species in North America forest (ISSG 2009). According to Gale et al. (2001) the defoliation of Gypsy moth opens up the canopy, reduces the growth of trees, kills and weaken trees’ outright and as well as alter nutrient cycling and ecosystem processes in the forest. At the long run, gypsy moth invasion can also lead to changes in stand composition and structure. These effects of gypsy moth on forest can cause both lasting and temporary changes in habitant for other organisms in the forest such as birds and mammals (Schowalter and Whitmore, 2002)
Invasive insects’ causes harm to wild ecosystems in many different ways. When a new and aggressive species are introduced to a new ecosystem, it can breed quickly as well as spread, taking over the plants and the location. As a result, native wildlife might fail to provide any protective mechanism against the invader as the species has no predators. Invasive insects are said to have devastating effects on an ecosystem and it might result to the local extinction of native species, particularly if they are endangered. When invasive insects are introduced to a new area outside their range it is likely that they will disrupt the natural food web and as a result start to compete with the native wild ecosystem and directly predating them. In this view, when natural food pattern are disturbed, the results becomes complex and varied consequences, which later lead a reduction in biodiversity within the habitant.
The gypsy moth defoliation effect on canopy openness lead to understory plant growth, tree mortality and stand composition that has some impact on wildlife. Increased openness of canopy can in one way reduce populations of bird’s species that are linked with closed canopies
The effects of gypsy moth defoliation on canopy openness, understory plant growth, stand composition, and tree mortality can also have impacts on forest wildlife. Increased canopy openness can temporarily reduce populations of bird species associated with closed canopies Gale et al. 2001, as well as cause nest predation. Equally, increases in understory cover and dead trees have been considerably linked with increased profusions in the eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) as well as cavity-nesting bird species.
Moreover, species that stay in an open canopy are more in defoliated stands (Bell and Whitmore 1997). This means that gypsy moth defoliation leads to an increased habitat complexity, which at the other case can be beneficial for forest birds and wild animals in the ecosystem.
Parasitism on native fauna
Invasive insects have also the potential to affect that native fauna as a result of parasitism on native vertebrates or insects. In many cases, parasitoids have been applied as biological control means nationally. In just a few cases, these control measures have turned to be a threat to non-target insects. One of the best know example in forest ecosystem is that is tachinid fly, Compsilura concinnata, which were introduced in North America from Europe at the start of 20th century to control gypsy moth, which is today suspected to have a negative effect on populations of endangered natives (Boettner et al. 2000). Also, according to Bildfell et al. (2004) alien ectoparasites of vertebrates have the potential to threaten native species. For instance, a chewing louse, Damalinia sp., can cause hair-loss effect in black tail deer in western North America.
Competition
Additionally, competition is likely to occur between non-native insects and native animals for nesting areas. Hybridization between invasive and native species can as well occur, which leads in reduced fitness of offspring and could eventually result to the extinction of the species. Moreover, invasive insects can introduce pathogens into the new area, which has the potential to spread to the native ecosystem which has not experienced the disease there before and thus they have no immunity to it. In additional to diseases being transmitted to flora and fauna, other many diseases that come with insects can as well be transmitted to nearby human population.
Invasive insects are said to affect communities and populations of native area through competing for same resources (Reitz and Trumble 2002). The Asian adelgid (Pineus boerneri Annand) have shown some competitive nature that has resulted to displacement of native congener in red pine plantations in Eastern parts of the U.S, through the reduction of host plant quality forcing the native animals to less suitable locations (McClure, 1989). Also, the European weevil (R conicus) act of feeding on flower-heads of native animals in the U.S. considerably reduces the density of native tephritid flies, which also are said to feed on flower-heads (Louda et al. 1997).
Also, according to Roque-Albelo (2003) the scale insect kill endangered plants populations in the Galapagos, has also led to local extinctions of host-specific Lepidoptera.
Several ecosystem processes can also be altered by invasion insects such as nutrients and water cycles, habitant and succession modification, which later result to a reduction of biodiversity. Indeed, altered water cycle can result to an increased risk of flooding within the area. In additional to be associated with high scale ecological impact, invasive insects can as well have some economical implications. For instance, the government of U.K often spent approximately £1.7 annually in the control of pests (Wild Screen Arkive, 2001). In fact, direct economical losses might occur from non-native insects’ causes serious damage to infrastructure or goods and indirect losses leading from decreased tourism in affected area.
Spread of Vectors of diseases
Invasive insects might also be a source of several vectors or facilitate the transmission of both plant and wild animal diseases. According to Brasier (2000), the European bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus, is known to be a common source of the Dutch elm disease in North America. The European beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga is linked with the fungus ectria coccinea var. faginata, which causes beech bark illness (Houston 1994). Additionally, the invasion mosquitoes are also vectors of avian malaria that affect endemic birds in the forest ecosystem in Hawaii (LaPointe et al 2005).
Above all, invasive insects also play an important role as pollinators in the flowering plants. Many of the plants especially flowers are dominant producers in several terrestrial ecosystems, but there is no way they can reproduce without insect intermediaries in order to carry pollen from one flower to another. Plants in the ecosystem produce an array of colors, rewards, odors, as well as ruses in order to attract their insect accomplices. Any flower grows in a design that ensures no insect visitor leaves without a thorough dusting of pollen, which is destined to another flower nearby. Therefore, invasion insects have the capability to continue transfer of pollen to anther flower and thus ensure continued populations of plants.
Despite the fact that many of the remarkable studies focuses on ecological effects of invasive insects in the forest ecosystem, there is a still neglected scope that would merit further attention. In conclusion, this paper has clearly indicated that invasive or non-native insects have the potential to affect agricultural ecosystems and wild ecosystems in areas outside their native range through several mechanisms. Several examples have shown that invasive insects affect growing plants and wild animals in the ecosystems. As it has been established in this paper, non-native insects can impact biodiversity through direct interactions such as herbivore feeding on native plantations. The other effect is a predator or a parasitoid attack on native wild or host. Moreover, there invasive insects hybridize with native species. It is also established that invasive insects may affect communities and plant populations of native herbivores through competing for the same resources.
In addition, this paper has established that invasive insects can affect vegetation and wild ecosystems indirectly. This can occur through cascading effects or other mechanisms such as carrying diseases, competing for space and food as well as sharing natural enemies with native ecosystems species. Moreover, it has been established in this paper that ecological effect by invasive insects can happen at different levels of biological organizations such as genetic impact- effects on populations, communities or individuals of species. The invasive insects effect on the processes of ecosystems in both agriculture and wild animals.
Finally, invasive alien insects have been considered to be one of the most significant threats to biodiversity across the globe. In fact, invasive insects are seen top threaten many native ecosystems by consuming, competing and displacing them. However, a number of governments are investing huge amount of dollars to attempt to find solution to already devastating and devouring small animal that is destroying millions of vegetations and wild worldwide.
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