Various efforts have been made to understand the different cultural orientations. Psychological researchers have investigated culture in relation to psychology resulting in the development of a new field in psychological studies known as multicultural psychology.
This research paper provides the definition of multicultural psychology as well as its historical development. It also examines the rationale for the establishment of multicultural psychology as a subspecialty of psychology.
The society has always been faced with the challenge to understand the different cultures that are practiced by mankind. There has been need to establish a specific field in psychology to provide explanation of these notable differences. Multicultural psychology refers to the systematic investigation, analysis and assessment of human behaviors as they are experienced in surroundings where people of different cultural backgrounds interact (American Psychological Association, 2003).
This field is mainly concerned with the understanding of the cultural differences in various aspects of day to day life experiences. These include but not limited to the various thought processes, acceptable versus unacceptable behaviors, and ‘normal’ versus ‘abnormal’ behavior orientations in life. Multicultural psychology has helped in identifying a person within different cultures and also to facilitate interaction between individuals from different cultural backgrounds.
In the United States, for instance, people from different parts of the world (immigrants) came together to form the present day America. Despite their varying cultures, these people must encounter each other in their day to day life activities. Multicultural psychological researchers, therefore, must take into consideration the aspect of culture during their investigations.
Multicultural psychology is one of the most recent and dynamic fields in psychology and has been identified as a crucial component in understanding the role of culture in psychological studies. Over the past 30 years, the study of culture (racial and ethnic) minority issues in the field of psychology has grown to what can now be seen as a significant and dynamic subspecialty in the context of American psychology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Multicultural psychology is currently considered as the ‘fourth force’ in psychological studies after the much advanced behavioral, psychodynamic theories, as well as the humanistic approach to psychology (Hall, 2009). Understanding of its historical development is essential.
Multiculturalism can be traced to the Civil Rights Movement that started in 1964 in the United States since this event provoked a new way of regarding the people who were initially considered inferior (Hall, 2009). Minority ethnic groups were demanding for equal treatment especially on shelter, education, and employment opportunities.
The study of psychology was also affected by this transformation in the society since every field was then culturally diverse yet mutually operational. Prior provisions that guided the practice of psychology were not culturally sensitive until some psychologists pushed for the necessary changes.
It was not until the beginning of the 21st century that notable changes were effected. In 2002, the APAs “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” were revised to include the diverse cultural issues (APA, 2003). The American Psychological Association has also established specific provisions for the enhancement of multicultural psychology (2003).
There are several reasons why it was necessary to develop multicultural psychology as a unique field of study. With the development of the 2002 guidelines for multicultural psychology, this field has made significant progress as a subspecialty of psychology. Many people in the United States with different cultural backgrounds can interact mutually since they have come to appreciate the fact that the society is multicultural.
Groups of people and organizations have their uniquely identifiable belief systems, values, practices, and norms that define them. The understanding of these differences facilitates healthy interactions between people.
Moreover, the earlier approaches of studying psychology employed scientific dimensions in understanding human behavior. However, with the emergence of multiculturalism, a lot of emphasis has been put on culture. Subsequent psychologists have not ignored the aspect of culture in their studies. Culture is a very broad concept and some of the variables include: race, ethnicity, gender, sex, and class.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Multicultural Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The broadening of perspective of psychological research to include cultural considerations has helped in the elimination of stereotype tendencies. Most of the earlier studies did not consider culture in selecting the participants which implied that the conclusions that were made were not inclusive. Multiculturalism, therefore, has helped in addressing serious problems that could not be dealt with by earlier researchers.
Furthermore, the world is increasingly becoming globalized as people continue migrating resulting in multicultural societies. The development of multiculturalism as a subspecialty of psychology has made it easy in conducting investigations in these diverse societies. In fact, psychology is a broad discipline dealing with human behavior in general and hence the need to develop multicultural psychology as an independent field.
Understanding the differences that exist among people will also make it easy to provide appropriate interventions for the problems that psychologists face. Multiculturalism has helped in the alleviation of hatred and discrimination (APA, 2003). This subspecialty can be seen as enhancing the fields of psychology since cultural differences are viewed as part of humanity.
Individual human beings need to be identified with a unique culture which shares the same interpretations and meanings of life experiences.
This implies that psychological researchers must take cultural differences into consideration when carrying out their studies (Hall, 2009). The introduction of multiculturalism, particularly in the United States, has enriched virtually all psychological investigations.
From the above discussion, it is evident that multicultural psychology is crucial in the development of the broad field of psychology. It has significantly helped in understanding human behaviors from a cultural perspective where people with different cultural backgrounds co-exist.
Individuals or groups have unique cultures and should be respected as such instead of being discriminated as inferior or otherwise disregarded. This field has a very recent historical background but it has proved to be a notably dynamic field of study.
It is also very important to acknowledge that multicultural psychology has brought numerous benefits on the society as well as the field of psychology in general. We can conclude, therefore, that multicultural psychology is a dynamic subspecialty of psychology that is transforming the way of looking at cultural diversity, particularly in the study of human behaviors.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Multicultural Psychology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines for multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. Journal of American Psychologists, 58, 377–400.
Hall, N. G. C. (2009). Multicultural psychology (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall
Case Project Information Security Report (Assessment)
Nursing Assignment Help Virus Attacks While computer viruses are not as formidable as they were in the past decade mostly as a result of strong antivirus software, they still pose significant threat to users. In the near past, there have been a number of viruses that have posed a significant threat to computer users all over the world.
Sites such as the McAfee threat center which is dedicated to giving descriptions for the virus threats that may attack users provide an elaborate list of computer threats. Some of these threats include; the W32 virus and the Generic.dx!rwj Trojan.
The W32/Trebot virus is an especially troublesome virus that consists of a server editing component. With this component, the virus visits pre determined internet addresses for commands which are executed on a victim’s machine. The damage that this virus does on an individual’s computer includes slowing down the machine by downloading and executing other files which use up the systems memory resources.
An even bigger risk that the virus poses is that it uses the host machine to perpetrate denial of service attacks over the internet. While Windows ME and Xp are especially vulnerable to this virus, this virus also affects the Mac Os.
The Generic.dx!rwj is a Trojan that purports to be executing some beneficial task but is in fact a malicious program. The Generic.dx!rwj Trojan in particular compromises a user’s system and then seeks out messaging applications that may be installed. From these applications, the Trojan extracts contact information and sends them out to the Trojan creators.
The particular damage that this Trojan presents is that it compromises the privacy of a computer user by stealing personal information. This information may then be sold to spammers or marketers who will use it for sending spam mail to the user. This Trojan primarily affects the Windows platform as it compromises the registry keys by including itself as an authorized program.
Cell Phone Attacks Over the years, the usage of cell phones has expanded to cover more than just voice communication. With this expansion in functionality, the vulnerability of cell phones has also increased leading to a need for protection from attacks. The most basic protection service offered to mobile phones is the PIN code that makes access to a device hard without authentication.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Japan where mobile phones are utilized in financial transactions, sophisticated security features such as facial recognition are used to safeguard a user’s account. To address the issue of virus infection which mostly occurs as a result of downloads and file transfer, there exist mobile antivirus software which protects the phone from virus attacks by preventing infections.
The Symbian OS for example provides antivirus software that users with phones running on this platform can download and use to protect against viruses and malware.
The currently implemented protections are not adequate as mobile software is not as mature as PC software. There is also a lack of consciousness by users as to the risks they are exposed to. User awareness of the dangers that most modern phones are exposed to should be increased. In my opinion, both the cell phone providers and the user should be responsible for blocking attacks.
The provider should ensure that the phone is fitted with antivirus software and utilities such as password protection to prevent attacks. The user on the other hand should be responsible for regularly updating the phone’s antivirus software as well as undertaking best practices such as selective synchronization of files to avoid transferring of infected files from a PC.
Operating System Patches In the month of February, Microsoft issued patches that were meant to address security and non-security issues in the various Windows OS Platforms.
This February patches were meant to address 26vulnerabilities that had been discovered in Windows. Some of the vulnerabilities that were addressed by the Patch included: risk of denial of service attacks, elevation of privileges by restricted account holders and remote code execution.
The elevation of privileges threat could be carried out either locally or remotely by users with valid credentials. Some of the remote code execution issues could affect the PowerPoint application in the MS Office Suite.
We will write a custom Assessment on Case Project Information Security specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The severity of the problems that the patch addressed varied. Some of the vulnerabilities that were marked as “critical” in severity meaning that their presence presented a big risk to the operating system. These critical problems were the Remote Code Execution vulnerabilities.
The Denial of service and Elevation of privileges vulnerabilities were marked as “important” in severity meaning that while they did not present as big a risk as the critical vulnerabilities, their presence was still undesirable. Once the patches were installed, there were no known problems that occurred either to the operating system or to the MS Office application for which the patch was applied.