Methods and Materials
Abstract Due to the increased instances of freshwater pollution in many American water sources particularly through agricultural and industrial wastes, which are discharged into the water, students were asked to monitor the quality of water at the Mud Lick creek (I think the statement now makes sense as you had requested). During these investigative sessions, the students collected data regarding the dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, and the temperature of water samples collected from the creek. The average value of the water temperature at the creek ranges from 6-12°C.
Furthermore, the average value of turbidity ranges from 0-40 JTU relative to different experiment days. Moreover, the average pH value equals 7.25 for the three trials conducted over the whole experiment duration. Lastly, the average value of dissolved oxygen ranges from 4-8 parts per million and the saturation percentage is in the range of 55-64%.
The experimental findings provided above show that the level of freshwater pollution at the creek is irregular because the results show slight changes from the normal properties of freshwater particularly the pH, dissolved oxygen, and its turbidity.
On the other hand, the study findings diverge from most studies reviewed in this research paper particularly those regarding the quality of water in many American water sources.
As a result, additional studies are required to ascertain the accuracy and precision involved in the current study including determining additional parameters, which can enable one to measure the quality of water at the creek more accurately.
[The information given in this section shows the writer’s stand regarding the experimental findings relative to other study findings reviewed in this research paper. Besides, the statement is drawn from the discussions provided in the conclusion]
Introduction Freshwater pollution entails instances whereby the sources of inland water are contaminated through the presence of various substances in water, which make it unsafe for various uses (Saunders 16). As a result, most studies show that pollution may occur through the discharge of fecal matter, chemical substances, pesticides, petroleum components, fertilizer sediments, and other discharges into freshwater thereby making it unfit for fishing, swimming and drinking.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, in the United States, various studies note that fecal matter and other potential pollutants are discharged into rivers, and therefore, there is evidence of freshwater pollution in most American streams and rivers.
According to Pollution Issues (par. 1), “In the mid-twentieth century, many American rivers and streams were open sewers, choking on everything from human waste to highly toxic industrial discharges.”
Furthermore, fresh water sources contribute to about 3% of the total water sources on the earth’s surface. However, in the United States, each household consumes about 94,000 gallons of fresh water per annum. Moreover, the sources of the fresh water for domestic use include rivers and lakes.
Unfortunately, studies conducted in 2000 show that about 40% of rivers and 45% of lakes in the United States are polluted with pesticides and fertilizers due to runoffs (Pollution Issues par. 13). This form of pollution poses great danger to human beings because the contents of the runoffs include phosphates, pathogens, petroleum oils, gasoline, and other pollutants.
Conversely, various human activities are attributable to freshwater pollution in different aspects. For example, the increased number of households connected to sewerage treatment systems has been associated with freshwater pollution in most OECD-member countries (OECD 100).
Moreover, OECD (101) states that, “Agriculture is an important contributor to water quality problems, particularly nitrate pollution in surface and groundwater, phosphorus levels in surface water, contamination with pesticides, and the harmful effects of soil sediments and mineral salts.”
At the Mud Lick creek under investigation, there is evidence of agricultural activities on the upper side of the tributary. This potential source of pollutants poses significant risks to the quality of water at the creek in terms altering the temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and the turbidity of the water (Pollution Issues par. 3). As a result, there is the paramount need to investigate the water quality at the Mud Lick creek in this research paper.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Mud Lick Creek Project – Fresh Water Pollution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This research paper aims at determining the water quality at the Mud Lick creek relative to various qualitative and quantitative parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen. Here, it is hypothesized that the water temperature will be in the range of 12-24°C relative to different experimental conditions and days.
Moreover, the pH of the water is hypothesized to range from neutral to slightly alkaline. On the other hand, the value of turbidity is hypothesized to range from 0-42 JTU due to different agricultural activities and pollutant discharge rates at the creek. Lastly, the level of dissolved oxygen is hypothesized to vary relative to the temperature of the water samples.
Overall, the findings regarding the present survey seem to diverge from the current studies on freshwater pollution in many American rivers and Streams. [The information provided in this section serves as the thesis statement, which is explained in detail in the subsequent paragraphs. As a result, there is no need to cite the information because it entails a personal account regarding the experiment]
Methods and Materials The investigation of the quality of water at the creek entails measuring the temperature, pH, turbidity, and the dissolved oxygen. Each of these parameters requires different procedures and Test Kits. For instance, to determine the turbidity of water, one requires a sample collection jar, a Secchi disk, and a color chart (World Health Organization 68). Here, a white sample collection jar is used to carry out the experiment.
The first step entails removing the icon sticker from the Secchi disk. Secondly, place the sticker slightly off center on the inner bottom side of the sample collection jar 8-24 hours prior to the commencement of the experiment. This process ensures that the adhesive cures adequately.
Thirdly, fill the jar with water up to the turbidity level indicated by a label. Lastly, hold the turbidity chart against the jar containing water in order to compare the appearance of the disk icon to that on the chart (World Water Monitoring Day 8-10). Subsequently, record the value in JTU in a table of results.
Conversely, to determine the pH of the water samples, one needs to have a pH test tube, a pH reagent tablet, and a pH color chart (World Health Organization 67).
As a result, the first step in measuring the pH value involves filling the pH test tube with 10 ml of the water sample. Secondly, one piece of the pH test tablet is added into the test tube. Thirdly, the test-tube is sealed and the contents mixed by inverting the tube until the tablet dissolves.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mud Lick Creek Project – Fresh Water Pollution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lastly, hold the test tube against the pH chart and compare the color of the test-tube contents to the one on the chart (World Water Monitoring Day 17). Record the pH value in the table of results as shown in Appendix 1.
Furthermore, to determine the value of dissolved oxygen in a water sample, the experimenter requires one measuring vial, test tablets, and a color chart (World Health Organization 51).
Here, the first step involves recording the temperature value of the water samples. Secondly, the vial is submerged and filled to the top with a sample of water whose temperature has been determined. Thirdly, two test tablets are added into the vial. Subsequently, the vial is capped and the contents mixed by inverting the vial severally for four minutes.
Afterwards, the vial is left to stand for an additional five minutes in order to allow for color development. Lastly, the vial is held against the color chart to compare the color in the vial with the one on the chart (World Water Monitoring Day 13-15). The results are recorded in a table of results in parts per million.
Furthermore, the % saturation is determined from the % saturation chart. It is worth noting that the current experiment was performed three times on different days and the average values for temperature, turbidity, pH, and dissolved oxygen recorded as shown in Appendix 1
Resource Identification, Evaluation and Selection: Congestive heart failure Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Overview Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is one of the common health challenges in aging persons. The health condition is one of the major causes of deaths and health complications for individuals that above sixty five years. Congestive Heart Failure is not only a major cause of health complication and death in aging individuals but also contribute high number of re-admission among aging person.
Moreover, treating Congestive Heart Failure cost a fortune and is a major challenge to families with a CHF patient. Considering its significance to the health of aging persons, Health care provision for aging persons should therefore consider CHF management.
Because of increased cases of CHF and its health and cost implications, various recent research studies have focused towards coming up with better CHF management (Whalley, et a., 2002; Ross, J., et al., 2010; Goldberg, et al., 2005; Colonna, et al., 2003).
Congestive Heart Failure as an area of research is not fully exhausted despite of many research studies dedicated to it. This paper will discuss the process involved in coming up with a topic for research study, resources for information, search strategy and summary, and evaluation of sources.
Problem Statement The major challenge in management of Congestive Heart Failure is frequent re-admission of CHF patients. Considering health risk and treatment cost implication, re-admission of CHF patients have high implication to the patients, their families and health care providers. The cause of frequent re-admission of CHF patients have been a subject to many researchers.
Among the frequently proposed causes of re-admission, include narrow understanding of the health condition among patients and poor adherence to treatment and diet.
Other proposed causes of re-admission include poor management of other health conditions such as respiratory infection and hypertension. In addition, poor discharge and planning and poor follow up of patients are cited as possible factors that contribute to increased CHF re-admission cases (Reis, et al., 1997; Jaarsma, et al., 1998).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of literature addressing hospitalization of CHF patients agree that much can be done reduce re-admission cares and improve quality of life of CHF (Kornowski, Zeeli, Averbuch, et al. 1995; Smith, Fabbri, Pai, et al.,1997; Rich, Beckham, Wittenberg, et al., 1995). This study will revisit re-admission of CHF patients in relation to medication compliance, diet modification and community health programs.
The study will also explore the role of case management in mitigating re-admission. In order to address the problem, the study will seek to provide answers to the question: What are the reasons why Congestive Heart Failure cases have high number of admissions?
Problem Symptoms or Evidence Congestive heart failure refers to a health condition where the heart is unable pump enough blood to other body parts especially critical body organs. CHF is a major health issue in United States as well as other parts of the world. The health conditions incapacitate patients and can lead to death (Schocken, Arrieta, Leaverton