The first factor providing the changes is the production of money and economic growth. When money is produced more than the countries expenses, money value will reduce, and it will lead to inflation. This is the time when government will tight up the monetary policy. Happens also sometime when growth of economy is at the bottom level, monetary policy will be changed by suggestion from the Monetary Policy Comittee (MPC).
Second, it is the amount of flows from foreign investors. When there is low amount of investors, our country will not have enough capital to develop and manufacture, this then lead to less production and thus the government will use money precisely and in a meanwhile preventing citizens from borrowing and spending more. This will prevent Malaysia’s economic growth from declining.
The effects of monetary policy changes are so diverse, it effects to the rural developments and citizens’ poverty. When monetary policy is tighten, the prices of the sugar, fuel, rice, flour and rations will increase. Basically, all the needs will increase, for people who has low income, it will leads to their poverty. Although the country’s money value is stable, the citizen’s will suffer. Rates of poverty will increase.
Other effect of tighting monetary policy is that education in tertiary level will slow down, this is due to high interest rate of study loan, and it might lead to di-development of the country, as a result from no experties and abilities. The rate of employment will decrease due to employer cannot afford to employ workers. Then lead to usage of foreign immigrants like from Indonesia. It will then lead to high population of imigrants.
Industrialization growth will also decrease, in order to save more, as the increasing price of petroleum/charcoal, leading to non productive manufacturing, increasing rate of unemployment, and poverty. In the case of Solitaire Land Sdn Bhd v Hong Leong Bank Bhd  , the appelant has been reduced his loan for just a quarter out of original value of RM2mil by the bank and this case shows how the monetary policy affect the citizen’s commercial bussiness and industrialization.
The desired outcomes of tighting the monetary policy changes is to provide stable value of money. In overcoming this problem, the government will tight up the monetary policy, providing all the effects above. In order to overcome all the problem, more side policies are introduced, such as New Economic Policy (NEP) to reduce rate of poverty, National Development Policy, and so on.
Responses of the monetary policy changes happens when citizens adress their concern towards the changes. Inflicting price of fuel has plenty of objection by the people, as this is the main regular factor that can easily be seen and affects other products’ price. Other responses from tighting monetary policy under the New Economic Policy is the privatising of governments agency, in order to reduce the burdens conferred by government’s expenses.
Most of the advantages came when the monetary policy rate is on the low, where it gives the consumers and firms cash flow, other than boosting up the value of assets like houses and lands. While on the other situation, tight monetary policy will provide the governments to develop the country part by part. Disadvantages mostly came in when the policy is tight, that it will effect the civillians, to live in peace and wealths. For this, I prefer low interest rate to be applied in Malaysia.
The reactions of people towards the change in monetary policy in Malaysia is so far weaker than we can thought. This is because it has been for long time since the interest rate has change, and the change happens without radical difference. Lots of people misunderstood about monetary policy with the economic policy. Economic policiy’s objective is to give more chance to Bumiputra in getting their share in economic terms, whilst monetary policy’s objective is to stabilize the money. It is somehow so different, from aspects of the modus operandi, that for economic policy, the framework is structured and done by the various governments department, whilst monetary policy is wholly controlled under the Central Bank in cooperation with Malaysia’s bank, with supervision of the Ministry of Finance.
The last time when monetary policy happens to change was during the Malaysia’s inflation period during 1998. Whereby our money is downgraded to the peak level, enforcing the government to increase the loan interest rate, and effect the economic wholly, regardless of discrimination in any race in as what the economic policy was.
During the inflation period, the price of sugar increases, there has been cases for smuggled rice, increase in fuel price, and so on. Citizens happen to save more during that time. As the interest rate is not so far different with prior than 1998, the effect of the change to an individual is not so far too vigourous. The citizens in Malaysia happens to live well without any rebellion and objection otherwise done by the opposing party. Though there has been dispute in contractual bussiness where person suffer for economic loss due change in interest loan, the court will held that the act is reasonable due to contraintment of economy during the period due. 
Literature Review Stability In Financial Sector Of Pakistan Economics Essay
The article tries to articulate the definition of financial stability and to discuss what kind of public policies should be adopted in pursuit of financial stability. They start by mentioning the important features of the definition of financial stability like it should be related to public’s welfare, it should be an observable state of affairs and it should not be so rigorously demanding that it stigmatizes virtually any change as evidence of instability.
He also mentioned that collapse of financial institutions is not the only reason for economic damage. A financially stable system is that it dampens the shocks caused by the financial crisis rather than amplifying it.
They also talk about whether asset price reflects the financial stability. According to them financial stability is a state of affairs in which an episode of financial instability is unlikely to occur, so that fear of financial instability is not a material factor in economic decisions taken by households or businesses. They future highlights the relation between Financial Stability and monetary policy.
He mentions that there is a trade-off between financial stability and other objectives of public policy. If government focuses on just achieving financial stability then this decision may harm economic growth in the country and vice versa. Hence the decision must be taken very wisely that neither financial system collapse nor economic growth is harmed. They then highlight some of the measures to prevent the crisis.
The main measures are the laws of the country, Official agencies and their rules and market conventions of the country. They determine how stable the financial system might get of any country. Later the authors mention some of the remedial measures that what should be the counter measures the tackle with the financial crisis such as providing liquidity as the lender of the last resort and solvency supports to individual financial institutions which are bankrupt or near to bankruptcy.
Authors conclude that these financial failures are due to the introduction of risk into commercial banking. There must be regulations on these financial institutions but excessive regulations can inhibit the development of risk management techniques and hence retard improvements in risk management standards.
They mention in their article that there is no consensus on how monetary policy and financial stability affects one another and whether there is synergy or a trade-off between them. It is not clear that monetary policy which has main objective of achieving price stability also fosters financial stability. They argue that high level of interest rates affects bank’s balance sheet negatively.
Another trade-off which author mentions is that of from very low inflation, or in other words deflation. This reduces banks profit margins and hence they will suffer. When explaining synergy, they show that predictable interest rates will ensure predictable returns and future prices which will help in financial soundness. They apply a binary model to a panel of yearly data for 79 countries over the years 1970-1999 to estimate the relationship between monetary policy design and financial instability.
The results show that central bank does play an important role in determining the likelihood of a banking crisis. Targeting the exchange rate is mildly significant in reducing the likelihood of a banking crisis. Also good economic growth of the country and liquidity in the bank’s balance sheet also reduces the probability of a banking crisis. Moreover the exchange rate targeting is also beneficial for the banks.
He first talks about the stress tests which are done under financial stability assessment programs (FSAP). This explains how much stress or burden a financial institution can bear. Later he talks about assessment of the effect of shocks on financial system. He explains that the lesser the effect of crisis on the economy, the greater the stability in the financial sector and the greater the effects of financial crisis on the economy, more vulnerable will be the financial sector.
Hence economic stability must be maintained in any case to keep the financial sector safe from the adverse effects of the global financial crisis. Some potential shocks which author mention are oil prices, demand abroad, productivity, a shift in risk aversion, a shift in exchange rate preferences etc.
They explain the role of monetary policy in explaining banking sector fragility and ultimately systemic banking crisis. Rough set model has been used in the research because it offers better predictive accuracy than the quadratic discriminant model. It analyses a large sample of countries in the period 1981-1999.
They came to know that degree of central bank independence is one of the key variables to explain financial crisis however these effects are not linear. They also mention in their article that there is no clear consensus on how monetary policy and financial stability are related; in particular it is not clear if there is synergy or trade-off between them.
A financial crisis is the sum of several individual crises together. The paper then determines the determinants of banking crisis like certain risks associated with the investments, credit risks, interest rate risk, currency risk, liquidity risk etc. When the value of their assets falls short of the value of their liabilities, banks become insolvent. These activities then lead to the banking crisis.
There is a general view that central banks smooth interest rate changes to enhance the stability of financial markets. But this might induce moral hazard and induce financial institutions to maintain riskier portfolios which may further inhibit active monetary policy. He also suggests that the macroeconomic stability which is caused by a result of aggressive monetary policy brings its own dangers like the moral hazards attached to it.
The paper also highlights some of the important definitions of financial stability from literature. Most of the cases financial stability is explained in an opposite way, i.e. by defining financial instability. Symptoms of financial instability which has been mentioned in the article are asset price volatility, distress in financial institutions and affected output performance.
These would determine how stable the financial system is. They concluded by both theoretical and empirical analyses that the futures market, and in particular the basis risk implied by the hedging strategies of financial institutions, is a key component of monetary policy aimed at achieving financial stability among other objectives.
A graphical decomposition in the research of the interest rate targets show that variables relating to macroeconomic stability have decreased in prominence whilst the financial stability variables have gradually come to the fore. The analysis in the article suggest that the standard textbook treatment of central bank’s objective function mostly based on price and output stabilization may be too restrictive description of central banking in practice.
The first generation of reforms is completed and there is a need to lay down proposals for next generation reforms. The purpose of second generation reforms is to further deepen the financial sector and integrate it into the economy.
He first discusses some of the lessons learnt previously out of the financial sector. The major point is that the financial sector functions effectively and efficiently only if the macroeconomic situation is favourable and stable. He argues that the financial sector stability is linked to the macroeconomic condition in the country and financial sector stability and performance relies on it. He also focuses on the use of technology and the use of Human resource competencies for achieving the required results of the reforms.
He further highlights some of the results accomplished by the sector. The financial markets in Pakistan are liberal and are quite competitive and efficient, but still shallow. He also argues that no matter the financial infrastructure has been strengthened but the legal system is still too time consuming and costly.
Also financial soundness indicators show an upward moving trend but there are vulnerabilities that need to be fixed. He suggests the need of corporate restructuring i.e. pruning costs, reducing debt and increasing efficiency. This will have short term benefits. Change in infrastructure financing is also needed so as to foster public-private partnership.
Risk management is also needed in the sector but we see that its progress is not good up till now. He also argues to promote more Islamic banks into the country. This would help in bringing those people who are resistive to come in because of their faith and beliefs.
Over the years financial crisis and health of economy has shown some close linkages.
He then highlights that how monetary stability and financial stability is seen to be closely related terms. The author defines financial stability as the absence of stresses that have the potential to cause a measurable economic harm beyond a strictly limited group of customers and counter parties.
Similarly the stability in financial markets means the absence of price movements that cause wider economic damage. Prices of assets do change when something happens to cause a reassessment of the future stream of income associated with the asset, or the price at which this income should be discounted. He also mentions in his article that there is no clear-cut definition of financial instability.
Instability can have damaging consequences from the fiscal costs of bailing out troubled institutions to the real GNP losses associated with banking and currency crisis. He also suggests that Financial stability is a public good that its ‘consumers’ do not deprive others of the possibility of also benefiting from it, so public authorities should supply it in an appropriate quantity.
He further identifies some approaches to ensure financial stability which are reliance on market forces, safety nets and regulations. In a nutshell financial stability provides favourable environment for efficient resource allocation and rapid economic growth. It is not clear that the stability can be maintained by the activist approach on part of the authorities or it can be best achieved by the reliance on market forces.
He explains that the present global financial crisis emerged from developed countries and spread to the rest of the world. According to him, the lowering of the interest rates in the US to overcome the recession led to the liberal lending for mortgage and building. The housing bubble finally burst in 2007 inspiring the subprime crisis.
The author then mentions some of the global trends leading to the crisis such as high commodity prices, trade, inflation and unemployment. The collapse of the US sub-prime mortgage market had ripple effects around the world. The problem was so severe that some of the world’s largest financial institutions collapsed.
This led countries and governments to pursue for bailout packages for the institutions which were bankrupt or near bankruptcy. Proponents of these bailout packages argue that it was necessary to prevent further damage to the financial sector and the trust on them. Opponents view that these bailout packages would not help because this crisis actually emerged because of excess credit and debt, giving bailout packages will further exacerbate the problems with the economy.
He then explains that how these developing countries can reduce the effects of such crisis on them like policies, expenditures and public spending and further efforts to increase the efficiency of the banking sector. He explains that before Pakistan was exposed to global financial crisis; it had many more problems going on such as High fiscal and current account deficits, rapid inflation, low reserves, a weak currency and a fragile economy.
The global financial crisis was itself not a big problem, but these previously built situations made the country vulnerable. The global financial crisis had a feedback impact on the financial sector of Pakistan through the real sector of the economy.
Some of the policy measures which author mentioned to address the challenges of financial crisis are significant cuts in the expenditures and prioritize them, tight monetary policy, income support programs for the poor, intensifying public-private partnership and by reinforcing the sound governance in the country. He states that the effects of global financial crisis are not going to end soon.
He states that Pakistan’s economy has been battered by two back-to-back shocks. At one side the global oil prices were too high and on the other side the commodity prices were increasing which was affecting the economy badly. Some channels through which the global financial crisis can potentially have an impact on the economy are trade in goods and services, capital flows, remittances and equity values.
The major channel is the Pakistan’s exports to the developed world which was reduces after the Global financial crisis. Later author explain certain macroeconomic policy response majorly which was carried out under the IMF program which forced Pakistan to carry with tight monetary and fiscal policies to restore macroeconomic stability.
The government also tried to reduce public expenditure and reformed tax administration. Macroeconomic stability is fundamental to fostering economic growth as stable macroeconomic environment encourages private investment and hence economic growth.
According to the 2007-2008 Financial stability review from the State bank of Pakistan, The Banking sector of Pakistan has remained remarkably strong and resilient, despite facing pressures emanating from weakening macroeconomic environment since late 2007.
In a nutshell, the major culprits behind Pakistan’s macroeconomic imbalance were a sharp spike in the international price of crude oil and an unprecedented jump in commodity prices. The global financial crisis had only a minor direct impact on Pakistan, but Pakistan economy remains in dire straits.