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Modernization and Democratization Essay

Modernization can be defined as a set of symptoms of social changes in relation to industrialization. one set of these symptoms is motion which infiltrate through all phases of life to make life more comfortable by improving standards of living, enhancing economic growth and development, reducing mortality rate by increasing life expectancy among others.

Modernization also means discarding ones way of life and accepting civilization, urbanization, or occupational specialization.

Modernization results in improved social life, transformed political institutions, and may even bring in increased political participation, which may result in the recognition of democratic institutions. This paper gives an in-depth analysis of modernization as it tries to relate it to the concept of democratization.

Modernization started as early as the 19th century but became apparent in the 20th century. Some scholars believed that, by abolishing all the property owned by private enterprises and individuals, inequalities, and exploitation would be reduced.

On the other hand, capitalist theorists argued that, economic development would result in improvement in standard of livings, which would finally result in democracy. Democratization can therefore be defined as the system of letting people decide for themselves (Haggard and Kaufman 17).

In politics, the term democratization refers to the transition from an authoritarian government to one that is liberal. An authoritarian government leads people through dictatorship whereas in a democratic government, there is freedom. When country achieves democratization, leaders are elected by a majority vote thereby creating competition in politics, the market becomes liberal, and traders can trade anywhere and in almost every thing.

Many scholars have been holding many conflicting debates as to whether democratization results from modernization. Some strongly hold that, democratization has its roots in modernization because, once a country become civilized and people get to learn more about their rights, then for democracy begins.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In an authoritarian government, citizens are exploited and denied their rights for instance their right to land because they are assumed to be ignorant about rights and freedoms. However, with modernization, people are exposed and meet other people and are able to realize and point unto the areas where they are receiving unfair treatment from the law officials. There are mainly three forms of democratization; behavioral, attitudinal, and constitutional.

A system is said to be experiencing behavioral democratization when there are no factors, for instance from the economic or political systems that are knocking down the regime. Attitudinal democratization occurs when majority of the citizens in a given country are willing to adopt democratic principles. Last but not least, constitutional democratization becomes evident when regulations and laws are put in place in order to prevent the system from falling (Linz and Stepan 62).

Before the Second World War, democratization was a term that was only found in dictionaries and many scholars had not developed an interest in it. However, towards the end of the war, many scholars were interested in knowing why some governments would choose to replace their political systems with laissez-faire democracies.

They were amazed at how some countries such as Europe would adopt the rule of law to ensure that, its citizens enjoyed their liberties in a political, social, and economic perspective (Karl 23). That is when most scholars defined this shift in political systems as a democratization wave.

Since 1970s, many developing countries have made democratic reforms by shifting their systems to liberal systems in other times referred to as “the western democracies.” They are called western democracies because they emerged from the western countries such as East Asia, and Europe.

To explain the factors that lead to democratization, scholars have come up with three theories namely structural, transitional, and modernization. Using the structural theory, democratization is believed to have emerged from the change in structures belonging to the state and some intermediary power.

On the other hand, transitional scholars believe that, democratization is caused by inventiveness made by political intellectuals. According to modernization scholars, democratization is led by economic development made by the state.

We will write a custom Essay on Modernization and Democratization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Out of the three theories, modernization seems to carry more weight than the others do and it was actually the first theory to explain the democratization process. According to Rustow (338), economic development is responsible for all the major changes that occur in a country.

It is through economic development that, a nation gains stability even in the global world. Economic development is a result of increased industrialization, urbanization, and literacy levels. According to Lipset (73), more often that not the underdeveloped rural areas lack political democracy simply because their development level is very low.

It would be true to say that, modernization leads to democratization. However, there are other factors attributed to democratization, such as change in structures but modernization seems to be leading. It also looks logical given that most of the countries with liberal economies are actually the ones that have high economic development.

Most countries in Africa and Asia are yet to achieve democratization because their economic development is still very low and unless it rises, they may continue to be led by authoritarian governments.

Works Cited Haggard, Stephan and Kaufman, Robert. The political economy of democratic transitions. Lisa Anderson: Transitions to Democracy, 1999

Karl, Terry Lynn. Dillemmas of Democratization in Latin America. New York: Prentice Hall, 1990.

Linz, Joseph and Stepan, Andrew. Problems of democratic transition and consolidation. New York: John Hopkins University Press, 1996

Lipset, Samuel M. Some social requisites of democracy: Economic development and political legitimacy, American Political science Review 53 (1) 1959, pp. 69-105

Not sure if you can write a paper on Modernization and Democratization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rustow, D. A. Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model, Comparative politics 2 (3) 1970, pp. 337-363

Green Supply Chain Research Paper

Nursing Assignment Help Abstract Global warming and other ills that have threatened our environment have put many consumers on alert. It is increasingly becoming more common for consumers to begin questioning whether they are contributing to the sustainability of a green environment.

By so doing, more and more consumers are purchasing products from manufacturers who have lowered emissions and have a ‘green’ policy. Green supply chain management is one way of reducing a company’s carbon footprint and enabling it to lower its harmful impact on the environment (Thayer, 1998).

It involves evaluation of the purchasing, planning, shipping and distribution of the company’s products in a manner that is environmentally friendly. Though most executives may frown on the idea that they have to depart from the norm, green supply chain is increasingly being shown to actually lower costs and improve the company’s profits (Murray, 2010).

Introduction Green supply chain management has come out as a forerunner in the new styles of environmental-friendly management. It has now been shown that companies that have adopted the practice are enjoying cost savings through reduction of the environmental impact of their operational processes. These savings are coming mostly from the use of greener raw materials and recycled products in manufacturing which are actually cheaper than the ordinary materials (Murray, 2010).

However, there has been sluggishness by many business executives to act on the environment even with the public’s focus on environmental conservation.

Quite clearly, the benefits of reducing a company’s environmental impact have not reached these company executives. Most of America’s executives are still in the dark on the fact that improved environmental performance leads to lower waste-disposal and other training costs, fewer environmental licensing (permitting) fees, and reduced materials costs due to recycling (Mc Daniel et al. 2000).

With more public pressure on these corporations and the branding of consumer goods that are environmental friendly, business executives will have to eventually open up to green supply chain management. This is not only good for their firms but also good for the world upon which they owe certain responsibilities to.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Success stories from firms that have already embraced green chain management will also boost confidence in this style of management. However, consumers have to be on the lookout for greenwashing which is the false exaggeration of a company’s green environment policy so as to attract publicity (Murray, 2010).

Overview of Green supply chain management, cost and benefits It is become common for companies to change their supply chains and how they are managed. This practice is leading to better customer-supplier alliances that are improving trade techniques. Now we are seeing suppliers who are directly replenishing most of their customer’s inventory.

This form of directness in supply chains is enabling companies to beat transaction costs, decrease the levels of product obsolescence, reduce unnecessary bulk inventory levels, trigger quicker market reaction and increase sensitivity to customer needs and preferences (McDaniel et al, 2000).

Materials management, which refers to the overall management of processes through which raw materials are purchased, produced at factory level, shipped, warehoused and eventually distributed as finished goods, is becoming the key concern in supply chain management. This is because it is only through the monitoring of these processes that a company can properly ascertain its carbon footprint and level of greenhouse gas emissions. It thus goes without saying that materials management is a key component in green supply chain management.

McDaniel et al, (2000) state that there are various ways through which managers can improve materials management so as to achieve a green and effective supply chain. However, they must first understand how most of their decisions impact the processes of purchasing, handling, storage and recovery of assets.

The second part involves logistics which refers to the totality of activities from the acquisition of raw materials to the final distribution of products to their retail points within required time and in the required specifications.

Managers can improve greatly their performance by cooperating with the suppliers, shipping lines, distributors and finally consumers so as to achieve efficiency in supply chain management. Increasingly, companies are assessing their environmental impact and reducing emissions through careful evaluation of the supply chain.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Green Supply Chain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In turn, they have become competitive, reduced product obsolescence, improved waste maintenance, repaired and operated more efficiently on materials through better inventory management, lowered training costs, decreased overall material costs and improved safety through reduced use of hazardous components (Murray, 2010).

Companies that have incorporated green supply chain and realized better financial results include;

General Motors which saved $ 12 million through a reusable container system in their production

The electric company Commonwealth Edison which made $ 25 million extra through improved resource utilization

Andersen Corporation which realized a 50% increase in returns through improved waste management systems

The Public Service, Electric