The basis of mate selection
Sex disparity in mate selection
Age factor in mate selection
Abstract Evolutionary theory foreshadows the existence of a concrete sex disparity in mate choices. For instance, the men focus more on characteristics that indicate high fertility, while women focus on traits that point to financial prospect. The paper examines the basis of sex disparity between both genders.
The paper further portrays males as more concerned with the physical appearance, while their female counterparts concentrate on the resource availability.
In addition, the paper also describes the implication of age on the concept. Males of all age brackets show preference for younger mates. In contrast, young females desire older males although the pattern seems contrary for most of the women past their fertility stage. However, the paper also identifies some exceptions to the rule.
Teenage boys exhibit some preference for older women. On the grounds of my interpretation of some previous studies, I indicate that gender disparity in mate preference based on physical attractiveness may be more dynamic, relative to preference for resources, prospects and social status.
Introduction The concept of mate selection has existed since the beginning of humanity. This concept involves both the male and female genders. However, when it comes to the selection of short- or long-term mate, they differ in the basis for their choices. For example, people believe that most men are relatively sex driven in their selection for mates. In fact, Baumeister (2001) argues, “men desire sex more than women” (p.270). This concept, like other attributes of humanity, is evolving.
Thus, there is no doubt that selection of mate is subject to social factors, such as financial resources, peer influence, and cultural perspective. This paper seeks to explore the basis of gender disparity in regard of mate selection. What elements can account for this difference?
The basis of mate selection Buss (2003) supposes that people can only understand gender difference in mate selection from an evolutionary psychological perspective (p.23). Humans make mate choices with regard to their offspring.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In most cultures, people talk about someone who will carry the family name after they are gone (applies for men). They choose mates who exhibit traits, which favor the conception, birth, and survival of their offspring to guarantee continuity of their genes.
In this regards, there are certain important traits associated with this innate quest. Naturally, these traits are indicators of sound health, physical strength, and fertility. In addition, other social factors such as financial status, and power, are important in mate selection.
Physical characteristics Physical traits are the oldest and most obvious benchmark for determining a mate choice. Many societies hold predetermined believes on traits for an ideal male or female. A prospective chooser may consider the stature of the prospective mate. A tall heavily built man is usually an ideal choice for women. While a smoothly curved woman with prominent hips and moderate bust is normally the center of attraction for males.
Men can sire an unlimited number of offspring and may guarantee their reproductive capability by impregnating numerous women. Men, however, seem limited by their ability to attract a fertile mate(s). With this motive, men search for women who are youthful and physically attractive because to them these traits which include smooth complexion, good muscle tone, lustrous hair, full lips, and so forth, are indicative of good health.
Currently, men have started to concentrate on the resource availability in selection of mates because of the increasing need for a mate who will share their financial responsibilities. Thus, modern men are increasingly prioritizing resource availability as factor for mate selection at the expense of physical attractiveness.
Economic factor However, physical attraction is no longer the major basis for mate selection; instead, economical aspect is increasingly becoming an important factor. Buss, (2003) asserts that women are highly selective due to their biological limitation of the number of offspring they can bear and nurture in their lifespan (p. 45).
Therefore she must ensure that she select a mate who owns or has the potential to own economic resources, and is willing to dedicate the resources to sustain her offspring.
We will write a custom Essay on Mate Selection: Sex Disparity between Both Genders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is no wonder then that many young women usually are attracted to older men who have accumulated financial resources. The other group of men that seem targeted by women is the youthful men who possess straits that are indicative of future success including ambition, stability, and intelligence.
Nevertheless, some exceptions exist, which involves relatively old women desiring younger men including even the teenagers. One can explain this perhaps because they are way past the fertility limit and the point of their offspring security is no long valid. Also, could be that they are attracted by the vigor exhibited by these category of men, who can satisfy them sexually.
Sex disparity in mate selection Men and women have different ratings for different attributes relevant in mate selection. Exceptionally, people equally rate the possessing of a pleasant temperament between the two genders. However, men all over the world tend to value good looks and absence of previous sexual intercourse.
Inversely, women tend to value positive financial prospects, and ambitious and hard working males counterparts. Buss (1989) found that men are more inclined to prefer good looks while women prefer optimistic financial prospects (p. 75). Nevertheless, both genders equally ranked certain traits including being humorous, reliable, and kind to be more crucial. Indeed, both genders tend to place their preference on persons who exhibit kindness, creativity and liveliness.
In real live sense, it is hard to come by a person who has all the ideal traits. Thus, the prospective mate seekers seem torn between options and they must prioritize their desires. According to Kassin, Fein and Markus (2010) the mate seekers who cannot have it all, prioritize their selection in the pattern determined by evolutionary theory (p. 43).
Age factor in mate selection Men universally have a tendency to desire younger women because they have a higher probability of being fertile, while women tend to desire older men because their likelihood of being financially resourceful. Men in their twenties equally express interest for women who seem slightly younger or older who were still in the fertile a range.
In contrast, men in thirties tend to look for mates who are five years younger, whereas men in fifties desire women who seem younger by ten or even twenty years (Gustavsson, Johnsson
Film Criticism: Literature Overview Essay (Movie Review)
Nursing Assignment Help Vachel Lindsay is an American poet devoted most of his life to singing poetry and art which he studied. Considering cinematography as part of art, he had written one of the first serious books devoted to film criticism, The Art of the Moving Picture. Generally, it was the first book devoted to silent film criticism.
The author of the book had provided a critical overview of a number of theories devoted to films and supported those with the examples to show that his words are not empty. Lindsay tried to show artistic concepts in movies, like architecture, painting, and painting in motion (Lopate 3).
Robert E. Sherwood is known as a playwright, whose stage success may be characterized by the following, Idiot’s Delight, Abe Lincoln in Illinois and There Shall Be No Night.
Even though the works devoted to film criticism written by Sherwood were counted by the movie studios, the film criticism as an art had not been considered yet. Sherwood criticized two client movies written in 1920s, The Ten Commandments and Greed pointing to the morality, death and human destination at the earth and the possibility to show this (Lopate 28).
H.L .Mencken is an American journalist, critic, editor and essayist. He was assured in the personal opinion and did not afraid to provoke the society by his point of view. One of the main points which appears under H.L. Mencken’s criticism in the movies is a fast change of screens, in his work presented in the anthology taken from Appendix from Moronia: Note on Technic.
For example, the author mentions “fifteen or twenty maddening flashes” (Lopate 37) in the Shaw. This is considered to be the main characteristic feature of the movies in 1910’s, furious and fast change of scenes.
Harry Alan Potamkin is one of the most serious film critics of his time. Starting a career of film critic from the formalist emphasis on the cinematic technique on the basis of the personal experience, he managed to achieve high success in the industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the most important of his works is The Passion of Joan of Arc where Potamkin states on the audience desire to see eventual movies, as he believed that “the film which does not dwell upon itself does not realize itself” (Lopate 48).
Potamkin wrote about the possibilities of combining both sound and picture in the movies which h is going to be the greatest breakthrough in the cinematography.
Cecelia Ager is famous for many critic works in the field of cinematography. She is the first woman who was employed to the show-business weekly and the first film critic. She wrote a lot of works devoted to films expressing her critical opinion.
Much attention in her critics is devoted to feelings and their depiction in the films. Ager describes Garbo in Camille, Evans in Hallelujah I’m a Bum, Constance Bennett in Night Flight etc. and it seems that the main idea of these critics is to show how female characters are depicted, how their feelings and expressed (Lopate 77).
Gilbert Seldes was an American writer and cultural critic. At the time when all tried to criticize popular culture (music, literature, movies), he was the first one to defend it.
Defending popular culture in the art, Seldes disagreed with the most critics who tried to state that people were preferable to “bogus” works. But, at the same time, he was afraid of the negative influence of corrupting theater which was too kinetic (Lopate 56). Many contemporary works were impacted, but at the same time Seldes supported the innovative ideas and welcomed sound.
Pare Lorentz was the representative of the critics who were sure that films should be offered more freedom and criticized censorship. The great part of Lorentz’s works was devoted to the critic of documentary films and the necessity to create more. This is the main source of the decried censorship, as preparing documentary movies objectivity and faithful are important.
We will write a custom Essay on Film Criticism: Literature Overview specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Writing a critic on Anna Christie, Lorentz got acquainted with the main character to understand the movie and the behavioral peculiarities better. Lorentz points to the great difference between Greta Garbo in the film and in the life (Lopate 68).
Rudolf Arnheim was a professional film critic who paid much attention to details. The focus of his interest was color, sound, format, space, image, etc. He did not try to pay much attention to the movie ideas and plot, the characters and their play.
Visual art was important. Asking the question how the films are going to be criticized in the future, the author is sure that education, propaganda and political-moral content as the main idea of the film criticism in his time and will be in the future, apart from the visual details of filmmaking (Lopate 92).
Melvin Tolson contributed to the American film criticism even though he is mostly remembered as a poet. His phrase that “Gone with the Wind is more dangerous than Birth of a Nation” has been widely criticized and referenced to.
Writing a film critic paper with this title, he wanted to show that the change of social considerations may lead to the situation that a film which was considered as politically incorrect, or vice versa correct, may be the topic for discussion in the future from the opposite point of view. Tolson tried to dwell upon the critics devoted to both movies and understand their danger (Lopate 140).
Susan Sontag was an American writer, theorist and public and political activist. The latter activity influenced her understanding of films as the political topics are considered in the pieces of her written film critics along with the devotion to scientific fiction.
The main idea of her The Imagination of Disaster is the revision of the movies devoted to science fiction and the consideration that the social mood directed at the possible disasters and fears. Nuclear energy and atomic death is the main idea of her paper. It should be mentioned that Sontag predicted the death of the cinema, which is on the last stage of its life cycle (Lopate 534).
Pauline Kael’s influence on the understanding of film criticism as a profession and on the critics as well is enormous. Criticizing Band of Outsiders, Kael tries to identify the theme and the motives of the movie, its symbolic meaning and romantic nature (Lopate 334).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Film Criticism: Literature Overview by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Her previews boosted the films attendance as appearing in the newspapers several months before the premiere, the reviews attracted the attention of the audience and made those involved in the plot (Lopate 340). Having read the previews and film reviews written by Kael, people were interested in the film criticism as profession more as they began to consider it exciting.
Works Cited Lopate, Phillip, ed. American movie critics: an anthology from the silents until now. New York: Library of America, 2006. Print.