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Manzanar

Introduction Manzanar which is located in Owens Valley, California adjacent to the Sierra Nevada is one of ten camps in which over one hundred and twenty thousand Japanese Americans were imprisoned during World War II including over one hundred children who subsisted in an orphanage that was identified as the Children’s Village (Nadeau 12).

Manzanar was initially the home to Native Americans who generally lived in villages before the beginning of the twentieth century when the area became occupied by miners and ranchers who officially registered the town of Manzanar in 1910.

The City of Los Angeles acquired the water rights to the area in 1929 forcing the miners and ranchers to abandon their activities due to the stringent water levies that were being imposed on them by the City of Los Angeles (Nadeau 15). Japanese Americans are Americans of Japanese descents who were recorded in history to be among the three principal Asian American populations.

Japanese American internment took place in 1942 when the United States government under the orders of President Franklin Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, forcefully relocated approximately one hundred and ten thousand Japanese Americans and residents of the Pacific coast of the United States with Japanese heritage to camps that were referred to as War Relocation Camps. This was after the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Imperial Japan (Ewan 78).

The internment process was carried out by the United States military and local military commanders were authorized to allocate military controlled zones so as to form restricted areas where all people of Japanese ancestry were detached from the whole United States’ Pacific coast which encapsulated the whole of California and most parts of Oregon and Washington, with the exception of the Japanese Americans in internment camps (Wehrey 54).

The internment process of the Japanese Americans was irregularly appropriated since most if not all of the Japanese Americans located on the West Coast of the United States were put away (Ewan 80).

On the other hand, States such as Hawaii which harbored more than one hundred and fifty six thousand Japanese Americans who made up virtually a third of that area’s population, only about two thousand two hundred Japanese Americans were incarcerated (Ewan 78). A significant portion of the Japanese Americans who were locked up was composed of United States citizens with over sixty percent being American nationals.

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After President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, on February 19, 1942 that authorized the detention of Americans with Japanese ancestry, the then Secretary of War delegated military commanders to set down military areas that would hold the Japanese Americans. A total of ten areas were designated with Manzanar being the first of the ten concentration camps to be set up (Nadeau 14).

The first Japanese Americans arrived at Manzanar on March 21, 1942 as volunteer workers to help build the camp and it was then known as the Owens Valley Reception Center and was under the control of the US Army’s Wartime Civilian Control Administration (WCCA). On May 31, 1942, the Owens Valley Reception Center was officially handed over to the War Relocation Authority (WRA) and hence the name changed to the Manzanar War Relocation Center on June 1, 1942 (Nadeau 19).

By the end of April 1942, the camp held more than one thousand Japanese American prisoners with thousands more arriving daily and by the beginning of September, the camp contained nearly ten thousand Japanese American prisoners. Most of the prisoners were from the Los Angeles area, many of whom were farmers and fishermen (Wehrey 55).

Facilities

The Manzanar War Relocation Center was located on a six thousand, two hundred acres piece of desert land that was leased to the United States government by the City of Los Angeles. The housing area was approximately one square mile and was made up of thirty six blocks of poorly structured tarpaper barracks where the prisoners shared a single 20-foot by 25-foot room in accordance to the number of family members (Nadeau 21).

The rooms had no demarcation or ceiling hence seclusion was infrequent to the prisoners. The communal latrines and shower rooms were also not partitioned which made the prisoners relatively uncomfortable and agitated. Each residential block had a communal dining hall, a recreation hall and a heating oil storage tank, which includes the additional blocks that housed the staff (Wehrey 57).

There were camp administration offices which handled the records regarding all the prisoners, school facilities, a high school lecture hall, Buddha churches and a catholic church, a cemetery, a post office, warehouses, shops, a camp newspaper and other basic facilities that were common in American townships (Ewan 93).

The camp’s perimeter wall had within it eight watchtowers manned by armed guards with machine guns and searchlights, and the whole fence was made up of five-strand barbed wire as well as sentry posts at the main entrance.

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Sustainability of Energy Sources: Carbon, Petroleum, Coal

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Carbon

Petroleum

Coal

Clean coal

Natural gas

Works Cited

Carbon Carbon sequestration is estimated to cost $10 to $15 billion per gig watt this is quite uneconomical in consideration to the costs of mining, processing and transportation. This cannot meet the needs of the current generation without compromising the needs of future generations. Carbon based energy is unsustainable this is so because the Carbon capture is relatively expensive (Barber, F

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