BACKGROUND AND HISTORY Manchester City Football club is basically an English premier league football club located and based in Manchester. It was founded in 1880 and was initially called West Gorton. Then in 1887 they became Ardwick Association Football club and then they became Manchester City in 1894. Thisclub has played at the City of Manchester stadium since the period of 2003, and have also played for Maine Road from 1923 as well (Wikipedia, Manchester City F.C., 2013). the most cherishing and successful period for the club was in the late 1960’s and the early part of 1970’s when they managed to win the league championship, League Cup, FA Cup and the European Cup Winners’ Cup under the management of Malcolm Allison and Joe Mercer. After being defeated in the FA cup final of 1981, the cup actually went into the phase of decline, totally culminating in relegation towards the third tier of English football in 1998. This was the only time in their history that they went so down. After having regained the status of premier league, the club was eventually purchased by the Abu Dhabi United Group and the club became one of the wealthiest in the world. In the year 2011 the Manchester city club managed to qualify for the champion’s league and was able to win the FA cup. In the year 2012 the club managed to win the premier league, which is also referred to as their first league title in the past forty years.
On the other hand Futsal Club Barcelona is there from the emergence of their football club in 1899. FC Barcelona, which is also known as merely Barcelona or ‘Barca’ is actually based in Barcelona Catalonia in Spain (Wikipedia, History of FC Barcelona, 2011). The team was actually founded by a group of English, Spanish and Swiss footballers, and this group was actually led by Joan Gamper. The club has been known to play amateur football in the early years until 1910 in various competitions that were regional. It was also in 1910 that the club participated in the first of their European competitions, and since that time the club has been able to win 10 UEFA trophies and a sextuple. By the year 1928 Barcelona co-founded La liga which is the top tier in Spanish football, and they also found some small string of football clubs as well. Barcelona has never been relegated from La liga and share the same record as one of their competitors known as the real Madrid.
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate governance is basically a system of rules, processes and practices by which the company is controlled and directed. The concept actually involves balancing the interests of the various stakeholders in the company.
Looking at the structure of both the football clubs, both are very similar and follow a business format of a public limited company. Manchester city Football club has been having a good time with the management and all the stakeholders of the company are satisfied (Corporate Info, 2012). The main reason behind this is that the management of the football club aims to motivate the football players and fans for the company, on the other hand the players believe in continuous and quality. The main aim of this football club is to fulfill the expectations of their fans and people.
On the other hand Barcelona is one of the most successful clubs of the world. The club believes in total quality and promotes many core values like healthy diet, tolerance, and sports for the disabled. On the other hand the club also speaks against racism (Pont, 2011). The management of the company and the players has been facing some problems; therefore Barcelona fails to balance the interests of various stakeholders of the company.
SWOT ANALYSIS BARCELONA FOOTBALL CLUB STRENGTHS Barcelona has a strong local Brand name and the best club in Europe and Spain.
The Camp Now stadium of Barcelona has a seating capacity in excess of 100000
Barcelona has the best players in the world that are playing for their Team.
The brands known as the UNICEF, Qatar Foundation and Nike are associated Brands with the Barcelona Football Club. This means that the team has one of the best brand endorsements in the world.
WEAKNESSES The team is known to have a lot of controversies in the football matches.
It is basically from the lesser popular and famous clubs as compared to the clubs that are English
OPPORTUNITY The club has the opportunity to increase their fan bases from the countries like china, USA and India.
If the Barcelona football club is able to focus on more advertising and promotions then this will help the club a lot in building brand equity.
THREATS The other clubs that are prevalent in Europe are buying out the good players out of Barcelona. This can be fatal for the club if they do not stop this from happening
The club has reported a lot of internal problems between the players and management which can also pose a threat to the wellbeing of the club in the future.
The club has been known to have a lot of financial debt because it has been involved in the player transfers of expensive players. This can cause liquidity problems to the club in the future.
MANCHESTER CITY SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS The Manchester city football club has a local positioning within Manchester
The club has a lot of openness and innovation in the department of culture. They allow players from all cultures to prove their worth and join the club.
The club has some of the richest sponsors as compared to other clubs.
WEAKNESSES The club has a weak presence in the city of Manchester because many other competitors are also popular over here.
The name of this club is not very well established as compared to other clubs.
Most of the players playing in this club are average players.
OPPORTUNITIES The club should higher better players and make use of the rich sponsors that they have. This will improve of the performance of the club in the future.
The club should get more brand endorsements to improve the brand image of the club.
The club can higher some of the best coaches around the world given the fact that the club is rich.
THREATS Manchester United Football club is better than Manchester City and is more popular in Manchester than any other football club.
As the case with other clubs internal problems are prevalent in this club between the management and the Coach. The club should ensure that the problems do not get worse in the future.
ICEBERG PRINCIPLES THEORY The iceberg is basically a model that not only considers the visible logical level of the subject, but also explains the invisible emotional level of the subject (GmbH). The logic level of the subject which includes the strategy, structure, functions and processes usually accounts for 10% of the overall human capacity whereas the cultural level amounts to 90% of the human capacity.
Following is the sketch for a typical Iceberg Theory.
The structure of the iceberg principle and its 5 process levels
STRATEGIC LEVEL At the strategic level Manchester city FC aims for delivering the best quality football to its fans. They are basically concerned for high performance and value for the shareholders of the company. On the other hand the Barcelona football club claims to be one of the best in the world and they claim that they are not just a club; they are more than a club.
STRUCTURAL LEVEL The management performance for Barcelona has been poor at the structural level because the company has incurred many losses because of expensive player contracts. On the other hand Manchester city has one of the richest management team. The management team rewards its players very well and their goal is quality performance for the fans.
PROCESS LEVEL Manchester city claims that its core values include serving the fans of the football club by portraying excellent performance. Their main aim is to create continuous value for its fans and the shareholders of the company. On the other hand Barcelona aims to work about by following the core values including the treatment of sports as the focal point, supporting the strategic plans of the club and exploring the new areas of financing for the club. The club also aims at bringing the members closer to the club in terms of activity and communication.
FUNCTIONAL LEVEL The performance level of the employees or the players of Manchester city has been very high in the present. This is because they have recently won the premier league for the first time in the past forty years. Therefore, the performance level of the players has been excellent. On the other hand Barcelona has been struggling recently because of some clashes between the management and players of the club. On the other hand there have been many player transfers from this team in the recent years which has affected the team chemistry to some extent. However the team has the potential to bounce back from such problems because it is one of the best clubs of the Spanish league.
CULTURAL LEVEL At the cultural level Barcelona football club has been committed to promote the society as much as possible. They see children and young people as their main beneficiaries and are also known to promote values and education. The club has also organized many sporting activities for the civilians of the country. On the other hand Manchester city is known to play for the fans. They have highly praised the fans of the football club for their never ending support. On the other hand Manchester city has Donated 500000 pounds to the Royal Manchester Children’s hospital recently and has also been known to perform charity work for the people. Therefore both the clubs have a good relationship with the fans and the society at the cultural level
CONCLUSION After all the analysis that has been conducted for both Manchester city and Barcelona, it is true to say that there are some considerable differences in the results. Considering the SWOT analysis of both the clubs, it is evident that Barcelona is no doubt a better side than Manchester City by all means. This is because they have the best players from around the world, and some excellent brand endorsements as compared to Manchester City who are usually ranked as an average side overall. However Barcelona has been facing a lot of internal problems such as the problems between players and management, the frequent transfer of expensive players, and their recent financial crises. Manchester city does not have any such problems and are a more stable side because they have one of the richest clubs in the world.
On the other hand the Vision and mission statements of both the football leagues are good. The mission statement of Manchester city is more thorough than that of Barcelona. The corporate governance of Manchester city is better than that of Barcelona, and the Iceberg principle also looks more favorable for Manchester City overall.
Therefore Manchester City is surprisingly a more stable side as compared to Barcelona despite the fact that Barcelona has a better football club.
Product Innovativeness Trial Ability New Product Marketing Essay
Marketing Assignment Help When a new product was launched into an established product class, consumers became aware of the product through the marketing efforts of the firm launching the product and through word-of-mouth communication by current buyers. These two sources of indirect product experience stimulated trial. The decision to repurchase the new product or switch to a competing product was likely to be based on direct product experience. Even if the trial experience was negative and the consumer went back to the competing product, a switch to the new product can still occur because of continued marketing efforts and positive word-of-mouth. Similarly, the consumer who repurchased the new product may switch to the competing product because of continued competitive marketing effort. A new product model should capture this dynamic element of consumer behavior and the effect of marketing variables and word-of-mouth.
Seethaletchumy, Uchenna, Khong, Robert and Kim (2010) have discussed trial ability in their research on Islamic banking services that customers were unable to try it. Therefore to gain the confidence of apprehensive customers it was necessary that they should use this service on trial basis. Rogers (2003) stated that positive relationship was assumed with trial ability and adoption rate and easy trial of an innovation would get better rate of adoption. Seethaletchumy et al (2010) stated that it was crucial to test the trial ability of Islamic banking in Malaysian banking market.
The researchers Banerjee, Wei and Ma (2010) have discussed trial ability in their research abstract as:
Trial ability has been conceptualized in prior research as a belief signifying opportunity to experiment with a technical innovation would facilitate its adoption. It has been found to be a weak predictor and though indications exist of possible significant impact in situations of high perceived risk, it has not received serious academic attention. In this research we argued that in situations of high perceived risk, the belief-based concept of Trial ability without actual evaluation of experimental outcomes was questionable. Based on the Theory of Trying, Expectancy Disconfirmation theory, and prior research on risk and trust in e-business, we developed and validated propositions in the context of B2B e-market transactions by two small firms. Findings indicated that due to high perceived risk of B2B e-market transactions, in contrast to the received notion of Trial ability as a belief-based factor, it was in the nature of an active post-intent recursive process of experimentation involving ‘Trying’ for trial transactions with controlled risk, execution of ‘Trial’ transactions and ‘Assessment of Trial Outcomes’. Also, in contrast to weak impacts observed in prior research, the trial ability process was found to be a necessary condition for translation of initial intent to adoption.
The researchers Hafizah and Kamil (2009) discussed trial ability with the research model shown in figure 2.1 examining the factors that could influence the E-learning adoption by using Perceived Attributes Theory. Data was collected by taking University Utara Malaysia (UUM) as a sample to empirically test the hypothesized relationships of relative advantages, trial ability and academic specialization. This was concluded that the research model in figure 2.1 showed a logically good fit among the data and empirical outcome established that only relative advantages, trial ability and academic specialization optimistically influenced the adoption decision. Thus, the conclusions had provided evidence of the importance of this in understanding the decision of adoption prior to introducing new online technology and instructional delivery in education.
Figure 2.1 A model for E-learning adoption
(Source: Hafizah Mohamad Hsbollah and Kamil Md. Idris, 2009)
The researcher Tan and Eze (2008) in their study using perceived characteristics of innovations proposed by Roger concluded and stated that:
Findings from Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analysis indicated that following Roger’s adoption excluding trial ability and ICT security and confidentiality were significant contributors to ICT adoption intention in Malaysian SMEs. Trial ability and ICT costs were not significantly related to ICT adoption. One possible reason that trial ability was not a significant factor was trial ability of software was not available in Malaysia.
New Product Adoption
Figure 2.2 Rogers New Product Adoption Model (Persuasion)
After reviewing the literature as above which has provided information about the product innovativeness in combination of different perspective (newness to company, newness to market and newness to customer) and in combination of different factors with and without addition in Rogers’s proposed new product adoption model for specific product, business and industry. The proposed research model was presented in figure 2.3 for this study. Identification of the most common variables/dimensions out of product innovativeness and trial ability dimensions which were leading to increase the new product adoption was the purpose of this study. Further relationship between consumer characteristics, product innovativeness and trial ability in new product adoption was tried to find with the help of following proposed research model.
New Product Adoption
Demographic characteristics of the respondents
(Gender, age, income
Education, occupation, marital status.
Figure 2.3 Proposed Research Model
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS In this chapter, method of the study was discussed. This chapter contained method of data collection, sample design, questionnaire design, content validity, reliability of the research instrument and statistical technique used in this research.
3.1 Method of Data Collection An instrument was developed initially to test the content and evaluation validity for this research. The questionnaire was filled by the five selected respondents. The responses of these respondents were excluded from actual study process. A survey was conducted to determine the effect of product innovativeness and trial ability on new product adoption. The students of various universities in Karachi were a target population. The questionnaires were delivered to students of various universities in Karachi in the presence of researcher to ensure interaction and clarification (if any). Completed questionnaires were collected from the respondents’ and data was entered in computer software (SPSS) for quantitative analysis. The computed means were compared to the scale below for interpretation:
Range Interpretation 0.00 – 1.49
1.50 – 2.49
2.50 – 3.49
Neither agree nor disagree
3.50 – 4.49
4.50 – 5.00
3.2 Sample Design In order to find out whether there was any effect of product innovativeness and trial ability on new product adoption, a sample size of 108 respondents was selected conveniently from the students of universities in Karachi. To achieve relevant information, certain additional criteria were imposed. The participants’ inclusion in sample was that they must have purchased at least a new product (in their point of view) in at the most 30 days earlier. This ensured that the participants can recall their memories to response the questionnaire (instrument). Out of 108 respondents 88 were male and 20 were female which shows 81.5% and 18.5% respectively. Marital Status of the respondent as: single, married and divorced in numbers are 91, 15 and 2 in both genders with percentage as: 84.3%, 13.9% and 1.8% respectively. The Occupational status of the respondent as: student, employed and self employed in numbers are 49, 51 and 8 in both genders with percentage as: 45.4%, 47.2% and 7.4% respectively. The Household average income per month in Pak Rupees of the respondents as: Under Rs. 20,000, Rs. 20,001-40,000, Rs. 40,001-60,000, Rs. 60,001-80,000, Rs 80,001-100,000 and Above Rs. 100,000 in numbers are 21, 37,14,15,7 and 14 in both genders with percentage as: 19.4%, 34.3% ,13.0%.13.9%, 6.5% and 12.9% respectively. The Educational level of the respondent as: Bachelor or equivalent, Master or equivalent and Professional in numbers are 38, 56 and 14 in both genders with percentage as: 35.2%, 51.8% and 13.0% respectively.
3.3 Questionnaire Design A questionnaire was used as an instrument in this research and was developed after review various studies on product innovativeness, trial ability and new product adoption. This has four sections; new product purchase was first section, product innovativeness was second section, trial ability a third section and demographics (gender, marital status, age, occupation, household average income, education) was fourth section. Likert format was used in structuring question and five choices were provided in each statement from the degree of agreement to disagreement which enabled the respondents to answer easily.
Neither agree nor disagree
3.4 Content Validity of Research Instrument The instrument was developed after literature review in the area of product innovativeness, trial ability and new product adoption. Different variables of these factors were developed. After thorough discussion with the supervisor two variables for new product adoption ,seventeen variables for product innovativeness, nine variables for trial ability and six information regarding respondent’s socio-demographic characteristics were included in the instrument. For content validity of instrument a pilot survey from five respondents was conducted with the request of any suggestion/correction or any ambiguity (if any) in any question. On the basis of assessment and suggestion from the pilot sample respondents the researcher modified the content to ensure the survey comprehensive for the study sample.
3.5 Reliability Analysis of the Research Instrument (Questionnaire) Cooper (2003) stated that Reliability means many things to many people, but in most contexts the notion of consistency emerges. Reliable instruments are robust; they work well at different times under different conditions. Various tests to measure the instrument’s reliability are available in statistics but Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha test of reliability is applied in this study. The results were as under:
Table: 3.1 Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Alpha
N of Items
The Table: 3.1 showed the reliability statistics of the instrument for 17 items for product innovativeness and 9 items for trial ability. For total 26 items Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.662 and separately for 17 items of product innovativeness was 0.611 and for 9 items of trial ability was 0.632 which were satisfactory.
3.6 Statistical Technique Two statistical techniques were used in this research to answer the research questions. To find the answer of first question analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique was used. This technique was used because it helped in identification of dimensions/ variables of product innovativeness and trial ability which were leading in adoption of innovations on the basis of comparing their means. The second question was answered by applying Logistic Regression (binary/multinomial). Logistic Regression was used to find out the relationship/ behavior of the product innovativeness / trial ability dimensions across the different demographic groups. The basis to use Logistic Regression was explained by Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson and Tatham (2006) in these words, Logistic Regression was a special form of regression that was formulated to predict and explain a binary (two group) categorical variable. Logistic Regression variate was similar to the variate in multiple regressions. The variate represented a single multivariate relationship with similar to regression coefficients that indicated the relative impact of each predictor variable.
CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS