Groups exist every where, and we are a part of it whether we realize this or not. This does not mean that individuals do not give better results when performing alone, they do, but man is dependent on others to fulfil different kinds of need. Working in groups is beneficial for an individual as he gets more exposure and leaning takes place in many ways, and he also learns to survive in group which is the basic necessity for an individual.
In order explain individual’s behaviour in a group it is important to understand different types of groups, their norms and values and possible causes of the conflicts. There have been researches and experiments conducted by several scientists in order to explain unique behavioural pattern of each individual in working environment.
Individual and Group:
Groups are of vital importance in all fields of life whether its work situation, personal or social life, these are either formal or informal. Some people may prefer to work alone as they perform better and some might want to be a part of a group in various situations. I want to put myself as an example here, when this assignment was given I was worried to work individually on it and the reason behind this was that firstly I feel more comfortable to discuss ideas with people and second, as I write simple and straight I feel better working as a group where I can use other persons words to flourish and talk about my ideas more clearly.
Critical Analysis with Examples:
Formal groups are formed by organisations to achieve certain goals or tasks (Bowditch and Buono, 1994). In these groups goals, tasks, roles and norms are defined by the management (Brooks, 2009). Working in a formal group is of great benefit for an individual as this develops different skills and abilities in a person. One gets a chance to see how others behave and respond to different situations and learn to work in a group effectively.
I worked as a teacher for 2 years in Pakistan and learnt many things working in a group of teachers. I feel working in a group influenced my attitude and behaviour as individual, I gained more confidence of doing tasks or projects I have never done before. It also helped in developing decision power and managing multi tasks in given array of time. Working in a competitive environment changed my attitude when I started getting positive feedback from management and parents. Children respond me very well as I worked hard on each child, tried to develop skills and work on their weaknesses. There I got chance to study behaviours of children and parents as well. I tried to bring positive changes in children showing them my own example, as I was a role model for them, so in this way got a chance to study and observe own behaviours and attitudes in detail..
People join informal groups to satisfy their social, psychological and personal needs. These groups fulfil the individual’s needs of social interaction that lack working in formal groups. These groups not only exist out side work place but also at work places and people of same thinking and values become a part or make themselves a part of a particular group.
When I joined University of Salford in January as an international postgraduate student, I was a part of a formal group that was defined by university comprising almost thirty five students. Later students split into informal groups in order to satisfy their social needs depending on culture, language, race, age and gender.
According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of need theory, individual try to satisfy his basic needs which differ in importance. He identifies eight innate needs ranging from physiological and safety needs to self-actualization needs (Mullins, 2005). This theory answers one of the questions why informal groups are formed also why individuals are attracted towards each other to become part informal groups.
According to Hunsaker and Cook (1986) informal groups have strong influence on an individual than formal. Individuals are open to join a group of homogeneous thoughts; this gives psychological satisfaction and helps them to perform better in formal groups.
All groups have some norms as a proof of their existence or value. Norms are guidelines set by organisations or groups and are considered as code of conduct for its members. According to Kreitner, Kinicki
History of Cooperative Learning
2.0 Introduction The review of the literature is organized in seven themes. The first theme aims to provide an overall overview on the history and previous studies made on Cooperative Learning. The second theme addresses the importance of Cooperative Learning. Then, the third and fourth themes focus on Group Work and its benefits. Followed by, are the fifth and sixth themes base on the positive perceptions and experiences from students using group work and use of Group work in accounting class. The seveseventh section which is the last one of the literature review enumerates some of the criticisms of using group work as a teaching and learning strategy.
2.1 History of Cooperative learning The origin of the Cooperative Learning dated back at least 100 years ago, and even thousands of years ago, but little research was made until the 1960s (Jacobs et al., 2002:2). Since then, it has awakened much attention and has constantly been a hot topic in education.
From 1960s till today great importance has been attached to the term Cooperative Learning. For instance, in the mid 1960s Johnson and Johnson contributed much for cooperative learning in the training of teachers at the University of Minnesota. Then, it progressed till the early 1970s where researchers like David DeVries and Keith Edwards at Johns Hopkins University built up Teams-Games-Tournaments and other researchers like Sholmo and Yael Sharan in Israel developed the group investigation procedure for the Cooperative Learning groups.
In the late 1970s Robert Slavin extended DeVries and Edwards’ work at Johns Hopkins into Student Teams-Achievement Divisions and modifying computer-assisted instruction into Team-assisted Instruction. At the same time, Spencer Kagan created the Co-op co-op procedure. Followed by, in the 1980s Donald Dansereau widened a number of cooperative scripts, and many other individuals worked out further cooperative procedures (Johnson, Johnson