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Malevolence of Cancer Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information on Cancer

Common Causes and Symptoms of Cancer

Research and Investigation on Cancer

Recent Advances in Treatment or Cure of Cancer

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Cancer can be defined as a set of diseases which are caused by uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. The abnormal cells in the body usually segregate uncontrollably and affect other body tissues as they are spread very fast through body fluids for instance the blood and the lymph. It is a condition that is very severe and accounts for a great percentage of deaths world wide.

It is the most frightening cause of death in the world due to its effects and symptoms and the fact that it can be suffered by every person irrespective of age. It is the second major cause of deaths after the heart disease.

There are various types of cancer (more than a hundred) which can be categorized as sarcoma which entails the cancer that begins in connective tissues for instance the bone and blood vessels, leukemia which originates in tissues that deal with blood formation like the bone marrow, lymphoma which affects the immune system cells, cancer of the central nervous system that starts from the spinal cord and brain tissues, and carcinoma that originate from skin tissues (Anonymous 1).

Background Information on Cancer All kinds of cancer conditions start in body cells which are the most fundamental units of life. Cancer occurs when normal body cells change and become cancer cells. There are various kinds of cell that make up an individual’s body. The cells usually grow and segregate uncontrollably producing more cells that are necessary for maintaining good health in the body.

As the cells grow, they get old or / and damaged and the formation of new cells is essential for their replacement. Cancers however occurs when the process of the growth of a cell is disrupted or when it occurs abnormally for instance when the body cells fail to die at the required time or when new cells are made when they are not needed in the body.

The excess cells may lead to development of tumor which in most cases is cancerous for instance the malignant. However, not all kinds of cancer cause tumor.

Cancer is not a new disease and has existed for many years. The word cancer traces its origin from Hippocrates who was a general practitioner from Greece. The very first recognized and documented cancer case was in Egypt and it was on breast cancer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The treatment that was readily available was cauterization which utilized the principle of burning the affected tissues. There was very little information about cancer as opposed to what is known today and the little that was believed about it was actually false for instance, the people believed that it was a disease caused by the gods.

Hippocrates also thought that cancer was caused by the existence of excess black bile in a particular place in the body. However, there has been a lot of developments and understanding on the aspect of cancer as discussed later in this paper (Fayed 1).

Common Causes and Symptoms of Cancer Different kinds of cancers share some common characteristics in terms of causes and symptoms for instance; the common causes are; radiation, consumption of tobacco, viruses, consumption of poisonous mushrooms and chemicals like benzene. The common symptoms on the other hand include; sweating at night, weight loss, and loss of appetite, fever, fatigue and chills (Grady 1).

Research and Investigation on Cancer The cancer condition has attracted a lot of debate and concerns and various individuals, groups and institutions have undertaken some research and investigations on the issue so as to help answer questions related to it and give a clear understanding to all those involved such as the medical practitioners, patients and even those involved with taking care of the victims for example relatives and those in institutions that deal with the affected like the hospice or homes for the terminally ill.

There have been various beliefs on the aspect of cancer including the origin, causes and even ways of treatment.

It is for example less likely for people to believe or understand that cancer can be caused by yeast or even fungal infections.

It is however true that even though cancer is believed to have its origin in genetic cell mutations it can also be caused by other infections for instance from bacteria, molds, fungi, viruses and even yeast as asserted by Dr. Andrew Dannenberg who is a director at the New York- Presbyterian hospital’s cancer center (Rudel 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Malevolence of Cancer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some of the findings from the research and investigations are as follows; Leading cancer organizations in the United States of America for instance the U.S. National Institute of Health and the National Cancer Institute assert that recently there has been a decline in the rates of both diagnoses and death from all the various types of cancer in men, women and children and also on almost all the races and ethnic groups that constitute the United States of America’s population (Anonymous 2).

The new cases of diagnoses as per the year 2010 were 1,529,560 exclusive of skin related cancers while the deaths were 569,490 which are much lower than the rates in the previous years for instance the World Health Organization estimated that there was a total of 6.2 million children, women and men who succumbed death in the year 2000 (Delfino and Day 2).

Most researchers have found out that medicines that are prescribed for the prevention or treatment of diseases caused by fungal and bacterial infections are responsible for killing cancer cells. These medicines are believed to offset tumors hence killing the cancer cells.

There has also been evidence that doctors and other medical practitioners usually use some wrong forms of medication in treatment of cancer and most patients die due to improper treatment. A good example is the use of chemotherapy in treatment of different kinds of cancer whereas it has been proven that it can not cure most cancer types like breast and lung cancer (Rudel 1).

Research has also shown that nutrients or dietary aspects are of concern in our ability to fight the cancer ordeal. Poor measures in our nutrition for instance low levels of intake of some nutrients like vitamins, calories, minerals and proteins can make our bodies to be less effective in detecting and fighting germs and infections.

People who lack some nutrients, that is, they don’t consume a balanced diet are more likely to have some infections including cancer as opposed to those people who eat healthy and balanced meals. The consumption of processed foods should be avoided since indispensable nutrients are usually absent in them and therefore not healthy due to their inadequacy.

The existence of damaged cells is also a factor that researchers have deemed to exacerbate the occurrence of cancer as the cells become prone to toxins and other harmful substances making them to develop into cancerous conditions. This condition is very dangerous as it exhibits all the aspects associated with cancer as the cells do not function well and are prone to infections making a person weaker day by day.

The environment can also act as a element that affects the cancer condition for example when the patient is exposed to a polluted and contaminated environment, he or she is more likely to suffer adverse effects of the cancer condition as opposed to a patient whose environmental conditions are not polluted.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Malevolence of Cancer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Recent Advances in Treatment or Cure of Cancer Due to the dangerous effects of cancer and the fact that it claims a lot of lives in different parts of the world, both the developed and the developing countries, there has been the need to come up with ways of dealing with the situation.

The treatment of cancer has proved to be a very difficult task especially due to the fact that the patients seem to lack hope of getting better as they usually have the mentality of dying.

There has however been a change in perception and people have started taking it as any other disease as much information about it has been disseminated and people can take it positively knowing that there are ways of treating or reducing its effects.

The belief that cancer is an obscene and shameful disease is also long gone (Shapin 1). The treatment varies on the basis of the kind of cancer and the extent to which the cancer has infected an individual, that is, the stage of the disease. For instance, if the cancer affects a specific part of the body and has not spread, surgery works best through removal of the affected area such as the breast.

Radiation and chemotherapy are the other forms that can be applied in treatment of cancer especially where the cancer has spread to other parts of the body apart from the place of origin and surgery cannot work. Some cases may be very complicated and may require the combination radiation and chemotherapy or even surgery, radiation and chemotherapy (Grady 1).

The mistake comes in when the doctors adore some forms of treatment and use them improperly with the aim of getting the expected results for instance the application of chemotherapy in treatment of cancer have been seen to be emphasized by many doctors even when it does not seem to work and other options could be considered.

There has along been a need to improve the therapies and means used in treatment of various kinds of cancer with an aim of enhancing the outcome on the patients. One of the considerations is the adoption of engineered delivery systems that are deemed to promote efficiency in administering the drugs used in the chemotherapy process.

Novel technology is also a development in the treatment of cancer. This is a technology that enhances the identification of the antibodies that could be in the body or blood.

It usually work on the principle of detection of abnormal glycoprotein that are usually produced by cancerous cells hence making it possible to detect cancer and therefore take necessary measures to avoid its adverse effects. Another major advanced treatment for cancer is the bone-marrow also known as stem-cell transplant therapy.

This therapy entails the extraction of the bone marrow prior to the provision of the drugs used in chemotherapy. It is after the inducement of the chemotherapeutical medicines that the bone marrow is re-implanted back into the body and some medication given to enhance the recovery process and hence boost the immune system of the victim.

This method has proved to be efficient and effective as compared to the traditional means in which chemotherapy is administered as the cancer cells usually dies off completely and the cancer do not come back a circumstance that is very common when traditional chemotherapy is applied for treatment of cancer.

Administration of new and advanced drugs that are effective in killing cancer cells is also a step towards improving the treatment of cancer. It also allows the patient to undergo more sessions of chemotherapy which increases the chances of survival. Other drugs are also used to combat the side effects of chemotherapy.

The application of gamma knife in brain tumor surgery is another improvement that has enhanced treatment of cancer as it avoids the risk of causing damages to the brain. It utilizes direct radiation to the affected area and takes a very short time. This and other developments in the various kinds of cancer that have brought a lot of hopes to all the people involved including the patients and their relatives (Mae 1).

Conclusion It is evident that cancer is a very serious condition in the world and in as much as various oncologists are making it look simple through their genetic theories and explanations; it is still a complicated aspect.

The research that has been carried out by various researchers has however helped in the understanding of the general ideologies surrounding the cancer condition for instance the aspects related to environment, nutrition, cells growth and emotions and their effects in causing cancer or affecting its condition.

Works Cited Anonymous. “Cancer.” Medicine, 2010. Web.

Delfino, Michelangelo and Day E. Mary. Cancer: We Live and Die by Radiation. New York: MoBeta Publishing, 2006.

Fayed, L. “The History of Cancer.” About.com Guide, 2009. Web.

Grady, D. “Cancer Patients, Lost in a Maze of Uneven Care.” The New York Times, 2011. Web.

Mae, W. “New Lifesaving Advances in Cancer Treatment – Preventing Cancer: What We Know Today.” Findarticles, 1995. Web.

Rudel, C. V. “Understanding the Condition of Cancer.” Winning the War on Cancer, 1994. Web.

Shapin, S. “Cancer World: The Making of a Modern Disease.” New Yorker, 2010. Web.

Charles Chesnutt’s “The Wife of His Youth” Research Paper

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction

The Blue veins society

The bequest of the late 19th-century war

Liza’s visit to Ryder makes him change his mind

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Charles Chesnutt is a short story writer cum novelist who was born in 1858. He was an African born in America, and he can be considered as one of the most influential African American writers.

He wrote fiction stories in the 19th and 20th centuries most of them talking about the problems faced by the blacks in a white country. Chesnutt was born in Cleveland by African American who emigrated from the south (Wilson 2).

He has published many books, and one of them is The wife of His Youth which was written in 1899. This story explores the moral conflicts and strain experienced by people of mixed-races who lived near the color line. The title of this story implicitly registers the difficulties that are always evident in the relations between the “vernacular” and “mainstream” cultures in America (Chesnutt 4).

The Blue veins society Chesnutt’s story of the color line begins; Mr. Ryder was going to give a ball”. Mr. Ryder, as we find in this story, was the dean of the Blue Vein Society based in Groveland (this was a fictional city referring to Cleveland where Chesnutt was born). The Blue vein is a society made up of the black which was set up after the war of the late 19th century to maintain right social principles among the races which were considered minor by the white.

Chesnutt describes this society with sarcasm as he states, “the society consisted of individuals who were, generally speaking, more white than black” (Chesnutt, “The wife of his youth” 1).

Some of the members who were not favored in this society made suggestions that only the white people who would show white veins would join the community. That is the reason why the society was referred to as the blue vein society, and the members were called the Blue veins. To some extent, this society was established on biological and cultural criteria.

It is compromised by the tendency of Americans of the 19th century to make distinctions based on color. In some essence, it was a kind of racism of the white supremacy where people were taught to despise people who are not of their color.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is illustrated clearly in the story when Mr. Ryder is allowed to speak, he says, “I have no race prejudice, but we people of mixed blood are ground between the upper and the nether millstone” (Chesnutt, “The wife of his youth” 3). He continues to say that their fate is torn between being absorbed by the white or extinct by the black.

The bequest of the late 19th-century war The story, “The Wife of His Youth” is about the bequest of the war of the late 19th century. Mr. Ryder who is the star separated with his wife because of the war, and it had been over twenty-five years since they were together.

He happens to be in love with Mrs. Dixon, a widow from Washington who had gone to visit friends in Groveland but decided to stay indefinitely. On the afternoon of the ball when Mr. Ryder was going to propose to Mrs. Dixon, Liza Jane (his former wife) visits him and made him change his plans about marrying Mrs. Dixon.

When Mr. Ryder meets Liza Jane, he knows that he is the man she is looking for although he did not want to show it. The writer explains it as a painful and challenging curiosity. It can be supposed that Ryder remembers his encounter with Liza the moment Liza mentions the name Sam Taylor to him. The writer notes that Mr. Ryder seemed “to think for a moment” (Chesnutt, “The wife of his youth”5).

Maybe he was trying to recall the events that led to the turn of things. He admitted to having had stories of women looking for their husbands but thought that had ceased with the war. He goes further to ask Liza “to refresh his memory” meaning that he knew very well who she was although Liza could not recognize him.

To some extent, some of his replies to Liza seem to be true in some sense because as he says, Sam Taylor might have died and Ryder was born in his place. He does not even understand what has become of his wife, she looked dark and older than he was and he felt for her learning that she had been searching for his husband for twenty-five years.

He had a new name, and according to him, his marriage to Liza was not binding. All mixed-race marriages were regarded as slave marriages and were assumed null and void after the war unless they were renewed.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Charles Chesnutt’s “The Wife of His Youth” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was over twenty-five years since Liza was separated from her husband and therefore their marriage was not binding. To make it worse, Sam was under a new name. However, Mr. Ryder never re-married and Liza re-appeared when Ryder was about to express his interest to Mrs. Dixon; he was actually about to marry her.

The writer (Chesnutt) does not condemn any of Ryder’s acts of beating around the bush about Sam Taylor. He comments some of his acts, for instance, he says that “he generally shared his house with some young couple, who looked after his wants and were the company for him; for Mr. Ryder was a single man” (Chesnutt, “The wife of his youth” 2).

The thought of marriage had never crossed his mind even though, for many ladies, he was quite a catch, and many would do anything to capture him. It was not until Mrs. Molly Dixon went visiting in Groveland that Mr. Ryder wished to get married.

Liza’s visit to Ryder makes him change his mind After the appearance of Liza, it became clear why Ryder had resisted all his suitors all that time. In some sense, he was married, although that marriage was not binding. Maybe his feelings about the laws regarding slave marriages not being just, and some affection for the wife of his youth prevented him from re-marrying.

It was not until he met the most ‘charming’ lady, Mrs. Molly Dixon, who was a widow and whiter than the rest members of the blue skin society, that Ryder thought of changing his status to that of the married man. No one knew his past, and no one could even estimate his age, Mrs. Dixon could be the age of his daughter, but that did not deter him from falling for her.

When he was parting with Liza, Ryder told her that, “I don’t know of any man in town who goes by that name,” (Chesnutt, “The wife of his youth” 7). He was telling the truth because for sure there was no one under that name, but the real truth remained with him.

He goes ahead to say that, “nor have I heard of anyone making such inquiries”, he was kind of stating a fact and he was very keen with the use of words and not at one time during the conversation did Liza suspect nor recognize that he was Sam Taylor who she had been looking for all that time.

After parting with her, he went to the mirror and saw two different persons in one. He was in a dilemma torn between two identities. It was entirely his decision to either live with the two personalities or choose one over the other. The writer acknowledges the darkness that Ryder was in and how he made a choice to come out of it.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Charles Chesnutt’s “The Wife of His Youth” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He was a wise man and having lived and served in the blue vein society; he knew they were the right people to help him out of his dilemma. He put forward a hypothetical case of a man like him to the Blue veins who had been invited in his house for the ball and let them give their opinion of what a man in such a situation was supposed to do.

He asked them whether he was supposed to acknowledge and accept back his first wife, or go ahead and marry the woman he had fallen in love. None of the Blue veins had an idea of what Ryder was talking about and Mrs. Dixon was the first to answer, “He should have acknowledged her.” All the other Blue veins agreed with that opinion just as Mr. Ryder himself had expected, having known them for quite some time.

He then turned towards, “the closed door of an adjoining room, while every eye followed him in wondering curiosity” (Chesnutt, “The wife of his youth” 10). After a few minutes, he came back hand in hand with his afternoon visitor, “who stood startled and trembling at the sudden plunge into this scene of brilliant gayety” (Chesnutt, “The wife of his youth” 10).

The visitors were astonished and waited eagerly to hear what Ryder was up to; he went ahead to say, “this is the woman, and I am the man, whose story I have told you. Permit me to introduce you to the wife of my youth” (Chesnutt, “The wife of his youth” 10).

Conclusion To some extent, Chesnutt is writing about the relation of the black culture to the standards of the white which were never judged justly.

It is clear that he hopes to achieve some triple unity.

Unity of the black both middle and working class, whom he felt would make progress in fighting for the civil and political rights of mixed-races; a unity of legendary and dialect cultures upon which indisputable mythical art could be produced and unity of the black and the white upon which the color-line could be surpassed. In this restrained story, Chesnutt deals with some matters related to self-hatred that had been left upon the culture of the black by the white supremacy.

He was one of the people suffering from this type of hatred having been brought up and raised in a white country (Lauter, Alberti, Yarborough, and Brady 246).

This can be observed in the way he describes Liza Jane with disgust; he talks about her toothless blue gums which could only be visible after opening her mouth since she was so dark. He goes ahead to talk about the white wool, although he is maybe referring to Mr. Ryder.

Works Cited Chesnutt, Charles. The Wife of His Youth. New York: Mifflin and Co. Not dated. Print.

Chesnutt, W. Charles. The Wife Of His Youth: And Other Stories Of The Color Line. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1968. Print.

Lauter, Paul; Alberti, John; Yarborough, Richard; and Brady, Mary. The Heath Anthology of American literature, Volume C: Late Nineteenth century: 1865-1910, Volume 3. London: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.

Wilson, Mathew. Whiteness in the Novels of Charles W. Chesnutt. New York: Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2009. Print.

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