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Logical Fallacies and Toulmin Analysis Example Essay

Stephen Toulmin is a British theorist of the 20th century. He realized that calm and sensible arguments typically comprise of seven elements.

These include claim, ground, data, warrant, backing statement, rebuttal and qualifier. Claim refers to the key point that the biographer is attempting to argue. Ground is the foundation of actual persuasion and is the reality on which the claim is founded. Data refers to the available information regarding the subject topic.

Warrant refers to what the spectators have to presume so as to make the argument function. Backing statement provides extra back up to the warrant by responding to distinct questions. Qualifiers involve the use of credible language rather than complete language.

They designate the strong points of the leap all through to the warrant and may restrict the generality of the claim. Rebuttal refers to the expected alternative observations as affirmed in the argument that need answers.

This can be oppositional or distinct viewpoints on the issue (Govier 278). This paper will use Tolmin analysis to identify the Tolmin elements in the article “Prevent Gun Control Laws” by Charles Martin. This will be followed by a systematic analysis of each logical fallacy in this article.

Discussion Toulmin analysis

The American people are traditionally a gun loving people, and as part of this tradition, typically strike down any attempt by the government to institute strict gun control laws (Claim). If the rumors about the New World Order are true, and elitist tycoons plot to enslave the entire world, then the fact that most Americans have firearms is certainly going to be a problem (Claim).

That is why gun control is so crucial for tyrants, because resisters with weapons can defeat oppression (Ground). Although not all of these efforts are successful, many of them do end in success (Qualifier).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For these reasons, it is increasingly critical to protect gun rights and gun confiscation programs from ever getting off the ground, this way the government will be too fearful to attempt anything funny on the American population (Ground). Legislation against gun rights serves no purpose but to guarantee that law-abiding people are put in situations where there’s nowhere to run (Warrant).

This idea of disarming those who can make a positive difference is probably one of the biggest disgraces when it comes to gun control (Warrant). Gun control laws have never been able to prevent criminals from using guns while committing crimes because criminals do not respect laws.

Criminals do not abide by or even notice the existence of most laws, and so it comes as no surprise that they would use a gun even though that gun may be considered illegal and contraband (Backing statement). Because of this, gun control laws serve only to protect criminals and enhance their ability to conduct crime by increasing the likelihood of any criminal action becoming successful (Backing Statement).

Gun control laws can also enhance the power of an oppressive government, by allowing it to have free reign when it comes to battling the citizenry as the government will have guns and the citizens will not (Backing Statement). This situation has happened many times before, historically, in most harsh dictatorships (Qualifier).

The practice of confiscating weapons from citizens in order to make them less able to defend themselves from government abuses dates back thousands of years. Perhaps one of the most famous cases of this occurring was several hundred years ago in Japan (Data).

Because of these facts about the history of weapon confiscation, it is painfully obvious that gun control is directly related to oppressive measures conducted by tyrannical governments (Rebuttal). People in nations where gun control already exists, and the majority of citizenry have no means of self-defense, the government can easily trample over them at any time simply because the government has guns and people do not (Rebuttal) (Hitchcock

Physical Health and Its Relations to Schizophrenia Reflective Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Health is a critical aspect in our day to day lives. It entails an individual’s mental, psychological as well as physical condition which could be either ill or free from illness or injury. It is a person’s state of the body, mind, and spirit especially in respect to being free from pain, injury or disease.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health is the state of absolute social, physical and mental well being as opposed to just mere absence of illness. Physical health on the other hand entails good body health, which is achieved through various ways, for instance, proper diet and nutrition, appropriate exercise as well as adequate rest.

It is closely related to mental health, which entails a state of well being where a person is able to function properly. This essay discusses a mental health issue, Schizophrenia, and the aspects associated with it. This will be deduced from an interview after which a personal reflection will be given.

Schizophrenia: Interview This is a psychotic mental disorder. It has affected a significant number of people as early as during their young adulthood. Its symptoms involve hallucinations, unexpected fear and distorted thoughts. It is diagnosed through evaluation of symptoms and medical history of the particular patient. Medication and psychotherapy is then given according to the evaluation results.

For the purpose of this assignment, I interviewed Mr. Smith (real name withheld). Mr. Smith asserted that he was diagnosed with schizophrenia five years ago at the age of 26 years.

Mr. Smith told me that it got him by surprise that he had the disease. When I asked Mr. Smith of the changes he has undergone as a result of the mental disorder, he admits having undergone changes in behavior, for instance, the way he thinks and expresses himself, how he relates to various people as well as how he perceives reality ( own observation plus what he is told by others).

It has specifically made his life difficult especially when it comes to work and family relations. What really hurts Mr. Smith is the fact that the disease got him at a time in life when he wanted to settle in marriage and due to the changes brought about by the mental disorder, he lost his then fiancée.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because he did not behave as he used to and more so he could not differentiate imaginations from reality making him to differ so much with his lover to an extent of separating completely. Mr. Smith also asserted that he has made many enemies at work as most workmates are unable to cope with his change of behavior.

When I asked him what he does to cope with the mental disorder, I got a strong answer which stated: “Although schizophrenia can not be cured, with the passage of years, I have learnt how to control it.” After asking him for a clarification on the specific ways of controlling the disorder, Mr. Smith stated that the first step he has taken is through accepting the condition and thinking and living positively.

He says this step has helped him greatly as he blames no one for his condition and he understands that it is a disease like any other. He has also been following up treatment and always tries to be active and in the midst of supportive people.

Personal Reflection In regard to the interview with Mr. Smith, I came up with my own inferences and conclusions about schizophrenia. From the beginning, Mr. Smith seems disturbed with a lot of distorted thoughts and I can clearly see that there is a problem, or rather that he is not mentally okay/well. It is during the interview that I get to know that the interviewee is well versed with all issues that surround his condition including the causes, symptoms and how best it can be controlled.

The sad part of the mental disorder is that no cure has been established so far. There are, however, various ways through which the effects of schizophrenia could be controlled to avoid further damage or uncontrolled behavior of the victim that would make him or her to be a bother to those around him or her.

There are various subtypes of schizophrenia, which are characterized by unique but related symptoms and signs and hence the necessity for medical practitioners to have an effective evaluation of the historical background of a victim alongside the presented symptoms so as to make the correct judgment in regard to the medication and psychotherapy to be administered for better results.

Some of the subdivisions of schizophrenia include disorganized schizophrenia, paranoid schizophrenia, residual schizophrenia, undifferentiated schizophrenia as well as catatonic schizophrenia.

We will write a custom Essay on Physical Health and Its Relations to Schizophrenia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Schizophrenia causes automatic behavioral changes in an individual that makes those around him or her to notice unexpected behavior, for instance, irrational expression of emotions, getting frightened over petty issues and being withdrawn most of the time.

An individual also suffers from a difficulty in differentiating imaginations from reality. In most cases, a victim loses touch with reality an aspect that makes him or her to behave so differently as compared to an ordinary individual who is mentally fit.

It is, therefore, necessary that strategic measures are established to handle the situation to avoid bad effects that could even lead to suicide. The victims should be subjected to proper treatment as early as possible to allow appropriate measures to be taken in an effort to control the condition.

From the above discussion, it is evident that schizophrenia is a disturbing mental disorder that keeps the victims in agony of having to cope with its effects for as long as they live because so far, no cure has been identified.

Some of the ways of coping and handling the mental disorder include accepting the situation which will in turn help the victim to take necessary measures for instance seeking and following up medications strictly.

Staying around supportive people like family members is also a good idea that may help in controlling the mental disorder where the victims feel loved and appreciated as opposed to where they would be segregated.

Creation of awareness of this mental disorder among people including how well the victims can be handled is a relevant measure that would make the world a better place for both the victims and those around them.